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55th Congress, ) SENATE. k Boo. No. 178, 

M Session. ) } Part 12. 



MONTHLY BULLETIN 



OP THE 



**.. 



Bureau ofAmerican Republics 



1898. 



Vol. V. 

JANUARY TO JUXE. 



>*^»^> 



WASHINGTON: 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1898. 



UBMtfY OF IHi 

LEUND STANFORD M umER8lVf> 



JUN 22 1 




CONTENTS. 



Janiaary NiJinal^er. 

Page. 
Trade Relations in America : Commerce of the United States with 

the Eastern Coast of South America ; tariff reciprocity as an agency 

for promoting trade. By Joseph- P. Smith. (Seventh article.) 1069 

The Author of Reciprocity; By Alex.D. Anderson 1074 

Argentine Republic: Comparative statement of the foreign commerce 
for first six months of 189S and 1897 ^^77 

Brazil: Proposals for the improvement of the port of Pernambuco. . . 1079 

Colombia: Suggestions to American manufacturers for securing trade.. 1080 

Costa Rica: Development of trade with the United States 1082 

Guatemala: Financial arrangement with the Deutsche Bank of Berlin. 1083 

Haiti : New Cabinet — Proposed financial arrangement 1084 

Mexico : Cultivation of india rubber, ginger, and tobacco — Opportunity 
for tanning industry 1085 

Paraguay.: Official report on the productions of the country and oppor- 
tunities for trade 1090 

Peru: Report on the gold district of Carabaya — Railway construction 
and coal mining by the Pacific Company — Ministry 1098 

United States : Trade with Latin- America in October, 1897 — Message 
of President McKinley to Congress on trade reciprocity and the Nica- 
ragua Canal — Importation of hides and skins 1 100 

Uruguay: Suggestions for extending trade with United States . '. 1114 

Venezuela : Intercommerce with Colombia 1115 

The Niagara Pan-American Exposition 1116 

Trade in Machinery and Tools in Spanish America; Opportunities 
FOR Manufacturers 1118 

Steamship Service on the Pacific Coast, Proposed Extension 1122 

Trade Miscellany 1122 

HI 



IV CONTENTS. 

Februiary JNtamber. 

Death of Director Joseph P. Smith: Action of Executive Committee. i 

Trade Relations in America : Internal resources of Mexico. By Joseph 

P. Smith. (Eighth article) 1 245 

Argentine Republic: Report on immigration, 1893 to 1897 1^53 

Bolivia: Extension of trade with the United States. Communication 

from Minister Luis Paz 1 256 

Brazil: Immigration via ports of Rio de Janeiro and Santos — Rail- 
ways in Southern Brazil — Bello Horizonte, new capital of Minas 
Gcrae s 1257 

British Honduras : Opportunities for trade 1259 

Chile : Report of trade statistics for 1896 1 260 

Costa Rica : Review of financial and commercial situation 1 263 

Guatemala: Plan for unification and liquidation of national debt 1264 

Mexico: Mining law — Price of public lands for fiscal year 1898-99. . . 1277 

Nicaragua: Decrees affecting production and exportation of rubber and 
coffee — Government monopoly of the sale of ammunition — Organ- 
ization of the Bluefields Steamship Company — Banana crop of Blue- 
fields 1 278 

Paraguay : Representation at the Brussels Exposition 1282 

Santo Domingo : Decrees establishing petroleum works and regulating 

cattle exportation and trade with Haiti 1 284 

United States: Trade with Latin-America in November, 1897 1285 

Venezuela: Opportunities for extending United States trade — Sale of 
El Callao Mine — Bonded Warehouses — Sketch of President Andrade — 
Tariff 1 297 

Gold Production of the American Republics 1 309 

Proposed Interoceanic Railway from Rio de Janeiro to Pacific Coast. 1310 

Special English Commercial Mission to South America 13 H 

Code of Commercial Nomenclature adopted bv United States 

Treasury Department " 1312 

Trade Miscellany * 3 ^ 3 



Nlarchi Niamber. 

Annual Report of the Bureau prepared by the Late Director Joseph 
P. Smith, and submitted by Acting Director Frederic Emory — Pro- 
ceedings of the Executive Committee — Mr. Frederic Emory appointed 
Provisional Director 1437 

Circular Letter of Director Frederic Emory announcing termina- 
tion of contract with Charles £. Locke, Advertising Agent 145 1 



CONTENTS. V 

Page. 
Trade Relations in America : Internal resources of Central America. 

By H. Guzmin. (Ninth article) 1452 

Argentine Republic: Trade with Peru. Discussed by Sefior Guesalga. 1459 

Brazil: Railway mileage and construction — The pottery industry ... . 1461 

Central America : Statistics, note regarding 1468 

Costa Rica : Reform of the monetary system — Banking regula- 
tions : 1 468 

Honduras: Opening of Congress, Address of President Bonilla ^474 

Martinique: Prohibition of colored margarine H7^ 

Mexico: Instructions for shipping goods — Coal deposits H75 

Peru : Trade with Argentina, development of, discussed by Sefior 

Guesalga — Permanent exposition of machinery 1459» ^478 

United States: Trade with Latin— America for December, 1896-97, 

and for the fiscal years 1 896—97 1 478 

Uruguay : System of public instruction 1488 

Venezuela : Tariff (Continued) 1 489 

Trade Miscellany 1 499 



April >JviiTil>er. 

Trade Relations in America : Internal resources of the West Indies. 
By H. Guzman. (Tenth article.) 1653 

Argentine Republic: Sugar industry in the Province of Tucuman for 
the years 1 892—96 — Cereal crop 1660 

Brazil: Coffee ; Estimated coffee crop for 1897-98 1662 

Colombla: Completion of La Boca dock. Pacific terminus of the Panama 
Canal — Construction of railways 1664 

Costa Rica: The Abangares Mining Syndicate (Limited) concession . . 1665 

^uador : Rubber culture 1666 

Guatemala: Principal articles of the new trade-mark and patent 
law 1667 

"omduras: Communication by Dr. George B. Johnston on the resources 
of the country 1 674 

'^Jexico: Japanese colony, Tehuantepec — Exportation of cattle — Inter- 
national telegraph service — Drainage of the valley of Mexico — Tehuan- 
tepec Railway 1 676 

Nicaragua : Exportation of evaporated bananas — Suspension of steam 

transportation on San Juan River and Lake Nicaragua 1^79 

Santo Domingo : Statistics of exportation of the leading products 1682 



VI CONTENTS. 

United States: Trade with Latin America in January, 18197 and 1898, 
and for the seven months preceding — Report of the St. Louis Spanish 

Club on trade with Spanish America 1682 

Venezuela : Tariff (concluded) — Railway mileage in 1 898 — Sample ware- 
house in Caracas — Caracas tramway system 1 694 

Coffee Culture in the Hawaiian Islands 1700 

Electric Apparatus in Latin America ; . 1703 

International American Bank 1704 

Niagara Pan-American Exposition : Postponement of 1704 

Special Engush Mission to South America 1 706 

Textile Industries in Spanish America 1706 

Trade Miscellany 1017 



Xlay Nui"nt>er. 

Trade Relations in America : Internal resources of the northern part 

of South America. By Francisco J. Vines. (Eleventh article.). . . . 1849 

The Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition : Its interest as 

regards Latin-American countries. By H. Guzmin 1861 

Brazil: Modifications of the tariff — Election of President and Vice- 
President — British efforts to retain trade — Contract for coining nickel- 
Trade with the United States — Business opportunities 1868 

Colombia: Mineral resources — Contract for Girardot and Bogotfi Rail- 
way 1878 

Guatemala : Opportunities for increasing trade — Railway and steamship 

enterprise — Commercial conditions 1883 

Honduras : Patuca River, contract for deepening 1886 

Mexico: Synopsis of President's message — Steel works at Chihuahua — 

Finances and industries — Routes to principal commercial centers 1887 

Santo Domingo : Tariff increased 10 per cent 1^94 

United States : Trade with Latin America, February, 1898 1^95 

Venezuela : 'Market for United States manufactures — Immigration con- 
tract — Aerial cable — New railway construction — Exports from New 
York — New ministry 1904 

The Metric System in Great Britain 1911 

The Philadelphia Commercial Museums 191 1 

Mineral Resources of South and Central America 1912 

Steamship Communication with South America 1913 

Trade Miscellany 1917 



CONTENTS. VII 

June NuimlDer. 

Pag«. 
The Bureau of the American Repubucs : A brief sketch of its origin, 

character, and purposes. By A. W. Fergusson 2073 

Meeting of the Executive Committee: Action taken approving report 
and work of Provisional Director — Doctor Horacio Guzmin appointed 
Secretary of the Bureau 2085 

Trade Relations in America: Interna) resources of the western coast 
of South America — Resources, area, population, etc., of Bolivia, Chile, 
Ecuador, and Peru discussed. By A. W. Fergusson. (Twelfth article) . 2087 

Minister Mendon^a: Transfer to Lisbon; farewell address and response 

by President McKinley 2096 

Argentine Republic : Destination of the leading exports for the year 

1897 2100 

Brazil: Commerce of Pernambuco, Ceara, Parahyba, and Rio Grande 
do Norte in 1897 — Warning to exporters — Minister Brasil received 
by President McKinley 2101 

Costa Rica: Financial, industrial, and educational conditions, message 

of President Iglesias 2105 

Ecuador : Custom-house building at Guayaquil — Railroad to Quito 2 108 

Haiti : Minister Powell's suggestions for increasing trade with the United 

States 2 1 09 

Mexico : Report on sugar-cane culture by J. Yorba — Area and popula- 
tion of States and Territories 2112 

Nicaragua : Law governing the possession and sale of explosives — Con- 
tract with Pacific Mail Steamship Company 2113 

United States : Trade with Latin America for March, 1898 . 2114 

Uruguay: Exportation of cereals — Demand for roofing slate 2124 

CoTTos Growing in South America 21 26 

Flour Trade of the United States with South America 2126 

Ramie Fiber : Experiments made at Limoges, France 2127 

Trade Miscellany 21 28 



Monthly Bulletin 

OF THE 

Bureau of American Republics, 

International Union op American Repubucs. 

Vol. V. JANUARY, 1898. No. 7. 



TRADE RELATIONS IN AMERICA.— VII. 

THE EASTERN COAST OF SOUTH AMERICA.* 

The countries next to be considered in this series are those 
Republics of South America which border upon or find their 
natural outlets on the Atlantic. These, in the order of distance 
from the United States, are Brazil, Uruguay, the Argentine 
Republic, and Paraguay, the last named being the only country 
which has no seaboard on the eastern coast Transportation 
between the United States and this vast region of South America, 
containing not only immense natural resources in process of devel- 
opment, but industries and trade of large proportions which have 
already attained maturity, is easy and direct and does not wait for 
the additional facilities, so urgently needed by the western coast, 
which would follow the construction of a canal across Nicaragua 
or the Isthmus of Panama. The extension of the present trade 
relations of the United States throughout the eastern half of 
South America is, therefore, dependent only upon conditions 
which already exist and do not need to be created. 

The interoceanic canal would be of great benefit in shortening 
'he distance between the eastern coast of South America and the 
western coast of the entire hemisphere, but it would have only an 
"^direct effect upon the trade between the Atlantic coast of South 
America and the Atlantic seaboard and Gulf ports of the United 
States. The shortest practicable routes are already to be found on 
^e Waters of the broad Atlantic, and the requisites for commercial 

^ &m article of this series was printed in the Monthly Bulletin for July, 1897. 

Z069 



loyo 



BURFAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



development are merely those ordinary ones which lie at the base 
of all sea-borne trade. In other words, we have but to find the 
means of increasing the exchange of products through accustomed 
channels, with no barriers of nature to remove. If we can obtain 
the desired quantity of articles for barter, and the ships to carry 
them, the problem is solved. 

But although the ports of the eastern coast of South America 
are the termini of direct and well-defined routes fi*om the United 
States, their geographical relation to the latter country is not such 
as to give it a marked advantage in the struggle with European 
nations for their trade. As has been pointed out in the first article 
of this series, the South American continent juts out into the 
Atlantic so fer to the eastward of a line drawn due south fi-om 
New York City that the more northerly European ports are but 
little farther distant than the great seaboard cities of the United 
States. The conditions, therefore, are more nearly equal than in 
the competition for the trade of Mexico, Central America, the 
West Indies, and the northern coast of South America, which are 
so much nearer the United States as to give the letter a great 
advantage over its European rivals — ^an advantage which, as has 
been so often pointed out in these articles, would extend to the 
western coast of South America upon the completion of the Nica- 
ragua or the Panama Canal. But, notwithstanding this, so great is 
the volume of trade of the eastern coast of South America that the 
share of the United States, even under conditions geographically 
less favorable, assumes large dimensions, especially when contrasted 
with that for the western coast. The imports fi-om and the exports 
to the east coast countries by the United States for the fiscal years 
ended June 30, 1896 and 1897, are thus given in the United States 
Treasury returns : 

Eastern Coast of South America. 



Argentine Bepublic 

Brazil 

Paraguay 

Uruguay 



Total 



Imports fnmi. 



1896. 



Dollars. 

9.313.385 
71,060,046 



3, 242, 428 



83,615,859 



X897. 



Dollars. 
10, 772, 627 
69, 039, 389 



3.515.054 



83. 527. 070 



Bxportsto. 



1896. 



Dollars. 
5, 979, 046 
14, 258, 187 



1,481, 200 



X897. 



21,718,433 



Dollars. 

6, 384, 984 

12, 450, 061 

740 

1,213,426 

20,049, 211 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



1071 



The total trade of the United States with South America 
during the same years was as follows: 

South America, 



Imports from. 


Kzportsto. 


X896. 


1897. 


Z896. 


X897. 


Dottars. 
Io8» 828, 463 


DoUars. 
107, 389, 009 


DoOars, 
36. 297, 671 


DoUars, 
33. 768, 493 



Thus, we find that of the total imports of the United States 
from South America, more than three-fourths come from the east- 
cm coast, while nearly two-thirds of the total exports of the United 
States to South America are taken by the same group of coun- 
tries. By comparison, the trade of the western coast with the 
United States, in its present state of development, as given in the 
preceding article of this series, is insignificant Its possibilities, 
only, arrest attention. 

The figures are : 

Western coast of South America* 



Bolma . . . 

Chile 

Ecuador . . . 
Peru 

Total 



Imports from. 



1896. 



DoOars. 

None. 

4.709,017 

763. 643 

712,696 



6, 185, 356 



1897. 



Exports to. 



X896. 



DoUars. 
None. 

3. 792. 434 
566, 526 

722, 089 



5,081,049 



DoUars. 

21,907 

3, 431. 808 

689, 416 

999.381 



5, 142, 512 



X897. 



DoUars. 

7.787 
2, 578, 911 

734. 868 
1, 108, 436 



4, 430, 002 



Comparatively little increase in these figures is to be expected 
until the completion of the interoceanic canal opens a shorter and 
cheaper route firom the United States to the Pacific seaboard of 
South America ; but the volume of trade already existing, as well 
as the great agricultural wealth of Brazil and the River Plate 
countries, promising an immense development of commerce, 
seems to point out the eastem coast of South America as espe- 
cially fevorable grouhd in which to cultivate more intimate rela- 
tions with the United States. 

From the point of view of the United States manufecturer and 



1072 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

exporter, the present relations with the east coast countries of 
South America are unsatisfactory in that, while the United States 
buys more than $83,000,000 worth of their products annually, it 
sells them only about $20,000,000, or less than one-fourth as 
much. Now that the United States manufacturer is competing- 
so successfully with his European competitors in the latter's own 
home markets, he can see no good reason why he should not suc- 
ceed as well in South America, or anywhere in the world. He 
overlooks the barriers of habit, of long-established business rela- 
tions, of tariff prejudices, and of European capital intrenched in 
banking institutions and controlling exchange. These barriers can 
undoubtedly be overcome in time, but only with intelligent and 
patient effort 

Perhaps, the greatest agency for eflfecting their removal would 
be a carefully matured policy of reciprocity, insuring the freest 
possible exchange without detriment to established industries. 
Such a policy, looking only to the greatest benefit to be derived 
by each party to the agreement, would undoubtedly contribute 
immensely to diverting trade from European channels and weld- 
ing the American Republics in a real and not merely a senti- 
mental community of interests. The subsidiary but scarcely less 
important questions of increased transportation fecilities, with ves- 
sels under the flags of American Republics, and railroads binding 
the different countries closer together with links of steel, and of 
the adaptation of United States manufactures and business meth- 
ods to the peculiar requirements of South American trade, have 
already been treated of fully in this series of articles, but they 
must be constantly kept in mind and repeatedly urged upon the 
attention of all concerned in the general problem of trade condi- 
tions in America as indispensable to a speedy and proper expansion. 

Of the countries under review, Brazil has the largest trade with 
the United States, amounting, during the past fiscal year, ended 
June 30, 1897, to more than $69,000,000 of exports to the 
United States, and $12,450,000 of imports. There was a felling 
off of $2,000,000 in exports as compared with the previous year 
and of $1,800,000 in imports, but this decline has no special sig- 
nificance in a total trade of more than $81,000,000 and finds its 
parallel in the fluctuations of previous years. Broadly speaking, 
it can not be said that Brazil's purchases from the United States 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. ^^73 

show any large permanent gains in a series of years, while her 
sales to the United States have fallen. off since 1893 ^7 $7iOoo,ooo. 

This condition of aflFairs is the more notable from the fact that, 
of all the countries of South America, Brazil yields to none in 
cordiality of feeling for the United States or in the intimacy of 
trade relations dating back for a long series of years. The char- 
acter of her chief agricultural products, such as coffee, sugar, rub- 
ber, etc., being almost exclusively tropical, she can not be said to 
compete with the great agricultural staples of the United States, 
so that the latter can afford to grant her tariflf concessions without 
risk of aflFecting home industries. On the otlier hand, there is an 
infinite variety of food supplies and manufactured goods which 
Brazil would doubtless be willing to import from the United 
States in much greater quantity under more frivoring conditions. 
There is no country in the Western Hemisphere which seems to offer 
more tempting benefits to be derived from a carefiilly elaborated 
system of reciprocity with the United States. 

The relations between the Argentine Republic and the United 
States are less easy of adjustment because of the similarity in some 
of the great staples of the two countries, such as wheat and wool. 
The Argentine Republic, however, produces the crops of the tor- 
rid as well as the temperate zone, and it may be that articles (such 
as sugar) which do not enter into competition with the staples of 
the United States, except in limited areas, might be used as the 
basis for mutual concessions. It is asserted, also, that certain 
grades of Argentine wool can not be grown with profit in the 
United States and might be admitted on more favorable terms; 
but it is contended, on the other hand, that, with tariff protection, 
the United States could, in certain localities, raise the same kind 
of sheep. 

This is a question for practical adjustment by those especially 
qualified to deal with it, but it may be remarked that reciprocity 
necessarily implies a give-and-take policy, with the general object 
of securing the greatest good for the greatest number. The 
trade of the Argentine Republic is of great proportions, amount- 
ing to more than $200,000,000 per annum. At present, the share 
of the United States is but 7 per cent Evidently, it would be 
well worth while to consider seriously the possibilities of a greater 
volume of exchange. 



I074 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

The chief products of Uruguay are very similar to those of the 
United States, namely, cattle, wool, Indian com, wheat, etc.; but 
the trade figures show that Uruguay sells much more largely to 
the United States than she buys from it, and in both Paraguay 
and Uruguay, the exporters of the United States would, no doubt, 
with energetic effort, be able to greatly increase the consumption 
of certain lines of goods. In Uruguay, for example, there is a 
great demand for kerosene and lumber, which the United States 
would doubtless be able to supply almost entirely under a reduc- 
tion of the Uruguayan duty on those articles. 

It will be noted that, with the exception of Paraguay, with 
which the United States has scarcely any trade at all, the eastern 
countries of South America have a large trade balance in their 
fevor. With a proper adjustment of customs duties, and system- 
atic effort on the part of United States exporters, it is scarcely 
to be doubted, in view of the natural sympathies of Argentina, 
Brazil, and Uruguay for their sister Republic of the north, that 
they would be willing to buy much more largely of so profitable 
a customer. The key to the problem of increased trade lies, 
therefore, in wise negotiation for reciprocity and more active exer- 
tion on the part of the business men of the United States to over- 
come the industrious efforts of the European manufacturer and 
exporter. 



^^k^^^yC^ ^?o£**-wj^r 



THE AUTHOR OF RECIPROCITY. 

By Alex D. Anderson. 

Since the recent conference of American Republics at Wash- 
ington in 1889, ^^^ ^^ elaborate discussion of the question of 
reciprocity, there have been several attempts in the columns of 
the press to discover the original author of that popular measure. 
One journal, after devoting much space to communications on the 
subject by prominent writers, all of whom gave credit to statesmen 
of recent years, editorially gave it up as still an open question. 

It is the general opinion that reciprocity is a doctrine of modem 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. ^^7S 

creation, whereas, in fact, it is nearly as old as the Government 
itself, and originated with one of the fethers of the Republic. 
There is no better way to settle the controversy than to com- 
mence at thp beginning of the commercial history of the United 
States, as recorded in the American State Papers, and search their 
pages, in chronological order, for the first mention of the subject 
In Volume i, relating to foreign afeirs during President Wash- 
ington's first administration, there is very little on the subject of 
foreign commerce until 1793, when Thomas Jefferson, then Sec- 
retary of State, made a report on the subject to the House of 
Representatives. It was in response to a resolution, adopted by 
the House two years before (February 23, 1 791), calling on the 
Secretary of State to report to Congress on " the nature and extent 
of the privileges and restrictions of the commercial intercourse of 
the United States with foreign nations and the measures which 
he should think proper to be adopted for the improvement of the 
commerce and navigation of the same." 

• The report itself, as well as the time taken in its preparation, 
show that it is based on a very careful investigation of the subject 
// was the first elaborate re fort on our commercial relations VJith the 
outside worlds and is a state fafer worthy of the constructive statesman^ 
ship of that great American. 

After giving the facts relating to our trade with the leading 
nations of the world, Mr. Jefferson enters upon an elaborate dis- 
cussion of the theory or plan which should govem commercial 
intercourse. He says: "Such being the restrictions on the com- 
merce and navigation of the United States, the question is. In 
what way they may be best removed, modified, or counteracted. 
As to commerce, two methods occur : First, by friendly arrange- 
ments with the several nations with whom these restrictions exist; 
or, second, by the separate act of our own legislative for counter- 
vailing their eflfects. lihere can he no doubt but that^ of these tivo^ 
friendly arrangement is the most eligible. 

*' Instead of embarrassing commerce under piles of regulating 
laws, duties, and prohibitions^ could it be relieved from all its 
shackles in all parts of the world, could every country be employed 
in producing that which nature has best fitted it to produce, and 
each be free to exchange with others mutual surpluses for mutual 
wants, the greatest mass possible would then be produced by those 



1076 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

things which contribute to human life and human happiness, the 

numbers of mankind would be increased and their condition 

bettered. 

" Should even a single nation begin with the United States this 

system of free commerce, it would be advisable to begin it with 

that nation, since it is one by one only that it can be extended to 

all. Where the circumstances of either party render it expedient 

to levy a revenue by way of impost on commerce, its freedom 

might be modified in that particular by mutual and equivalent 

measures, preserving it entire in all others." 

******* 

" But should any nation, contrary to our wishes, suppose it may 

better find its advantages by continuing its system of prohibitions, 

duties, and regulations, it behooves us to protect our citizens, their 

commerce and navigation, by counter prohibitions, duties, and 

regulations, also. Free commerce and navigation are not to he given 

in exchange for restrictions and vexations^ nor are they likely to produce 

a relaxation of themr 

******* 

^^'^hefollcriving principles^ being founded in reciprocity^ appear per' 
fectly just^ and to offer no cause of complaint to any nation : 

" When a nation imposes high duties on our productions, or pro- 
hibits them altogether, it may be proper for us to do the same by 
theirs, first burdening or excluding those productions which they 
bring here in competition with our own of the same kind; select- 
ing next such manufactures as we take from them in greatest quan- 
tity, and which, at the same time, we could the soonest furnish to 
ourselves or obtain from other countries, imposing on them duties 
lighter at first, but heavier and heavier afterwards as other channels 
of supply open. Such duties, having the eflfect of indirect encour- 
agement to domestic manufactures of the same kind, may induce 
the manufacturer to come himself into these States, where cheaper 
subsistence, equal laws, and the vent of his wares, free from duty, 
may insure him the highest profits from his skill and industry." 

The state paper from which I have above quoted is a docu- 
ment of peculiar interest to the boards of trade and other com- 
mercial bodies throughout the United States which have recently 
displayed such an active interest in the subject of reciprocity, and 
it should be republished as a matter of public interest and value. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. ^^11 



ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 

FOREIGN COMMERCE FOR THE FIRST HALF OF THE YEAR 1897. 

The following facts relating to the foreign commerce of the 
Argentine Republic during the first six months of the present 
year are taken from the report published by the National Depart- 
ment of Statistics. 

The total of the imports and exports, excepting metal products, 
amounted to $113,742,314 in gold, against $121,773,627 during 
the same period in 1896, or a decrease of $8,031,313, of which 
$2,068,868 are to be credited to imports and $5,968445 to 
exports. 

The imports reached the sum of $49,987,541, distributed in 
the following manner: 

Dutiable articles $43, 045, 658 

Free articles 6, 658, I2i 

Specie 283, 762 

Compared with those for the first half of the year i8q6, these 
figures show a decrease of $2,143^.28 on dutiable articles, and 
^^ $5*3871390 in metals, while free articles have increased by 
$74,560. 

The decrease aflFects principally articles of the vegetable king- 
dom to the amount of $i»334»339; wood and its manufactures, 
$591,412; tissues and textile fabrics, other than silk and cotton, 
$1,170,960; and liquors, wines, and alcohols, $355,830. 

The growing decrease shown by the custom-house receipts of 
ordinary wines in barrels is particularly noticeable. The import 
value of this article, which during the first half of the year 
1895 amounted to $3,280,000 in gold, has fallen successively 
to $2,820,000 for the corresponding period in 1896, and to 
$2,552,668 in 1897. This is caused in a great part by the exten- 
sion given, during the last few years, to the cultivation of vine- 
yards in the northwestern provinces of the Argentine Republic. 
The wines from San Juan, Mendoza, etc., better and more care- 
fully made than in the past, are largely consumed as ordinary 
table wine, and begin to seriously compete with the French and 
Italian wines. 



lOyS BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

The articles showing an increase are: 

Chemical and pharmaceutical products $300, 938 

Iron and its manufactures i, 338, 300 

Silk and woolen tissues 169, 921 

Vermuth 109, 825 

The increase shown in these last figures is to the advantage of 
the Italian imports of vermuth, which figure almost exclusively 
in the country's consumption of this article. 

The following table gives the value of the imports fi*om the 
different countries during the first six months of 1897 and 1896, 
respectively : 



Countxy. 



Great Britain. . . 

France , 

Germany , 

Italy 

United States. . . 

Belgium , 

Brazil 

Spain. . . . 

Paraguay 

Uruguay 

Chile .• 

Netherlands.. .. 

Portugal 

Antilles 

Bolivia 



1897. 



|i8. 947. 560 
5. 778, 087 
5» 728. 254 
5, 342, 946 

4, 985, 746 
4, 186, 946 
I, 826, 803 

1.755. 175 
578,481 
295. 386 

96.343 
52, 166 

31. 229 

28,007 

23. 177 



1896. 



I20, 424, 178 
5,553.070 
6, 358. 227 
5, 400, 741 

4. 933. 336 
4. "6, 154 
2, 479, 301 
1, 410, 244 
502, 184 
335. 163 

11,443 
64,189 

43.908 
18, III 
23. 677 



Increaae. 





$225, 017 




52. 410 
70. 79a 


344.931 
76. 297 


84.900 


• •••••■••■•a 

9,896 



Decrease. 



|l, 476, 618 



629, 973 
57. 795 



652, 498 



39. 777 



12, 023 

12, 680 



500 



During the first half of the year 1897 the exports reached the 
sum of $65,218,829, as follows: 

Dutiable articles $39, 771, 228 

Free articles , 24, 267, 307 

Specie 1,180,294 

This data, compared with the results of the first half of the 
preceding year, show that the exports of dutiable articles have 
increased by $5,574,633; those of metal by $1,076,132; and the 
exports of fi*ee articles have decreased by $11,537,078. This 
decrease, aflFecting, as it does, almost entirely the agricultural 
products, is in consequence of the devastation wrought by the 
invasion of locusts, which overran and almost completely destroyed 
the last crop of cereals. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



1079 



The buyers of Argentine products come in the following order: 



Constzy* 



France 

Germany 

Great Britain 
Belgium . . . . 

Brazil 

United States 

Italy 

Chile 

Uruguay 

Spain 

Ek>Uvia 

Antilles 

Paraguay. . . . 
Netherlands . 
Portugal . . . . 



I- 



X897. 



$i4, 871, 335 
9, 321, 283 
7,651,223 

6. 303. 584 

5.675.423 

5, 227. 765 

1. 928. 723 

1. 127, 721 

1. 103. 593 

512. 285 

270. 491 

187. 546 

73.440 

33. 133 
10, 142 



:996. 



$14. 93a, 
8. 456, 

8. 146, 
7.665. 
4. 629. 
3. a8i, 
1, 882, 

I, 354. 
1, 656. 

457. 
265. 

T28, 
82. 

438. 
14. 



860 

197 
182 

597 

751 
279 
031 
712 
067 

934 
478 
253 
634 
528 

088 



$865,086 



1. 045. 672 

1,946.486 

46,692 



54. 351 

5.013 

59. 293 



♦61. 525 



494. 959 
I, 363. 013 



226,991 

552. 474 



9.194 

405. 395 

•3.946 



The value of the exports to the United States during the first 
half of the years 1897 and 1896 shows an increase of $1,946486. 



BRAZIL. 

IMPROVEMENT OF THE PORT OF PERNAMBUCO. 

The Government of the United States of Brazil has decided 
to call for proposals for the improvement of the port of Recife, 
in the State of Pemambuco, the third city in the country in com- 
mercial importance. Pemambuco possesses a natural port, the 
breakwater being formed by a line of reefs at a uniform distance 
from the land stretching along the northern coast. Notwithstand- 
ing this, it is deemed necessary to improve the natural conditions, 
in accordance with the general plan presented by the civil engi- 
neer, Alfredo Lisboa, which the concessionary shall be required 
to follow, with modifications deemed necessary in the judgment of 
the Government during the execution of the work. The plan 
embraces the following works : Construction of a breakwater on 
the submerged reefs ; increasing the height of the reefs ; construct- 
ing definite quays, where vessels of large draft may be docked; 
dredging the entire port; placing buoys and piles for mooring 
vessels constructing warehouses adequate for receiving, storing, 
and preserving merchandise, which warehouses shall at the same 
time enjoy the advantages and privileges conceded to the customs 



1080 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

warehouses; building railways along the quays, connecting them 
with the warehouses, railways, and tramways already existing; 
erecting a complete set of hydraulic or electric cranes, and 
constructing docks or ways designed for the examination and 
repair of vessels. 

The contractor shall submit the definite plans for the approval 
of the Government within six months, counted from the date of 
the approval of said contract by Congress, and the work shall be 
begun within twelve months and finished within five and ten years. 

For the compensation and amortization of the capital invested 
in the improvements the contractor shall receive, up to the time 
when the work shall revert to the Government, four kinds of dues — 
anchorage, dockage, loading and unloading; also demurrage 
storage and other dues connected with the movement of cargoes. 

When the net revenue shall exceed 12 per cent, these taxes 
shall suffer a general reduction. 

Should the work be executed by foreign capital and enterprise, 
it shall be considered as a Brazilian corporation so far as it affects 
the present contract. 

Proposals for the performance of the work must be presented 
in sealed envelopes, at the Legation of Brazil in Washington, not 
later than 3 o'clock p. m., February 28, 1898, and will be opened 
on a day and hour which will be hereafter advertised. Plans of the 
proposed works and general information relating thereto may be 
obtained, on application, at the Brazilian Legation, or at the Con- 
sulate-General of Brazil in the City of New York. 



General Joao Thomaz da Cantuaria has been elevated to the 
post of Minister of War in the cabinet of President Moraes. 



COLOMBIA. 

AMERICAN MANUFACTURES. 



Consul BiDLAKE,- of BarrauquiUa, Colombia, in his annual 
report to the United States Government, makes some pertinent 
suggestions concerning American manufactures in that Republic. 
One of the principal complaints of the merchants is that Ameri- 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. I081 

can goods are not as well packed as European; also that the 
necessity of transacting business through commission firms, instead 
of direct dealing with the manufecturers, entails a repacking of 
the merchandise, and a consequent increase in the weight of the 
package. Duty is collected at Colombian ports on the gross 
weight of the package or case, according to its class; therefore 
there should be no unnecessary weight in packing or covering. 

American tools of all kinds are preferred to European, being 
better finished, lighter, and more convenient; but they are also 
more expensive. German manufacturers make an exact pattern 
of the Collins machete, which is the standard in South America, 
and accompany it with a " just as good " guarantee and an offer to 
replace it if it breaks. 

All furniture is imported, the United States furnishing the cheap 
grades of common yellow chairs with cane seats. Apparatus for 
electric lighting is rated at a higher price than is obtained for the 
European article, notably, incandescent lamps, which command 
18 cents each, while ordinary lamps from Italy are sold at 10.6 
cents. American wire is sold at from 10 to 15 per cent advance 
on that of Germany. Shoes for women and children are all 
imported, being principally of the French style, but men's are 
manu&ctured in the country, the uppers only being imported. 

TRADE WITH THE UNITED STATES. 

In commenting upon the article headed " Trade Relations in 
America," by Joseph P. Smith, published in the November 
Bulletin and supplementing the Director's efforts to extend the 
trade of the United States with the countries of the northern 
coast of South America, the Estrella de Panama^ in a recent 
editorial, says in substance : 

It is well known that Colombia is a country rich in minerals, 
and that it can produce on a large scale coffee, cocoa, tobacco, fibers, 
and other agricultural products, which are generally sold in the 
United States at lucrative prices. The share that the United States 
has in the commerce of Colombia is not what it should be, nor 
what that country might easily obtain. In the last few years 
France has ranked first in that commerce, owing perhaps in a 
great measure to the enormous expenditure of French capital in 



1082 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

constructing the Panama Canal. The second place is held by 
England, and the third by the United States. Nearly one-half of 
England's exports to Colombia consist of cotton goods, and arti- 
cles of this kind are manufactured in the United States in perfec- 
tion. With adequate efforts the greater part of our imports could 
be brought from the United States, which would receive in return 
from Colombia the products demanded in her markets. Never- 
theless, recent data show a remarkable increase in the commerce 
between the two countries. 

The exports of the United States to Colombia during the year 
1894 amounted to $2,784,634, and increased in 1896 to $3,382,588. 
The imports of Colombian products increased from $1,338,283 in 
1894 to $4,843,256 in 1896. The increase consisted mainly 
in coffee, hides, and skins, and it may reasonably be attributed to 
the change in the American tariff. This fact is significant as 
showing the importance of reciprocal concessions in the commerce 
between Latin- America and the United States. 

The chief obstacle now in the way of the commerce between 
the two countries seems to be the high prices of certain articles 
made in the United States as compared to similar ones of 
European manufacture, and the comparative cheapness of trans- 
portation to and from European ports, notwithstanding the distance 
to some ports of the Old World is three times that to the United 
States. 

These obstacles, however, are only temporary, as the capacity of 
that great Republic for competition with the European manufoc- 
turers is evidenced in the fact that the United States manufactures 
are actually in competition with those of Europe in European 
markets. The most important problem is that of rapid and cheap 
transportation in conjunction with favorable tariff conditions. 



COSTA RICA. 

Gen. J. S. Casement, who has recently obtained a concession 
from the Costa Rican government for the construction of the 
Pacific Railway, traversing the Republic and uniting the Atlantic 
and Pacific shores, has just returned from Costa Rica, and gives 
to the public some very interesting information relative to the 
political and commercial conditions existing in that country. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. I083 

General Casement reflects the desire of President Iolesias for 
improving the commercial relations existing between the United 
States and his country. Already the predominant trade of Costa 
Rica is with the United States, two-fifths of which is with New 
Orleans, and there is no reason why, with proper effort, four-fifths 
of the Costa Rican trade may not be done with the United States. 
The Costa Ricans are in need of machinery, and the opportunity 
is offered to manufacturers of the United States to seize this 
business. 

President Iglesias is projecting extended internal improvements; 
railroads are being built, and the development of the navigation 
of the rivers which reach into the interior is receiving his earnest 
attention. To this end foreign capital is being invited for the 
exploitation of the great natural resources of the country. Nearly 
all the topical products may be raised, the mineral resources are 
varied, and the climate is excellent 



GUATEMALA. 

BANKING ARRANGEMENTS. 

The four leading banks of Guatemala, acting in concert with 
the Government, have concluded an arrangement with the 
Deutsche Bank, of Germany, for a loan of 6,000,000 marks 
($1,500,000) for a period of twelve months. The object of this 
financial project is the guaranty of the payment of the notes 
issued by the banks interested. 

As soon as the Govemment has given formal authority, the 
Deutsche Bank will buy silver bullion to the amount of $500,000 
which will be sent to Guatemala. This action on the part of the 
German bank is only an extension of its present large financial 
arrangements with the Guatemalan govemment, the interest on 
the coffee loan being already remitted through it. The four banks 
concerned in the transaction are: The Agricola Hipotecario, 
Intemacional, Banco de Guatemala, and the Occidente. 



Seilor Don Juan de Padilla has been appointed Director- 
General of Statistics in the Republic of Guatemala. 



1084 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



HAITI. 



NEW CABINET. 



The Haitian cabinet, as reorganized and now constituted, is as 
follows : 

Minister of the Interior, M. Auguste Tancrede. 

Minister of Commerce and Finance, M. Pleasance. 

Minister of Exterior Relations and Worship, M. Brutus St. 
Victor. 

Minister of War and Marine, M. Guillaume Velbrun. 

Minister of Public Works and Agriculture, M. Cincinnatus 
Leconte. 

Minister of Justice and Public Instruction, M. Antoine 
Carmeleau. 

The gentlemen composing the cabinet have held various posi- 
tions of official dignity in the past, and their selection has been 
received with unanimous approval by the public. 

PROPOSED CHANGES IN FINANCES. 

Hon. William F. Powell, Minister to Haiti from the United 
States, reports that the Chamber of Deputies has under consider- 
ation a proposition to consolidate the several debts of the Republic 
into one national bonded debt. To this end it is proposed to 
secure a loan of $6,000,000 in the United States, bearing 6 per 
cent interest per annum, and with this amount take up the out- 
standing debts of the country, the total of which is $26,875,784 
(Haitian currency), destroy the paper money in use, and substitute 
a gold currency based on the United States dollar as the unit of 
values. 

The proposed loan is to be secured by a portion of the export 
duty on the coffee crop, estimated at about $2,000,000 annually; 
in addition, the necessary part of the import duties will be applied. 
The money thus raised will be set apart as a sinking fiind for the 
service of the debt and its redemption. It is also proposed, if 
the loan is effected, to have all the fractional silver currency 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. IO85 

reminted in the United States on the basis of the currency of that 
country. 

Minister Powell views this proposed financial arrangement as 
one which will lead to closer relations with the United States, and 
the consequent diminution of the French and German influence 
which is at present dominant in the island. 



MEXICO. 

CULTIVATION OF INDIA-RUBBER. 

Numerous inquiries have been received by the Bureau recently 
concerning india-rubber and other tropical productions in Mexico. 
In answer to these questions, the following information, the result 
of the investigations of Mr. George D. Coleman, in the interest of 
7ke Two Republics, is published. 

Brazil has hitherto been the great rubber producer, her exports 
reaching an annual output of $ 100,000,000. There are, however, 
lands in Mexico and Central America equally adapted to its 
cultivation, having in addition a salubrious climate. Formerly 
dependence for a rubber yield was placed in the product of the 
^ild trees, but with the increase in the uses for india-rubber 
^i the consequent rise in price, capital is being invested in this 
^dustry, and its profitable cultivation is being largely engaged in. 

Kubber trees do not flourish at an elevation exceeding 500 feet 
above sea level, and low land, moist, but not swampy, is the best. 
^ short time ago land suitable for rubber planting could be pur- 
chased for 25 cents an acre in large tracts, but with the growth of 
"*e industry, it has advanced in price, and now from $2 to $5, 
'Mexican currency, is the amount usually obtained. It should, 
however, be borne in mind that rubber lands can be used for the 
P^uction of other crops, such as corn, beans, etc., until the trees 
Pow large enough to shade the land, and that these crops can be 
^Id at sufficient profit to cover the first expenses of the rubber 
plantation. 

The greatest expense after the purchase of the land is the clear- 
^g and preparing it. The clearing may be made a profitable un- 
dertaking if transportation facilities are good, for the dyewoods, 
Bull. No. 7 2 



1086 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

sandalwood, satinwood, ebony, mahogany, etc., if shipped com- 
mand such prices as to more than compensate for the requisite 
outlay. The land should be chosen along the banks of streams 
where the soil is rich, deep, and loamy, a sure indication of good 
rubber land being the presence of wild rubber trees. These, in 
clearing, should be left standing, also the young seedlings, for 
transplanting at proper distance. The best time for planting the 
young trees is during the rainy season, and they should be placed in 
rows, fifteen feet apart, alternating the trees so that they shall not 
come opposite each other in the succeeding rows. Such a dis- 
tribution would allow about 193 trees to the acre, which is the 
greatest number permissible of good results. Once in the ground, 
the tree needs no attention or cultivation beyond keeping down 
the undergrowth, and for this purpose a side crop of corn or 
beans h the best agent. The rubber tree propagates itself from 
the seeds or nuts which drop from the tree in the months of May 
and June. These nuts can be sown in beds or nurseries and an 
abundance of plants raised, or the wild seedlings can be taken 
from the woods and transplanted. 

By the sixth or seventh year the grove will be in bearing, and the 
seventh year and thereafter should yield from three to five pounds 
of rubber per tree. Giving 600 pounds as the yield of 193 trees, 
and 50 cents per pound as the profit realized over expenses, we 
have a profit of $300, gold, per acre. Of the several varieties of 
rubber trees which give the rubber of commerce, the best and 
most important is known as '^castillo a elast/ca" Wild trees 
abound in the forests of the States of Vera Cruz, Oaxaca, 
Chiapas, Tabasco, and Campeche. 

GINGER. 

Included in the tropical productions of Mexico is ginger. This 
plant has been regarded as a native of tropical Asia and Africa, 
where it has been cultivated from an early period. It is, however, 
found growing wild in the States of Puebla, Guerrero, and Chia- 
pas, and is believed to have been introduced by Francisco de 
Mendoza about the middle of the sixteenth century. 

In addition to its uses as a comestible, the ginger plant is found 
to be invaluable as a medicinal agent for the cure of chills, fevers, 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. I087 

and other ailments in the districts where it is grown. This plant 
requires for its production a rich soil, and will not grow in sand, 
clay, or in land where the water stands in the earth, as this destroys 
the roots. It also requires an abundant rainfall, and the tempera- 
ture must not be below 40° Fahrenheit. 

The best time for planting in Mexico or Central America is 
March or April, the cuttings being set in the ground at a distance 
of 12 to 18 inches apart. The general points of its cultivation 
are very similar to that of the potato. The plant blooms in Sep- 
tember or October, and by January is ready for harvesting, which 
is the simplest process possible, consisting in merely taking the 
tubers out of the ground ; the curing process is also simple and 
inexpensive. 

From an official report on the subject it is learned that under 
favorable conditions the product of one acre should be 4,000 
pounds or more; the cost of cultivation from 1^ to 2 cents per 
pound; the freight from the point where it is grown to Vera Cruz 
does not exceed $ 1 per 1 00 pounds, including the cost of sacks. 
The price in New York varies from 12 to 20 cents per pound. 
These facts demonstrate the enormous profits to be derived from 
this business. 

CULTIVATION OF TOBACCO. 

Experts in the culture and manufacture of tobacco regard the 
present as the most fitting time to make known the valuable 
qualities of Mexican tobacco for wrappers in competition with 
the Cuban article, which has dominated the market in the past. 
In consequence of the agricultural depression growing out of the 
insurrection in Cuba, large areas of tobacco lands on that island 
have become nonproductive and planters have transferred their 
interests in a great degree to southern Mexico. These Cubans 
are very enthusiastic in regard to the richness of the soil, abun- 
dance of water, climate, etc. They also state, as do many travel- 
ers, that the fine tobacco lands of Cuba are worn out ; that the 
high cost of fertilizers required to prepare the soil and bring it to 
the perfect condition for planting would make it impossible to 
gain back buyers, even were the war to end now, as the Mexican 
product is becoming better known every day and can be sold with 
a large profit over the cost of production in Cuba. 



1088 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

The State of Oaxaca, in particular, possesses favorable con- 
ditions for the production of a variety of this plant, which, on 
account of light weight, fine texture, and color, as well as its 
aromatic qualities, render it invaluable as cigar wrappers, which 
now command such high prices in the markets of the world. It 
is stated with confidence that fancy wrappers, that sell for $4 gold 
per pound, can be grown in these favored sections, particularly in 
the higher lands adjoining Ozumacin, situated between two large 
bodies of water, and having a soil of from 80 to 85 per cent sand, 
5 to 6 per cent decayed vegetation, and the balance white clay. 
The last crop of tobacco from Ozumacin and el Valle Nacional 
averaged three to four arrobas (75 to 100 pounds) to the 1,000 
plants, and sold for from 80 cents to $ 1 per pound. The cost for 
nurseries, planting, cropping, curing, etc., including interest on the 
money, is figured at less than 1 5 cents per pound, thus making a 
very satisfactory profit. This year, owing to more favorable weather 
conditions, the quality of the production is much finer, and as there 
was no necessity for replanting, the cost of preparing for the 
market is estimated at about 12 cents per pound. When the 
plants were very small the buyers paid 80 cents per pound, but 
the planters consider $1.20 a reasonable price to be paid for 
tobacco, without selection, that will be ready for shipment toward 
the end of February or the first part of March. 

Cigars made from these fine tobaccos have been known and 
appreciated in foreign markets for a long time. The prejudice in 
favor of Cuban leaf for wrappers has, however, been so great that 
tobacco in the leaf, to meet with a ready sale, had formerly to be 
packed in bales similarly arranged as those sent from Cuba. The 
custom of shipping in bales in imitation of those from Havana is 
now, fortunately, on the decrease, and, with the fame and good 
name of Mexican "wrapper tobacco" on the increase it is hoped 
that the coming crop will all be sent out by exporters as pure 
Mexican, and nothing else. The Mexican wrappings of "petate" 
have also the advantage of security over the Havana style of 
"manta" bales. The railroad facilities for transporting the prod- 
uct of these districts are excellent, and with the completion of the 
Playa Vicente ft Ozumacin Railroad, quick transit will be made 
(within twelve hours) to Tlacotalpan, a port of the Gulf of 
Mexico, about 25 miles inland, having thirty feet of water up to 
its wharves. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. I089 

In the State of Chiapas a very fine grade of wrapper tobacco 
was produced last year at much the same proportionate rate of 
cost and profit as that stated for Oaxaca. The crop for the San 
Andres Tuxtla district for the present season is estimated at 
300,000 arrobas. While this tobacco does not rank so high as 
that of Ozumacin and the Valle Nacional in the State of Oaxaca, 
its quality is, however, excellent. 

It has been calculated that on an estate of 75 acres, having a 
planting capacity of 1,000,000 tobacco plants, the net result for 
one crop would be about $62,500. An allowance of $12,500 
being made for expenses, on the basis of $3 per arroba, or 1 2 cents 
per pound, there still remains a profit of $50,000 on the tobacco 
crop alone, while there are numbers of secondary products, such 
as corn, beans, etc., which materially add to the profitable culture 
of tobacco lands. 

THE TANNING INDUSTRY— OPPORTUNITY FOR INVEST- 
MENT. 

Among the many inviting opportunities for the investment of 
capital in new enterprises in Mexico, is that of establishing a tan- 
nery near the City of Mexico in connection with a factory for 
converting the tanned hides into leather for belting, manufacture 
of boots and shoes, etc. 

The forests of Mexico, on the elevated plateaus, abound in oak 

a^d other barks suitable for tanning purposes. The cultivation of 

canaigre, a plant containing a large per cent of tannic acid, and 

Particularly suited to the tanning of leather of fine grades, has 

^^n for several years receiving much attention, and already con- 

^'aerable quantities of the material are exported to the United 

^^tcs and European countries. Cascalote {Rhus carriarid)^ a 

^^^ which grows abundantly in the western tier of States, from 

, ^>caca to Sonora, yields a bark which is exported in large quan- 

^^^^^s to be used in tanneries. In 1895 the production of this 

*^^cle amounted to 2,176,810 kilograms, valued at $243,070. 

^^^ides those named, in the same year the production of other 

"^t^ks useful in tanning reached the figure of 15,000,000 kilos, 

^^lued at $457,167. 

Cattle raising is the leading pastoral industry of Mexico, 
i^Tge herds are annually exported to the United States on the 



1090 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

hoof, in addition to those required for home consumption. In 
the abattoirs of the City of Mexico alone, the slaughter of beeves 
in 1895 is officially stated to have been 85,870 head. These 
hides are all shipped abroad, and returned to Mexico as tanned 
hides or in the form of manufactured goods. With the large 
demand for manufactured leather in its varied forms offered by the 
home market, and with all the material at hand required for this 
manufacture, there is no reason why the tanning of hides and 
their conversion into the marketable article should not be con- 
ducted on a large scale and at great profit. 



PARAGUAY. 

TRADE FOR THE YEAR 1896. 

The following information relating to the trade conditions exist- 
ing in Paraguay is from a recent official report: 

INCREASE OF TRADE. 

It may be confidently said that on the whole the trade and commerce of 
Paraguay is slowly but surely improving. The steady increase during the last 
few years of. the customs revenue, the erection of new buildings for private 
residence as well as for business purposes, the establishment of new shops, and 
the increasing demand for luxuries, such as good furniture, fine clothes, and 
foreign comestibles, are the visible signs of a growing prosperity. 

Timber, hides, yerba, fruit, and early vegetables are in great demand in 
Buenos Ayres and Montevid6o, but the supply still falls short of the demand. 

THE TOBACCO TRADE. 

Tobacco was formerly the principal, if not the only crop cultivated by the 
Paraguayan agriculturist for export and home consumption, but owing to the 
high duty which was levied in the Argentine and to the low prices offered there 
and in Europe for the leaf he has been constrained during the last two years to 
plant little more than would suffice for his own use. Indeed, in some instances 
he gave up cultivating tobacco altogether, and betook himself to the vcrbales, 
or yerba forests, where he could earn fairly good wages. The government is 
now making special efforts to foster this industry and to find fresh markets. 

DIFFICULTY OF OBTAINING LABORERS. 

In any private undertaking necessitating the employment of many hands, the 
question of labor presents serious difficulties, and not until the country is more 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. IO9I 

thickly populated, or foreign in place of native laborers be obtainable, are they 
likely to disappear. But there are, besides, other obstacles to contend with, 
namely, difficulties of transportation and want of means of communication. 

RAILWAY. 

The only railway in a country the area of which, exclusive of the Chaco, is 
computed at 65,160 square miles, is a single line 155 miles in length, running 
from Asunci6n to Pirap6, and known as the Paraguay Central Railway. There 
arc no branch lines. 

YERBA-MATJE. 

Yerba-mat6, or Paraguayan tea, is the most valuable article of export. There 

arc two classes sold, but it is only in the manner of preparation that they differ. 

The kind known as "mborovir^" is merely dried over a furnace, and then 

•^atcn into small pieces with sticks. The " molida " goes through the same 

P^'ocess, but it is afterwards ground in a mill. The export duty on the former 

^^s increased in 1895 from 30 cents paper to 10 cents gold, and on the latter 

^oixi 25 cents paper to 9 cents gold, per 10 kilos. The revenue derived from 

^"^ source in 1895 amounted to $471,668, Paraguayan currency ($8 2,000 gold). 

h^ ^crba forests, called " yerbales," were formerly the property of the State, but 

most of them have been sold and are now in the hands of a few capitalists and 

^OTt\ panics. The In4ustrial Paraguay Company, which owns about half of the 

y^^'t^alcs known to exist in the country, exports annually about 400,000 arro- 

^4,512 tons). The total quantity of yerba exported during the past year 

» Estimated at about 9,024 tons, and the average price per arroba (25 pounds) 

^*^ $11.50 paper ($1.85 gold). 

TIMBER. 

I B the absence of statistics or returns of any sort it is difficult to form a cor- 
'^^^ estimate of the quantity of wood exported during the past year, but it is 
***<3 to have been considerably larger than the quantity exported in 1895, in the 
harder woods especially. 

CURUPAY. 

* he following are the principal woods, their prices, and the uses for which 
^y are best adapted: 

^urupay is of a reddish color, extremely hard and strong, lasts many years 
^^^rground, or in water, and is chiefly used for railway sleepers, and piles for 
"^ges or docks. The bark is used for tanning. The specific gravity is 1. 172 
° ^^,917, and the price 45 cents, gold, per vara (34 inches, 10 by 10). 

QUEBRACHO-COLORADO. 

Quebracho-colorado is one of the hardest and most durable of Paraguayan 
^^ods, and it is said will last as long under ground and under water as above 
P^ound. It is well adapted- for piles, sleepers, and bridges. It is also used 



1CQ2 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

for tanning. It is found chiefly in the Chaco, but some is also to be met 
with in the north of the country. Specific gravity, 1.392 to 1.232; price, in 
Asunci6n, about $25 per ton ($4 gold). 

URUNDAY-Mf. 

Urunday-mi differs little from quebracho in strength and durability, but is not 
so plentiful. The price is the same; specific gravity, 1.091 to 0.920. 

PETEREVI. 

Peterevi is a valuable wood for furniture, cabinetmaking, etc. In veining 
and color it is not unlike American walnut. It takes a high polish, and is dur- 
able and comparatively light. It is also said to be suitable for masts and yards. 
Specific gravity, 0.810 to 6.19. Price in Asunci6n, 55 cents, gold, per vara. 

LAPACHO. 

Lapacho is of a greenish-yellow color and of great strength. Above ground 
it will keep sound for many years, and it does not readily crack. Much of this 
wood is sent to Buenos Ayres for railway and shipbuilding purposes. It is used 
locally in the manufacture of wheel spokes, boats, and barges. The "lapacho 
crespo " is a curled variety, and makes handsome, though heavy, furniture. 
Specific gravity, 1.072 to 0.952. The price is about 40 cents, gold, per vara. 

YBIRA-R6. 

Ybira-r6 and ybira-pita are used principally in the manufacture of furniture 
and cart wheels. The former is a superior wood to the latter, but it is not so 
plentiful. Specific gravity 1.038 to 0.744; price, in Asuncion, $2 (33 cents 
gold) per vara. 

BLACK AND RED PALMS. 

Black and red palms are extremely hard woods, and, it is alleged, will some- 
times turn the edge of the best steel ax. The black palm makes a fine veneer 
and takes a high polish. In water and under ground these woods last for 
many years. They are found in the Chaco, and in the north of Paraguay 
proper. Prices, in Asuncion, about $2 each (33 cents gold). 

CEDAR AND TIMBO. 

Among the lighter woods may be mentioned the various kinds of cedars, known 
in the timber trade as female mahogany and timbo. The former are exten- 
sively used in this country in the manufacture of furniture, doors, window shut- 
ters, boxes, etc. They are comparatively cheap and easy to work. The trees are 
found in the south and southwest, but a superior kind grows on the Alataparana, 
and in the Paraguayan Misiones. Timbo is a light wood, not unlike cedar in 
grain, and sometimes grows to a great height and size. The Indians make their 
canoes and troughs for water, etc., of this wood. Little is exported. Specific 
gravity 0.440 to 0.328. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. lOQvS 

OTHER WOODS. 

The best and most extensively used woods of Paraguay only arc given in the 
foregoing list, but there are a great many others besides, among which may be 
mentioned tatan^ (dyewood), palo santo ( lignum- vitse), palo de lanzo (lance- 
wood), black laurel, palo de rosa (rosewood), incionso (incense tree), and 
varieties of the citrus. 

The amount of timber carried over the railway during the past year is given 
at 30,000 tons. 

TOMATOES. 

The tomato grows well in Paraguay, but it is not so large nor of such deep 
color as that produced in Europe. In the early spring in Buenos Ayres it is in 
great demand, and can always be sold at a remunerative price. Some 3,000 
baskets were sent down the river during the past year. 

BANANAS. 

Although bananas thrive well and are of excellent quality, they are nowhere 
cultivated on what can be called a large scale. The quantity shipped to Buenos 
Ayres would amount to perhaps 10,000 bunches. 

GRAY CLOTH. 

Gray cloth, or, as it is called here, "lienzo," is perhaps the most important 
class of piece goods imported, and it is said to be supplied almost exclusively by 
£iiglish firms. It is extensively used in this country, especially by women and 
children of the poorer class, being made up into skirts and shawls, which are 
worn summer and winter. The coarser kinds are used for awnings, screens, 
^^^- Some of this cloth comes from Germany. 

CALICO. 



, '^^thcr important article of import is calico, known here by the name of 
^niaute," some of which comes from Germany, though the greater part is 
'^^^sh manufacture. It is much used by women for chemises and shawls. 

SHAWLS. 

^^■^ shawls of wool or a mixture of wool and cotton, locally known as 

**rcbn 

o^os," are worn by nearly all the women. They are chiefly of German 

an »dgian make, being preferred to those manufactured in England, because 

^n^ a.re cheaper and the fringe deeper and more elaborate. 

COTTON PRINTS. 

^hcap prints and muslins are supplied for the most part from England. 
Annual sales average about 100,000 pieces of 24 to 35 meters. Those supplied 
»om Germany are said to be superior, and are consequently slightly higher priced. 



1094 BUREAU OF AMERICAN" REPUBLICS, 

DRILLS, SHIRTINGS, ETC. 

The various kinds of drills and cotton stuffs for men's suits are all of German 
and Italian make. Most of the shirtings, imitation Oxford and other kinds, 
are German. 

SEWING COTTON. 

About 3,000 cases of sewing cotton of reels of British manufacture are im- 
ported annually. Belgium, however, shares to a small extent in this import. 

GRAY HESSIAN. 

Gray hessian, called here *'arpillera," is all of Dundee make and of .10 to 
18 ounce quality. Yearly sales average about 500,000 yards. This cloth is 
used chiefly for packing yerba and tobacco. 

HARDWARE, CHINA, GLASS, CUTLERY, ETC. 

The greater portion of hardware goods are made in Germany, being pre- 
ferred on account of their cheapness to those of British manufacture. Enameled 
goods, glass, and chinaware come chiefly from Austria, and are said to be of 
equal quality with those manufactured in Great Britain, but less expensive. 
Carpenters' tools, table knives, forks, and spoons, iron cooking pots, and kitchen 
utensils generally, come principally from Germany and France, and are all of 
the commonest and cheapest quality. A fairly good trade is done here in sheath 
knives and daggers, for every Paraguayan, almost without exception, carries one 
of these weapons in his belt. Hitherto the supply has come from Germany, but 
lately a few cases of knives of a superior quality have been imported direct from 
England and have found a ready sale. They are sold at from $3.50 to about 
$10 each. 

IRON WIRE. 

The black wire sold here for fencing purposes is of British manufacture. 
Nos. 7, 8, and 9 are preferred. About 6,000 rolls of 450 yards each are im- 
ported annually. 

AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS. 

The sale of agricultural implements is not at present a large one. The ax, 
machete, and hoe are the tools most in demand, being often the only ones used 
in this country to prepare the ground for sowing. After the machete has done 
its work, the ax is used to cut down the large trees, and finally the hoe to break 
up the soil. The few plows that are occasionally to be seen in use are, most of 
them, made in the country and have wooden shares. Most of the axes and 
picks to be seen in the shops are manufactured in the United States; as also are 
many of the spades, shovels, and hoes, a few only coming from England and 
Germany. There is at present very little demand for machinery of any kind. 



BUREAU OF, "AMERICAN REPUBLICS. ^^95 

SUGAR. 

In spite of the fact that sugar cane grows luxuriantly, no sugar is manufac- 
turod. All the sugar consumed in the country is imported fron\ Buenos Ayres, 
and is of French manufacture. About 8,000 barrels of 1 1 5 kilos each are 
imported annually. 

RICE. 

Three thousand bags of Rangoon, called here Bremen rice, and 1,000 bags of 
Italian, known as " Piemonte," it is estimated, are imported yearly. Only a 
small quantity of rice is grown in the country. It is inferior to the imported 
rice and costs from ^6.50 to $7, Paraguayan money, the arroba (25 pounds). 

CANDLES. 

Most of the stearin candles imported are supplied by Amsterdam firms. 
Tallow and wax candles are made in the country. 

KEROSENE OIL. 

kerosene oil is imported from the United States — about 10,000 boxes 

annually. 

BEER, WINES, AND SPIRITS. 

-^ certain quantity of beer manufactured in Germany, Montevideo, and 
"iJ&ixos Ayres is imported in bottles, but most of the beer consumed is of local 
"lake. On account of their lightness and suitability to the climate, these beers 
are preferred to those manufactured in England. Wines in the cask and in 
DOtt-lcsare imported from France, Italy, and Spain; wine is manufactured in 
tke country. TKe consumption of foreign spirits is not large, 

PRINCIPAL CROPS. 

T'he principal crops raised are maize, manioc, sugar cane, tobacco, alfalfa 
(lucerne), and beans. Maize and manioc form the staple food of the peasant 
class and poorer townspeople. It is found very diflicult to keep the former any 
length of time, as no sooner is it stored than it is attacked by the weevil. The 
price of maize varies between 50 cents (8 cents gold) and $2 (33 cents gold) 
per arroba (25 pounds). Manioc, called mandioca in Spanish, is still the sub- 
stitute for bread with a great number of the peasant population. In the towns 
flour mills and bakeries have been set up and bread has largely taken the place 
0^ manioc. 

WHEAT. 

'^Heat is imported from Argentina. Many attemps have been made to grow 
™ cereal in Paraguay, but hitherto without success. 

SUGAR CANE. 

^'igar cane grows well, and there are numerous plantations scattered over the 
country; but as yet little advantage has been derived from its cultivation. No 



1096 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

sugar is produced. A company has lately been formed for the purpose of com- 
pleting the construction and of working a sugar factory at Ibitimi, on the rail- 
way, the owner of which became bankrupt before the buildings and works could 
be finished. The required capital, however, has not yet been subscril^jcd. 
Almost the sole use to which the Paraguayans put their sugar cane is for dis- 
tillation, out of which they manufacture caiia, or rum. Crushing mills, made of 
wood, and small distilleries abound all over the countrv. 

ALFALFA. 

Alfalfa (lucern) gives from four to five crops in the year, and sells at from 
30 cents to about $1.30 per arroba. The weeds are said to interfere consid- 
erably with the cultivation of this plant. 

COFFEE. 

Coffee is still in the experimental stage of cultivation, but numerous planta- 
tions are now being made in different parts of the country, and especially in the 
Government settlements. The largest plantation is to be found in the Depart- 
ment of Emboscada, near the colony of San Bernardino, a German settlement, 
situated on the northern shore of Ipacary Lagoon, which lies close to the rail- 
way station of Patifio-cu6, and distant from Asuncion about 36 kilometers. 
There are in this plantation already some 200,000 trees bearing fruit, which is 
declared by some to be superior to the Brazilian berry. The results so far are 
considered satisfactory and encouraging, but whether the venture will ultimately 
prove a profitable one it is not at present possible to say. The Government 
assists the coffee planters by granting them facilities for acquiring seed and by^ 
offering a reward of 30 cents for every plant transplanted and in good conditio 
at the time of application. A loan of 30 cents for each plant may also be 
obtained, and, if granted, is payable in two yearly installments of 1 5 cents pea 
plant. 

COTTON. 

The cotton tree is also cultivated here and there in small quantities. The 
quality is excellent. Were laborers reliable and procurable in sufficient num- 
bers, there is no reason why cotton should not be cultivated on a larger scale 
than it is at present. The Agricultural Bank (Banco Agricola) is prepared to 
buy cotton with the seed at $4 (at present equivalent to 62 cents gold) per arroba, 
and cleaned at $12, or $1.80 gold, per arroba (25 pounds). 

OTHER TEXTILE PLANTS. 

There are several kinds of textile plants to be found in the country, among 
which may be mentioned caraguata, which is a species of wild pineapple and 
grows in profusion in many parts. Ramie has been grown successfully in va- 
rious parts, and it was found that four or five gatherings could be made in the 
course of a year; but the plantations had to be abandoned, owing to the want 
of decorticating machinery. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. IO97 

COCOA-PALM OIL. 

The cocoa palm abounds in all parts of the country. The oil produced from 
the kernel is said to be of excellent quality, and is used here chiefly in the man- 
ufacture of soap. Samples of this oil have been sent to Europe by the Agri- 
cultural Bank in Asuncion, and orders have been received from England and 
Italy for large quantities — far larger than it is in the power of the bank to sup- 
ply at present. The price paid by the bank for the kernel is $2.70 per 25 

pounds. 

NEED OF COCOANUT-CRUSHING MACHINES. 

It would be right, perhaps, to mention here that for the proper development 

of the cocoa oil business in this country, good hand machines for cracking the 

^«ts arc required. The few already in use are put together in Asunci6n, and 

"0 not give good results. The machine should be constructed to crack the 

**cll without damaging the kernel, and should turn out about 50 pounds of nuts 

i*' hour. The shells should be broken just sufficiently to enable a man to 

Extract the kernel afterwards with his hands, and at least 90 per cent of the 

*trnels should issue whole from the machine. The machine ought to be as 

'^''^plc as possible in construction and made of strong material. The price 

^Sht not to exceed ;^io. As the nut is not of a uniform size, a kind of sifter 

^^ul<l be inserted which would convey the large and small nuts to crackers of 

''Responding size. A certain number of machines of this description would 

^ Certain to find a ready sale. 

CATTLE BREEDING. 

battle breeding is a better paying business than most others at present carried 

^ ixi Paraguay; it is, at least, said to be one of the safest. The yearly increase 

. ^ the entire herd on an estancia may be reckoned at from 25 to 35 per cent, 

'^^ the latter figure would probably only be reached on estancias where the 

^^rnals receive proper care and where the pasture is above the average, 

Epizootic diseases among cattle are of rare occurrence, though there are other 
^*^gcrs to which they are frequently exposed, and to which they often fall 
tims. These are fly and snake bites, maggots, droughts, and, occasionally, 
ars. 

PRICE OF LAND. 

The best camps are to be found in the departments of Villa Concepcion, San 

^^dro, San Estanislaus, Ajos, Misiones, Neembucu, Caacupii, and Caazapfi. A 

^S^arc league of land (5,760 acres) can be purchased for ;^45 and upward, the 

price varying according to the class of land, situation, and the kind of grass 

^hich it produces. Some land, belonging to the Anglo-Paraguayan Company, 

•-united, who own some 3,460 square miles of land in the Republic, was recently 

*old for as much as ;^500 a league, but this is an exceptional price to pay, and 

*^y quantity of land, perhaps equally as good, can be bought for considerably less 

than half that sum. 



1098 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

When buying land in Paraguay great caution must be exercised, as the titles 
may be, and very often are, defective. Before signing a contract, therefore, the 
opinion of a respectable lawyer should be taken as to the validity of the ven- 
dor's title. 

INDUSTRIES. 

With the exception of the yerba, timber, tobacco, and fruit-growing indus- 
tries, there are but few of much importance carried on in this country. There 
are several breweries, tanneries, match factories, and flour mills established in 
and near Asunci6n. There is also a soap factory near the town, and soap of a 
fairly good quality is manufactured from the oil of the palm nut. Bricks and 
tiles, earthenware jars and bottles, brooms, and palm-leaf hats, ice, preserves of 
fruit, soda water, cigars and cigarettes, and candles are also manufactured in 
the capital and various other parts of the country. Distilleries for the produc- 
tion of cafia — a very pure kind of rum — exist, as I have already observed, all 
over the country. A peculiar and pretty kind of lace is made by the women ; 
also tablecloths, napkins, counterpanes, shirts, and excellent hammocks of coarse 
native-grown cotton. Tallow and wax candles are also made by the native 
women. 

SHIPPING. 

There are two lines of passenger steamers plying between the port of Asun- 
ci6n and River Plate, each of which runs one steamer weekly. There is also a 
fortnightly service of the Brazilian Lloyd's boats (cargo only) between Monte- 
video and Corumba, calling at Buenos Ayres and Asunci6n. 



PERU. 

THE GOLD DISTRICT OF CARABAYA. 

A report on the gold district of Carabaya, in Peru, prepared by 
Mr. E. J. Prew, a civil engineer who personally inspected the 
mines, has recently been forwarded to the Department of State by 
Minister Dudley, at Lima, and is indorsed by him as being one 
of the most authentic and reliable descriptions of that region. 

It is the opinion of Mr. Prew that, comparatively speaking, the 
country has not been opened up at all, veins and deposits of great 
richness existing everywhere. As the country is covered with a 
thick forest growth it does not lend itself easily to prospecting. 
The mines generally are discovered from the deposits washed 
down by rivers and streams, which, traced to their source, lead to 
the discovery of the original mine. The most important mine at 
present being worked is the Santo Domingo, which was recently 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. ^^99 

purchased by an American company for $285,000, gold, cash. 
This company has on the way to the mines a twenty-head stamp 
mill, with accessories, for crushing and amalgamating the ore. The 
vein of the Santo Domingo varies from 1 foot 6 inches to 8 feet in 
width and carries gold in all parts, varying from 8 to 800 ounces 
per ton, and in some instances almost pure streaks of gold have 
been found. The workmen employed are mainly Indians, who 
are paid 40 cents per day, Bolivian money. Other rich mines in 
this district are the San Juan, Raquel, and the Maria, whose yield 
for the last eighteen months, taken in conjunction with that of the 
Santo Domingo, has aggregated 2,500 pounds of the precious 
metal. 

Purchasers of gold mines are allowed three months, after 
denouncement is made, in which to look up the title ; an addi- 
tional ninety days is usually permitted, at the expiration of which 
time, if possession is not taken, the property is regarded as free for 
denouncement by other parties. From the time of the establish- 
ment of a clear title, the Peruvian Government receives annually 
15 soles per pertenencia (100 meters). 

The great drawback to the successful exploitation of this region 
lies in the lack of means of communication. Goods are trans- 
ported on the backs of Indian carriers, and travelers make their 
journeys for the most part on mules. In crossing rivers too deep 
to ford, and where no rafts exist, an iron cable is flung across, to 
which the traveler is suspended in a light car or basket, and 
then by a system of pulleys or small reels drawn to the other shore. 
For the transportation of machinery the cost is excessive, from the 
nearest railway station on the Juliaca-Sicuani branch the charge 
being $250 per ton. 

RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION. 

In the Monthly Bulletin of December, 1895, the main points 
of the concession granted to Mr. Cuthbert B. Jones, and asso- 
ciates, citizens of the United States, were given. In fulfillment of 
their contract these gentlemen recently organized in the United 
States a corporation under the name of Pacific Company, and 
engineers are now in the field actively engaged in laying out 
the lines of the railway flamed in their concession. The main line 



1 lOO BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

will have its initiative at the port of Cherrepe, extending east 
ward into the transandine province of Hualgayoc, a distance of 
about 230 kilometers. It will open up a region of vast wealth 
in coal, silver, and petroleum, and an agricultural district rich in 
possibilities of sugar-cane, rice, grains, coffee, cocoa, and tobacco 
culture. It is stated that as soon as this line is completed to the 
inexhaustible coal fields of Hualgayoc, a coal of a bituminous- 
anthracite quality, as rich as that found in Pennsylvania, will be 
sold at the seaport of Cherrepe at $2 per ton, in competition with 
English and other coals now selling at the same point at from $7 
to $20 per ton. With this great difference in price it is believed 
that these mines will be enabled to supply the markets of the 
Pacific Coast from Chile to San Francisco, reaching also to the 
markets of Japan and China. 



The ministry of Peru, as recently organized, is as follows : 
Premier and Minister of Interior, Senor Rom ana. 
Minister of Foreign Affairs, Senor Riva-Aguero. 
Minister of Finance, Senor Rey. 
Minister of Public Works, Seiior Flores. 
Minister of Justice, Senor Lavalle y Pardo. 
Minister of War and Navy, Senor Rosa Gil. 



UNITED STATES. 

TRADE WITH LATIN-AMERICA. 

MONTHLY statement OF IMPORTS AND EXPORTS. 

Following is the latest monthly statement from figures compiled 
by the Bureau of Statistics, United States Treasury Department, 
WoRTHiNGTON C. FoRD, Chief, showiug the trade between the 
United States and the Latin- American countries in leading arti- 
cles, with a comparative statement for the corresponding month 
of the preceding year. The report is for the month of October, 
corrected to December 4, 1897. It should be explained that the 
figures fi-om the various custom-houses showing imports and 
exports for any one month are not received at the Treasury 
Department until about the 20th of the following month, and 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



IIOI 



some time is necessarily consumed in compilation and printing, so 
that the returns for October, for example, are not published until 
some time in December: 

Imports aud Exports, October, 1897, 
IMPORTS OF MERCHANDISE BY THE UNITED STATES. 



Articles and coimtrles. 



Chemicals : 
Logwood {PfUo campeche; Pdu 
campfche ; Campiche ) (tons)— 
Mexico 



^oai, bituminous (Gzr^^» bituminoso; 
Carv&o betuminoso ; Charbon de 
^^^*'^€ bitumineux) (tons) : 
^ex.ico 



Br 



{Cacao j' Coco ou Cacdo crU ; 

ao) (pounds): 
tral America 

il 

«r South America 



Cofi^ 



Ji"^ ^ {Ca//y Ca//j Caff) (pounds) : 
u^ *^tral America. 

g ^3[1C0 







il 

er South America. 



^^^n, unmanufactured {Algoddn en 
^-ama; Algoddo em rama; Coton, 
^^km manufacture) (pounds) : 
^ 'uth America 



^^ sal grass (Zr<p«<y«/»jr Henequen; 
Hennequefi) (tons)— 
Mexico 



October. 



X896. 



Quantities. 



8,136 



462, 872 
1,439,076 



207, 768 

341.717 

43. 225, 973 

6, 803, 457 



17,394 



*«>iits: 

Hananas (/'/e/i^ff^j / Bananas ; Ba^ 
nanes) — 

Central America 

Cuba , 

South America , 

Hawaiian Islands 



Oranges (Naranjas; Laranjas ; 
Oranges)— 

Mexico 

Cuba 



Fur skms(JHeles flnas,' Pellet ; Four* 
rures) (pounds) : 
South America 

. Bull No. 7 3 



2,304 



Values. 



$18, 147 



36,269 
132, 170 



34.971 
46» 339 
4.151,463 
1, 001, 601 



2,248 



148, 224 



1897. 



Quantities. 



20 



7.986 



44,047 
780, 715 



300.965 
I, 208, 400 

57, 594. 505 
6, 802, 086 



58, 840 



6,363 



Values. 



$250 



14,509 



4,464 
52,764 



44,935 • 

147, 234 
4, 246, 517 

784.209 



5.049 



420, 736 



95,049 
1,195 

41, 730 
4,668 



45, 786 
154 



1.505 



98. 657 



25.115 
3,238 



25, 234 
no 



4,009 



1102 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



Imports and Exports, October, iSgj — Continued. 
IMPORTS OF MERCHANDISE BY THE UNITED STATES— Continued. 



Articles and countries. 



Hides and skins {jCueros y pules; 
Couros e pelUs; Cuirs et peaux) 
(pounds) : 

Central America , 

Mexico , 

South America , 



India rubber, crude [Goma eldstica 
cruda; Borracha criia; Caout' 
chouc^ brut) (pounds): 

Central America 

Mexico 

Brazil 

Other South America 



Lead, in pigs, bars, etc. {Plomoengald- 

pages, barras, etc.; Chumbo em 

linguados, barras^etc; Phmbs^en 

saumonsy en barres, etc.) (pounds): 

Mexico , 



Sugar, not above No. i6 Dutch stand- 
ard {Azticar, no superior at No. 
J 6 de la escala holandesa; Assucar 
ndo superior do No. j6 de padrAo 
hollandez; Sucre ^ pas au-dessus du 
type hollandais No. i6) (pounds): 

Mexico 

Cuba 

Brazil 

Other South America 

Hawaiian Islands 



Tobacco, leaf ( Tabaco en rama; Ta- 
baco em folha; Tabac en feuilles) 
(pounds): 

Mexico , 

Cuba , 



Wood, mahogany {Madera, caoba; 
Mogno; Acajou) (M feet): 

Central America 

Mexico 

Cuba 

South America 



Wool {Lana; LA; Laine) (pounds): 
South America — 

Class I 

Class 2 

Class 3 



October. 



1896. 



Qtiantities. 



146, 846 

792, 160 

2,340,518 



63.945 

7,573 
2, 207, 098 

95, 146 



12, 167, 836 



7,497 
2, 846, 596 



9. 774, 173 
18, 504, 923 



40. 143 
84, 417 



21 

652 



37, 722 
18, 116 



Values. 



$18. 295 
88,992 

317, 947 



32,080 
2.512 

1, 197, 593 
27, 731 



123,800 



196 
47, 439 



195,219 
574, 386 



22, 281 
32, 089 



522 
16, 795 



190 



4,125 



1,191 



1897. 



Quantities. 



93,190 
1, 048, 756 

2.967,413 



39, 770 

4,313 
1.458,182 

210, 459 



10. 377, 605 



14. 343 



7, 048, 462 
26, 426, 128 



63, 455 
92, 833 



832 
775 



1,169,911 



Values. 



$9,057 
126, 711 

493, 681 



15,999 

1,335 

817, 375 
85,807 



114,467 



391 



141, 141 
843. 599 



25. 240 

37, 581 



19, 877 
42,089 



266 



91, 240 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



1103 



Imparts and Exports^ October, i8gy — Continued. 
EXPORTS OF DOMESTIC MERCHANDISE, 1897. 



Articles and countries. 



Agricultural implements (/rtj/rM/»^»- 
tos d£ agricultural Jnstrumentos 
dt agricultura; Machines agri» 
coicsy. 

Central America 

Mexico 

Santo Domingo 

Cuba 

Puerto Rico , 

Argentina 

Brazil 

Colombia 

Other South America 



Animals: 

Cattle {Ganado Vacunc; Gado; Be- 
taiiy- 

Central America 

Mexico 

South America 

Hogs {Ccrdos; Par cos; Cochans)— 

Mexico 

Horses {Caballos; Cavallos; Che- 

IHIUX) — 

Mexico 



Books, maps, engravings, etc. (La- 
brosy mapas^grabados^etc; Livros^ 
mappas^ gravuras^ etc.; Livres^ 
cartes de geographic ^ gravures^etc): 

Central America 

Mexico , 

Santo Domingo 

Cuba '. , 

Puerto Rico 

Argentina , 

Brazil 

Colombia , 

Other South America 



Breadstnffs: 

Corn {Ma{z; Milho; Mais) (bush- 
els) : 

Central America 

Mexico ; 

Santo Domingo 

Cuba 

Pueno Rico 

South America 



Wheat ( 7>f;^<;y THgo; BU)(^\i€ti- 
els): 

Central America 

Mexico 

South America 



October. 



1896. 



Quantities. 



9 

73 
3 

2,927 



352 



4,199 

995. 734 

f 



30, 261 
2,007 



I 



3.271 
312 



Values. 



$6,262 

8.944 
89 
68 

593 
48, 507 

1.954 

118 

20,070 



280 

• 2.990 

280 

32,660 
14. 815 



6.754 

7.301 

68 

24,991 

2, 121 

847 

13. 530 

12, 785 

I. 351 



I. 525 
359. 984 



10, 267 

"738 

2,647 
261 



1897. 



Quantities. 



Values. 



3 
76 



64 
69 



5.177 
7.125 

54 
85,406 



48, 623 

6, 706 

151,877 



$3. 471 
6,409 

21 

211 

358 
44.765 

2,459 

32 

21, 547 



310 

5.475 



619 
3.691 



7,408 

8.871 

53 
6 

48 
2.255 

24. 635 
670 

5. 495 



3.004 
2,231 

25 
32, 476 



18, 828 



7.055 
160, 577 



I 



1104 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



Imports and Exports^ October y i8q7 — Continued. 
EXPORTS OF DOMESTIC MERCHANDISE, 1897— Continued. 



Articles and countries. 



Breadstuffs — Continued. 
Wheat flour (Harina de trigo; Fa- 

rinha de trigo; Farine de bU) 

(barrels): 

Central America 

Mexico 

Santo Domingo 

Cuba 

Puerto Rico 

Brazil 

Colombia 

Other South America 



Carriages, cars,etc., and parts of (Gir- 
ruageSt carros y sus accesoriosj 
Carruagens^ carros; e partes de 
carros; Voitures^ wagons et ieurs 
parties) : 

Central America 

Mexico 

Santo Domingo , 

Cuba 

Puerto Rico 

Argentina '. . . . 

Brazil 

Colombia 

Other South America 



Cycles and parts of (Biciclos y sus 
accesorios; Bieyclos e accessorios; 
Bicyclettes et Ieurs parties)'. 

Central America , 

Mexico 

Santo Domingo 

Cuba 

Puerto Rico 

Argentina 

Brazil 

Colombia 

Other South America 



Clocks and watches {Relojes de pared 
y de bolsillo; Relogios aeparede e de 
bolso; Pendules et montres)-. 

Central America 

Mexico , 

Argentina 

Brazil 

Other South America 



October. 



X896. 



Quantities. 



21,095 
1,864 



9.830 
14,805 
45. 038 
II, 178 

32.304 



Coal (Carbdn; Carvdo; Charbon) 
(tons) : 

Central America , 

Mexico 

Santo Domingo 



185 
11,158 

286 



Values. 



•78, 771 
7.237 



37. 365 

55. 736 

196. 635 

44.274 
113,247 



7,622 

37.004 

3,160 

100 

132 
6,770 

1.337 
10,071 

3,880 



9,020 

4,465 
440 

5 

250 

2,031 
1,150 
1,832 

3.647 



517 
2,986 

1,591 
9.058 

8,759 



746 

36, 819 

1.378 



1897. 



Quantities. 



15.853 
521 

2.042 

22,408 

4.740 
69,969 
12,040 

34.359 



I. 714 

17. 375 
2 



Values. 



$77. 349 
2,310 

10,634 

"3.847 
24.948 

353. 548 

56, 595 

168, 836 



2,241 

46, 384 

1,132 

398 
1,048 

23. 052 

4.507 
1,486 

7,604 



50 

3.748 

58 

517 

451 

5.134 

7.056 

2,141 

5.339 



307 
1,023 

4.887 

4,204 

11,684 



4.1" 

55. 739 

14 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



1105 



Imports and Exports^ October, i8qi — Continued. 
EXPORTS OF DOMESTIC MERCHANDISE, 1897— Continued. 



Articles and countries. 



Coal {Carbdn; Carv&o; Charbon) 
(tons) — Continued. 

Cuba 

Puerto Rico 

Brazil 

Colombia 

Other South America 



Cotton, unmanufactured (Algoddn no 
manufacturado ; Algod&o n&o ma- 
nufctcturado ; Cotcn non manufac- 
ture) (pounds) : 
Mexico 



Cotton cloths (Tejidos de algoddn; 

Fazendas de algodUo; Coton, ma- 

nufactur^) (yards) : 

Central America 

Mexico 

Santo Domingo 

Cuba 

Puerto Rico 

Argentina 

Brazil 

Colombia 

Other South America 

*^'caring apparel (cotton) {liopa de 
algoddn; Roupa de algodAo; Vite- 
ments en colon) : 

^cntral America 

^Xexico : 

^snto Domingo 

^^uba..^ 

*^uerto Rico 



.rgentina 

kazil 

^^olombia 

^Dther South America. 



'^its and nuts {Frutas y nueces, 
Frutase notes; Fruits et noisettes); 

Central America 

^lexico 

^nto Domingo 

Cuba 

Puerto Rico 

Argentina • 

Brazil 

Colombia 

Other South America 



October. 



1896. 



Quantities. 



10. 549 

3.692 

1,876 

II 

300 



2, 044. 702 



1,115.758 

413. 288 

177, 876 

37,400 

2,000 

445.811 

760,994 

721.001 

2, 998, 068 



Hides and skins (Cueros y pieles; 

Cauros e pellesf Cuirs et peaux) 

(pounds) : 

Central America 

Mexico < 



46, 239 



Values. 



$28, 231 
9,696 

9.383 

51 

725 



182, 933 



64,091 
28, 079 

8,799 
3,205 

213 

33, 443 

51, 367 
36, 140 

156, 545 



13.061 
48, 292 

3.958 
4,294 

559 
5.168 

8,54^ 
4,804 

7,343 



6,272 

7,068 

190 

6,596 
730 
500 

5.213 

939 
3.758 



4,685 



1897. 



Quantities. 



23, 501 
1,361 



3.930 
95 



1,215,318 



377, 535 
403, 369 
205, 975 
36, 468 
1.256 
1 10, 922 

745. 135 

542, 933 

2, 009, 866 



12 



Values. 



$55, 412 
3,251 



15, 720 

458 



89. 332 



14, 332 
26, 323 

9,801 

2,501 

122 

6,807 

40. 573 

26, 122 

104,369 



6,024 

27, 567 
940 

555 
191 

1,430 
4,294 
2,443 
1,436 



2,734 

4.925 
202 

6,462 

548 
1,696 

7,631 

1.325 
2,876 



20 



iio6 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



Imports and Exports, October, iSp7 — Continued. 
EXPORTS OF DOMESTIC MERCHANDISE, 1897— Continued. 



Articles and countries. 



Hops {Liipuios; Lupulos; Houbhn) 
(pounds) : 

Central America , 

Mexico , 

Santo Domingo , 

Cuba 

Puerto Rico 

South America , 



Instniments: 

Electric and scientific apparatus 

(Aparatos eUctricosy cientificos; 

Apparelhos eUctricos e sci^ntiji- 

cos; Appareils ^Uctriques et sci- 

' entifiqtus^— 

Central America , 

Mexico , 

Argentina 

Brazil , 

Other South America , 



Iron and Steel, Manufactures of: 
Builders' hardware, and saws and 
tools {MateriaUs de metal para 
construccidn, surras y herra- 
mientas; Ferragens^ serras e 
ferramentas i Mathiaux de 
construction en fer et acier^ scies 
et outils) — 

Central America 

Mexico 

Santo Domingo , 

Cuba 

Puerto Rico 

Argentina 

Brazil 

Colombia 

Other South America 



Sewing machines and parts of {Md- 

quinas de coser y accesorios; 

Mackinas de coser e accessories; 

McLchines A coudre et leurs par- 

ties)— 

Central America , 

Mexico 

Santo Domingo 

Cuba 

Puerto Rico 

Argentina 

Brazil 

Colombia 

Other South America 



October. 



X896. 



Quantities. 



945 
230 

786 



1.255 

i»552 



Values. 



•82 
21 

79 



150 
166 



5.217 
12,961 

8,725 
17.003 

13.443 



12, 329 
32,806 

554 
10, 308 

2,388 

12.905 

23. 239 

",393 

21,157 



3.930 

7,022 

66 

450 
21 

6,423 
16, 484 

7,640 
12, 945 



1897. 



Quantities. 



2,340 
417 



1,087 



Values. 



$315 

58 



140 



1,301 

21, 787 

7.041 

4.069 

7,724 



6,896 
19, 078 

I. 715 
4,651 
1,049 
8,693 
13.446 

5.831 
21, 159 



I. 417 

16, 537 

387 
140 



7.967 
3.716 

6,380 
9.7" 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



1107 



Imports and Exports, October, i8gj — Continued. 
EXPORTS OF DOMESTIC MERCHANDISE, 1897— Continued. 



Articlea and countries. 



Iron aa4 Steel, Manufactures of — C't'd. 
Typewriting machines and parts 
of {Mdquinas de escribir y acce^ 
sorios; Machinas de escribir e 
accessorios; Machines d /crire 
et Uurs parties)—^ 

Central America 

Mexico 

Santo Domingo 

Cuba 

Puerto Rico 

Argentina 

Brazil 

Colombia 

Other South America 



October. 



X896. 



Quantities. 



Leather, other than sole {Cuero^ dis- 
tinio del de sueia; Couro tUlo para 
solas; Cuirs, autres que pour se- 
melles) : 

Central America 

Mexico , 

Santo Domingo 

Cuba , 

Puerto Rico 

Argentina , 

Brazil 

Colombia , 

Other South America , 



Boots and shoes {Calzado; Calvados; 
CAaussures) : 

Central America 

Mexico 

Colombia 

Other South America 



Naval stores: Resin, tar, etc. (Resina 
yalquitran; Resina e akatrHoj R/- 
iine ct goudran\ (barrels): 

Central America 

Mexico 

Santo Domingo 

Cuba 

Puerto Rico 

Argentina 

Brazil 

Colombia 

Other South America 



Turpentine, spirits of {Agttarrds; 
Agua-rax; T/re benthine){<ga\\ons): 

Central America 

Mexico 



Values. 



$2,074 

1,662 

82 



469 
306 

41 

342 

32 

7.320 

6,145 
896 

4,149 



857 
236 



205 

1,298 

238 

443 
I, 220 



1.767 



341 
6 

162 

1, 162 

"5 
1.308 



9.659 
3.045 
2,467 
1,946 



1,106 
810 
123 
681 

59 

13. 329 
12, 322 

I. 791 
8,674 



253 
89 



1897. 



Quantities. 



303 

81 

410 

351 
97 



9.355 

379 
3.821 



255 
292 



Values. 



$2,785 
205 



45 

245 

555 
2,476 



928 

1.426 

130 



554 



3.480 
170 

1. 143 



5.722 

3.951 

3.339 
3.827 



726 
279 

590 
640 
193 



15, 329 

749 

7.523 



103 
III 



iic8 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



Imports and Exports, October, i8gy — Continued. 
EXPORTS OF DOMESTIC MERCHANDISE, 1897— Continued. 



Articles and countries. 



Turpentine — Continued. 

Santo Domingo 

Cuba 

Puerto Rico 

Argentina 

Brazil 

Colombia 

Other South America. . 



Oils, mineral, crude (Aceites, mim- 
raUs^ cfudos; Oleos, minertuSt criis; 
HuiUs mifUraUs^ brutes) (gallons): 

Mexico 

Cuba 

Puerto Rico 



Oils, mineral, refined or manufac- 
tured {Aceitis^ mineraUs^ refi- 
nados 6 manufacturados ; Oleos^ 
mimraes, refinados 6 manufactw 
radotj Huiles^ min/raUs^ raMtUes^ 
ou manufactur^is) (gallons) : 

Central America 

Mexico , 

Santo Domingo 

Cuba 

Puerto Rico 

Argentina 

Brazil 

Colombia 

Other South America , 



Oils, vegetable (^frt'/^j, vegetates; Oleos^ 
vegetaes; HuiUs^ v^g/tales) (gal- 
lons): 

Central America 

Mexico 

Santo Domingo 

Cuba 

Puerto Rico 

Argentina 

Brazil 

Other South America 



Paraffin and paraffin, wax (Parafina 
ycera de parafina; Par affina e cera 
deparajfina; Paraffine et cire faite 
de cette substance) (pounds): 

Central America 

Mexico 

Brazil 

Other South America , 



October. 



X896. 



Quantities. 



1 10 

7. 911 
1,249 



12, 578 
1.142 
6,443 



6,078 

29,308 

111,667 



63.794 

41,523 

12. 493 

1.796 

41. 835 
2. 343. 800 
1,078,245 

89. 478 
651, 540 



4.514 

303. 72X 

2.774 



22,600 
11,797 



69,800 

173. 134 
27, 650 



Values. 



•35 

2,315 

391 



3.235 

AAA 

T I f 

2,032 



908 

2.190 

10,900 



9,186 
8,895 
2,295 

431 

4.946 

200,403 

93, 502 
9, 2qi 

70;344 



1,250 

56, 763 
776 



6,028 
3.672 



4,064 
9.628 
1.648 



1897. 



Quantities. ^ Values 



25 
5,020 

367 
13.560 

12, 770 

694 

10,311 



657. 613 
102, 570 



68,057 

60,156 

2.209 

4,654 
11,812 

X. 346. 839 

I, 060, 352 
56, 233 

793, 971 



656 

104, 502 

3.884 

2,790 



65,098 
35.071 



18.000 

451.274 
20, 273 

33.794 



18 

1,660 

144 

5,293 

4,389 

257 

3.842 



26,868 
9,098 



7.694 
12, 723 

418 

945 

1.477 

119. 177 

77.196 

5.659 
73,066 



242 

19. 405 

1.309 

694 



17. 233 
11,472 



890 

19, 160 

980 

1.884 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



1109 



Imports and Exports, October, iS^y — Continued, 
EXPORTS OF DOMESTIC MERCHANDISE. 1897— Continued. 



Artides and countries. 



ProTisions, comprising meat and dairy 
products: 
Beef, canned {Came cU vtua en 

latas; Carne de vacca em latas; 

B(tuf en conserz'es) (pounds) — 

Central America 

Mexico 

Santo Domingo 

Cuba 

Puerto Rico 

Argentina 

Brazil 

Colombia 

Other South America 



Beef, salted or pickled, (Carne 
de vaca^ salada d en salmuera; 
Came de vacca, salgada ou 
em salmoura; Bceuf^ saU ou en 
laumure) (pounds)— 

Central America 

Mexico 

Santo Domingo 

Cuba 

Puerto Rico 

Brazil 

Colombia 

Other South America 



1i\\oyr(Se6o; Sebo; 5mi/) (pounds): 

Central America 

Mexico .....' 

Santo Domingo 

Cuba 

Colombia 

Other South America 



Bacon {Tocino; Toucinho; Lard 
jumf) (pounds): 

Central America 

Mexico , 

Santo Domingo , 

Cuba , 

Puerto Rico 

Brazil 

Colombia , 

Other South America 



Hams (Jamanes; Presunto; Jam- 
^j) (pounds); 

Central America 

Mexico 

Santo Domingo 

Cuba 

Puerto Rico 



October. 



X896. 



Quantities. 



19.064 

I3» 740 

576 

1.056 



60, 500 

a, 614 

12, 216 



39.900 
200 

6,500 

2,000 

19.500 

2.500 

27,300 

274, 836 



239, 814 

174. 307 
5,962 

17.900 

10. 010 

31. 131 



27, 510 

7.927 

5.338 

656.615 

36,417 
600,390 

2,446 

9. 811 



17, 102 

59. 383 
4.819 

380, 022 
71, 504 



Values. 



$2,245 
I. 811 

44 
81 



4.915 
266 

998 



1.809 

10 

301 

95 

945 
122 

1,141 
11,252 



10, 5: J 

6,078 

306 

530 

524 

1.333 



1,804 

799 
804 

39. 334 
2,041 

37. 834 
170 

647 



X897. 



Quantities. 



1.848 

5.758 

573 

34. 189 

6,400 



15. 548 
8,408 



10. 752 
192 



2,500 

4, 228 

16,692 



72, 570 

1,400 

2,600 

46, 685 

400 

1,000 

13.200 

316. 220 



73. 547 
60, 127 

62,500 

13.994 
81. 135 
29,807 



16. 243 

9.634 
2,900 

667. 220 
32, 302 

450, 617 

2,778 

30, 925 



13, 622 
20.901 

5.764 
395. 238 
150, 144 



Values. 



•l, 57a 
1.047 



855 
15 



193 
360 

1.519 



3.393 

71 

130 

2,313 
21 

43 

730 

16, 370 



3.819 
2,796 

1,780 
469 

3.213 
1,441 



1,303 
962 

193 

48, 125 
2,088 

31, 401 
196 

2,513 



1,450 

2,104 

650 

42. 471 

12, 793 



lllO 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



Imparts and Exports, October, 1897 — Continued. 
EXPORTS OF DOMESTIC MERCHANDISE. 1897— Continued. 



Articles and coontricfl. 



Provisions, etc — Continued. 
Hams — Continued. 

Brazil 

Colombia 

Other South America. . . 



Pork (Came eU putrco; Carne de 
porco; Pore) (pounds): 

Central America 

Santo Domingo , 

Cuba , 

Puerto Rico 

Brazil 

Colombia 

Other South America. , 



Lard {ManUca; Banka; Saindoux) 
(pounds): 

Central America 

Mexico , 

Santo Domingo , 

Cuba , 

Puerto Rico 

Argentina , 

Brazil , 

Colombia 

Other South America , 



Oleo and oleomargarine {Grasa y 
oUomargarina; OUo e oUomarga- 
rina ; OUo et oUomargarine) 
(pounds): 

Central America 

Mexico 

Colombia 

Other South America 



Butter {Mantequiiia; Manteiga; 
Beurre) (pounds)—- 

Central America 

Mexico 

Santo Domingo 

Cuba 

Puerto Rico 

• Brazil 

Colombia 

Other South America 



Cheese {Queso; QuHjo; Frontage) 
(pounds)^ 

Central America 

Mexico 

Santo Domingo 

Cuba 

Puerto Rico 

Brazil 



October. 



1896. 



Quantitieii. 



1. 912 
11,450 
41. 952 



140, 420 

7,200 

25,200 

412,600 
9,800 
9,700 

328, 900 



134. 854 
663, 536 

20, 720 

I, 701, 220 

540. 487 
5.880 

393. 040 
381. 198 
883, 514 



60 

560 

1,000 

8.700 



17,206 

19. 354 
3,120 

2,425 



13. 383 
6,648 

49.815 



14. 413 
12, 122 

2,432 
2,960 

1.399 



Valnea. 



$190 
1,004 
4.450 



5.369 

257 
1,240 

16,942 

485 

534 

13. 536 



7.837 
29, '246 

1,218 

85.049 
27,069 

360 

23. 575 
19, 118 

48, 423 



8 

65 
82 

781 



3.074 

3,302 

482 

401 



2, 212 
932 

6,585 



1.582 

1,396 

287 

606 
146 



1897. 



Quantities. 



152 
10,085 

79, 427 



116,750 

3,800 

16,400 

369,800 

1,000 

7.150 
298,900 



143, 866 

518,610 

31,258 

2. 844, 033 

299,404 



1,230,061 

175,448 
888, 561 



II, 800 
18, 821 



16,443 

14,431 

3,455 

2. 311 



28,603 

9,836 

29, 118 



6.587 
8,272 

2.533 
30,605 



Values. 



$11 
1,025 

8,971 



5.50s 

186 

865 

19. 163 

46 

428 

15. 767 



8,278 
24, 120 

1.742 

143. 631 

17. 135 



79. 686 
10, 877 

53.647 



1,066 
1,812 



3.031 
2,067 

477 
376 



2,968 
1.376 
4.138 



774 
996 

321 

3.361 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



1) 11 



Imports and Exports^ October ^ iSpy — Continued. 
EXPORTS OF DOMESTIC MERCHANDISE, 1897— Continued. 



Articles and coustries. 



ProTisions, etc. — Continued. 
Cheese — Continued. 

Colombia 

Other South America — 



Sugar, refined (Azticar refinado; 
Assucar rejinado ; Sucre raf- 
fin^) (pounds) — 

Central America 

Mexico , 

Santo Domingo 

Colombia 

OthcT South America 



Tobacco,unmanufactured (Tabaco no 
manufacturado; Tabaco nHo ma- 
nufacturcub ; Tabac non manU' 
factur^) (pounds): 

Central America 

Mexico 

Argentina 

Colombia 

Other South America 



Tobacco, manufactures of {Manufac- 
turas de tabiico ; Manufacturasde 
tabaco; Tabac fabr%qtU)\ 

Central America 

Mexico 

Cuba 

Argentina 

Brazil 

Colombia 

Other South America 



Wood, unmanufactured {Madera no 
manufacturada ; Madeira nHo 
manufacturada ; Bois brut): 

Central America 

Mexico 

Cuba , 

Argentina , 

Brazil , 

Colombia , 

Other South America , 



Lumber (Maderas ; Madeiras; 
de construction) (M f eet)— 

Central America 

Mexico 

Santo Domingo 

Cuba 

PuenoRico 

Argentina 

Brazil 

Colombia 

Other South America 



Bois 



October. 



X896. 



Quantities. 



9,099 
11,464 



96, 426 
17. I20 

4.469 
78,504 



8.805 

120, 205 

16,300 

1,450 
46, 652 



553 
5.327 

147 
1,596 

987 

7.467 
2,294 

453 
6,495 



Values. 



t977 
1.279 



4,327 
867 
221 

3,763 



810 

10,344 

1,650 

202 

4.041 



3.035 

96 

4,588 

9, 600 

675 
171 

5,495 



12, 403 

15, 726 

1,183 

251 



657 
3,152 



6.588 

74. 327 
2.894 

19,603 

12, 858 
100. 217 

36, 956 
6.556 

86, 180 



1897. 



Quantities. 



6.548 
7,473 



76, 248 

7.651 
2.820 

63. 125 
18. 858 



15,330 
44.762 



800 
69, 658 



132 
4,107 

452 

2,390 

827 

5,955 
2,607 

36 
2,650 



Val»<s. 



•836 
966 



3,960 

377 

159 

3.354 

1,028 



1,939 
4,479 



125 
5,841 



2,132 

293 
26, 892 

37 



2,707 



3,179 
15,552 

188 

774 



7,066 



1,742 

51.435 
5,002 

28. 439 
10, 888 
65, 366 
34.415 
569 
32. 229 



n 12 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



Imports and Exports, October, iSpj — Continued. 
EXPORTS OF DOMESTIC MERCHANDISE, 1897— Continued. 



Articles and countries. 



Furniture (MuebUs ; Mobilia; Men- 
bles)— 

Central America , 

Mexico , 

Santo Domingo 

Cuba , 

Puerto Rico , 

Argentina , 

Brazil 

Colombia , 

Other South America 



Wool, TSiW (Lana cruda; Ld criia; 
Laines brutes) (pounds)^ 
Mexico 



October. 



1896. 



Quantities. 



443. 154 



Values. 



$11,521 
16,996 

1,753 
1,860 

1,663 

3.646 

5.380 

3.992 
10, 714 



36,469 



1897. 



Quantities. 



Values. 



$4,959 
10,596 

895 

3.071 

557 

2.993 

6,811 

2,598 
9,923 



NOTES FROM THE PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE. 

In his message to Congress, delivered at the assembling of that 
body in regular session, on Monday, December 6, President 
McKiNLEY refers to the subject of trade reciprocity with foreign 
countries in the following terms: 

In order to execute as early as possible the provisions of the third and fourth 
sections of the revenue act approved July 24, 1897, 1 appointed the Hon. John 
A. Kasson, of Iowa, a special commissioner plenipotentiary to undertake the 
requisite negotiations with foreign countries desiring to avail themselves of these 
provisions. The negotiations are now proceeding with several Governments, 
both European and American. It is believed that by a careful exercise of the 
powers conferred by that act some grievances of our and of other countries in 
our mutual trade relations may be either removed or largely alleviated, and that 
the volume of our commercial exchanges may be enlarged with advantage to both 
contracting .parties. 

Extended reference is made to the importance and utility to the 
commerce of the American Continent involved in the completion 
of the Nicaragua Canal. In regard to this project, the President 
says : 

A subject of large importance to our country and increasing appreciation on 
the part of the people is the completion of the great highway of trade between 
the Atlantic and Pacific known as the Nicaragua Canal. Its utility and value to 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 1 II3 

American commerce is universally admitted. The commission appointed under 
date of July 24 last, '* to continue the surveys and examinations authorized by 
the act approved March 2, 1895," in regard to "the proper route, feasibility, 
and cost of construction of the Nicaragua Canal, with a view of making com- 
plete plans for the entire work of construction of such canal," is now employed 
in the undertaking. In the future I shall take occasion to transmit to Congress 
the report of this commission, making at the same time such further suggestions 
as may then seem advisable. 

NICARAGUA CANAL. 

A convention will be held in Kansas City, Missouri, January 
17 next, for the purpose of urging Congress to appropriate money 
to build the Nicaragua Canal. This movement is inaugurated by 
representative merchants, railroad men, manufacturers, and real- 
estate dealers of that city; the Governors of the Western States 
have been asked to name delegates to the convention and to attend 
in person. 

Mr. James H. Harkless, the prime mover in the enterprise, 
and president of the association, says in regard to it : 

The Government could expend money in no way that would be more advan- 
tageous to the trans- Mississippi States than by cutting a ship way through the 
Isthmus and connecting the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. We are now building 
up a grain port (Port Arthur) at the terminus of the Pittsburg and Gulf road 
on the gulf coast that puts Kansas City much nearer the seaboard than it 
was before. A line of vessels will ply from this port to carry our grain and 
products to Europe. Why should these vessels not enter into Pacific competi- 
tion as well as Atlantic r The only reason is because they must now go around 
Cape Horn, 10,000 miles farther than they would have to sail if this canal were 
open. The canal would bring directly to us the trade of the islands of the 
Pacific and put cheaper transportation between these Mississippi States and 
China. There is every reason why this Government should build, own and control 
the canal De Lesseps's plan was to build a canal 30 miles long, and straight 
across the Isthmus. It has been estimated that the American canal would cost 
about $100,000,000, but the outlay would be nothing compared with the benefit 
it would be to this country. If the United States does not build it some other 
government will. 

IMPORTATION OF HIDES AND SKINS. 

In order to supply their tanneries with raw material, the tanners 
of the United States are obliged, notwithstanding the immense 
stock of hides and skins furnished by the abattoirs of Chicago 
and other large cities, to have recourse to importation. The value 



1114 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

of the raw skins imported yearly reaches the sum of about 
$20,000,000. The skins arrive either completely dried, or green 
and salted. 

Of this quantity goatskins form almost half of the importa- 
tions, Spain being the principal exporter. Next in value come 
ox and cow skins, imported chiefly from the Argentine Republic 
and Uruguay. 

The importation of dressed skins, which used to be very large, 
has decreased considerably during the last decade. Morocco 
leather ranks first, with an annual import value of $3,500,000; 
sheepskins second, valued at $650,000, France being the greatest 
purveyor of this article ; and lastly, sole leather, with an annual 
import figure of $160,000. Hides, bark-tanned, reach a mean 
total of about $20,000, and other hide products are imported in 
insignificant quantities 



URUGUAY. 

The following facts relating to the foreign trade of Uruguay, 
and its further development with the United States, are taken from 
a recent communication addressed to Director Joseph P. Smith: 
"Our English fi-iends are now making a determined effort to 
regain and hold trade on this side, and to that end everything is 
being done that is deemed wise and telling. It seems that the 
Germans, French, and some other nations — not our own — have 
been making great inroads on the trade formerly held by England, 
and hence the action of the Board of Trade. The reception of 
such action, however, is indicated by the inclosed slip from the 
Montevideo liimes (English), and needs no explanation : 

When a North American Commercial Commission was announced to visit 
these lands, the excitement was immense ; the native papers filled their columns 
for weeks with accounts of the visitors, who they were and what they were going 
to do, and the fuLS that was generally made was such that one might have thought 
a turning point in international commerce was being reached. Now the visit of 
an English Commission is announced, under official auspices, but so far we have 
not seen a si igle reference to it in any River Plate native paper. Yet the River 
Plate commerce with Great Britain is five times more important than that with 
the United States, and for all that we can see is likely to remain so. " There 
is something in this more than nature — if philosophy could find it out." 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 1 1 I5 

English capital has built all the railroads and has lost largely by 
it; it has done more than any other nation in bringing commerce 
up to the best level in the past, but to-day the Germans, French, 
and Italians have come into the field as most successful competitors 
on lines where losses are nominal, if any. All these have regular 
lines to the Plate country, and now even Japan proposes to put 
on two steamers of large freight capacity to trade here — and by 
that I mean South America. There has been no arrival in this 
port for many years of an American commercial steamer, and 
"we pay the freight" on the millions of exports to Uruguay, and 
imports therefrom to our own land. None of these other nations 
do that, but some of their transportation lines live wholly on 
American trade, and but for it would rush out. That they serve 
us well is true, but that it also hampers our trade in a number of 
ways can not be denied. Blessed is the nation that can control 
its own conmierce in its own bottoms. The time will come 
when the policies suggested to American trade for the develop- 
ment of the commerce of South America, in mutual American 
interest both North and South, will find an adoption at home. 
No other field presents so great an advantage, no similar condi- 
tions exist elsewhere, and I am sure that the capital and enterprise 
of our people will yet see and appreciate the commercial glory 
awaiting them. 

But the nation must move in the matter, as other nations do 
now, and have done. The examples of the past afford an abun- 
dant experience, both of success and failure, and our need of 
greater and more extended markets should impel swift action. 
The way is open to American commercial supremacy if the 
executive branch of the Government is given the proper power 
by the legislative branch. Greatness and wealth, " beyond the 
dreams of avarice," are found on these lines ; much longer delay on 
our part means permanent loss. 



VENEZUELA. 

FRONTIER COMMERCE WITH COLOMBIA. 

The Congress of the United States of Venezuela at its last 
session enacted a code of laws governing the transit of commerce 
between that country and Colombia. These laws provide an 



1 1 1 6 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

arrangement for the transit of foreign goods into the Republic of 
Colombia through the port of Maracaibo, and Cucuta, and recip- 
rocally the transit of Colombian goods into Venezuela, intended 
for exportation via Maracaibo. 
Article 2 of the code says : 

The introduction of foreign merchandise through the port of Maracaibo in 
transit to Colombia shall be subject to all the formalities, conditions, and pen- 
alties established in the custom-house laws on foreign merchandise imported into 
Venezuela. 

Merchandise intended for transit shall be sent under separate 
consular invoices, stating that the articles are destined for a point 
or points in Colombia. Goods so destined will be permitted to 
remain in deposit for thirty days at the Maracaibo custom-house. 
Before the removal of goods for shipment into the interior, the 
owner is required to deposit with the proper officials a pro forma 
certificate, blanks for which are obtainable at the custom-house. 

In addition to the regular import duties charged at the custom- 
house, importers will pay i per cent on the amount of the invoice 
as a storage charge. , 

The same legislative decree establishes authority for the admis- 
sion of Colombian manufactures and native products into Vene- 
zuela through the custom-house at San Antonio del Tachira. 

Article 32 says : 

Fruits and natural products of Colombia shall be admitted free of duty at 
the custom-houses of Maracaibo and Tachira as long as those of Venezuela 
enjoy the same privileges in Colombia. 

By Article 33, native goods, manufactured in Colombia, are 
made subject to the payment of duties established in the tariflf of 
Venezuela according to their respective classes. These laws went 
into effect on the first day of October of the present year, abro- 
gating all previous laws relative to transit trade between the two 
countries. 



THE NIAGARA PAN-AMERICAN EXPOSITION. 

The October number of the Bulletin contained an extended 
notice of the general design and scope of the Niagara Pan- 
American Exposition, with the names of the executive staff and 
leading promoters. The scheme, so meritorious in itself, designed 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. lllj 

to bring into closer acquaintanceship the various peoples and 

industries of the Western Hemisphere, seems to be receiving the 

attention it deserves in the United States and elsewhere. The 

magnitude of the undertaking and the energy with which it is 

being forwarded has recommended it to the notice and favorable 

consideration of the National Government. Measures are being 

taken to obtain, by act of Congress, an appropriation adequate to 

give substantial aid and indorsement in putting the enterprise on 

a firm and certain footing, and to provide for the special exhibit 

of the United States. The names of the incorporators are a 

guaranty that the encouragement given by the Government will 

^ heartily supplemented and the exposition made a rival in many 

particulars, and surpass in some respects, the World's Fair. 

The site chosen is peculiarly suited to the purpose, being an 

'sland in the Niagara River containing abundant area and within 

P^ain view of the mighty cataract of Niagara, whose Titanic 

forces have lain dormant until the present time, serving merely as 

^^ grandest spectacle given by Nature to the eye of man. The 

^"^c, too, is opportune to illustrate the national progress of the 

W^>v World in the nineteenth century. 

^lexico and the leading Republics of Central and South 

Arnerica have already made application for space in which to 

"^^^Ice their respective exhibits and the allotments have been made. 

In speaking of the exposition and its purposes, Mr. R. C. Hill, 

™^ Secretary, says : " What we expect to do is to show the prog- 

^ss of this hemisphere along all the great lines, and we will have 

^ "Wonderful exhibition of industry and art. It is not a World's 

^ ^ir, and it is international only in that it is to be confined to this 

^^niisphere. We think it will not only benefit us as to trade mat- 

^''s, but that it will also bring about a better feeling between the 

^'fferent countries. It will also be a kind of education along the 

^^^e of the Monroe Doctrine. It will show that there is an 

^rtierica for Americans and why Americans should stand together. 

] ^e that the Pan-American Congress has been announced to meet 

^^ Washington in 1900. This, I believe, will be changed and the 

^^eting be held here in 1899, at the time of our exposition. This 

^^ the idea that the Pan-American delegates had when we con- 

fetred here about the exposition last year." 
Bull. No^ 7 4 



Ill8 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

The active management of the work is in the hands of Cap- 
tain John M. Brinker, of Buffalo, as President, whose sagacity fore- 
saw the practical uses to which the marvellous dynamic powers 
of the Falls might be applied and whose energies led to the 
building of the railroad into the gorge beneath them. His 
assistants, all of whom have had liberal training and experience 
in the form of work they now have in hand, are W. Caryl Ely, 
General Director; F. C. M. Lautz, Treasurer; and Richmond 
C. Hill, Secretary. 

An entire floor of the Coal and Iron Exchange Building, 
Buffalo, N. Y., is appropriated for use as general offices of the 
Company, and it is purposed to establish branch offices in New 
York City, Chicago, and Washington, D. C. 



TRADE IN MACHINERY AND TOOLS IN SPAN- 

ISH AMERICA. 

The Revue du Commerce of December 4, 1897, publishes a very 
valuable and timely article concerning the class of machinery 
and agricultural implements suitable for importation into Latin- 
America and other tropical countries. The demand for such manu- 
factures is increasing daily, the principal obstacle to a more rapid 
development of the trade being the lack of knowledge on the part 
of the manufacturers and shippers of the industrial habits and con- 
ditions existing in these countries. In considering this question 
the fact must not be lost sight of that after machinery is received 
by the importers it has to be put together, an undertaking which 
is often impossible without the aid of engineers and experienced 
workmen. In the more-advanced English colonies and in the 
seaports the necessary help can be found, but in the interior (even 
in such large cities as Rio de Janeiro, Buenos Ayres, and Valpa- 
raiso) it is not certain that large machine shops with a personnel 
capable of furnishing the needed help can always be obtained, and 
in the back country this is an utter impossibility. The manufec- 
turer who sends his machinery there must depend on the inge- 
nuity of his employees. 

In warm countries civilization is principally concentrated in the 
cities along the coasts and in the seaports. In the interior the 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 1 UQ 

population has developed along crude native lines, almost entirely 
iree from foreign influence. This population is adapted, one 
might say, to the conditions of the country, and is composed of 
descendants of Europeans, Creoles, or half-breeds. This is the 
case, for example, in Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela, Peru, Bolivia, 
and Mexico. There are vast areas unopened, either to fluvial 
navigation or railroads, and where the transportation is still accom- 
plished by means of beasts of burden, or by primitive vehicles. 
Often, too, handbarrows or porters must be utilized. It is evi- 
dent that under such conditions transportation and mounting of 
machinery present great difficulties. 

All the machinery destined for the interior of the above- 
mentioned countries should be constructed with a view to the use 
of wood as fuel. It is very rare to find coal remote from the 
coast; gas motors can very rarely be employed, while on the 
contrary oil (petroleum) motors can be utilized, for kerosene has 
become an article of universal commerce, which can be obtained 
everywhere as fuel for engines. Electric lighting and the 
generation of electric force certainly offer a future, for water 
power is found in abundance in these countries and renders feasi- 
ble the installation of small electrical machines and telephones. 
Electrical apparatus can also be transported more advantageously, 
because it is less cumbersome than steam engines, and conse- 
quently capable of being transported by means of mules, which, 
hitched in single file and connected by long poles can carry loads 
of considerable weight, but in small bulk, even in the m_ountains 
where the inclines are not too steep. 

Further, the separate pieces to be transported on mule back 
should not weigh more than ij^ to 2 quintals* (at the maximum), 
and the weight must be evenly distributed on the sides of the 
animal 

It is only with the progress of civilization that these condi- 
tions of transportation will be modified and improved ; the paths 
will be succeeded by roads and routes, and territories of difficult 
access will become accessible to heavier objects. In these territo- 
ries they will manufacture on the spot the products of the soil in 
order to avoid transportation expenses. Distilling apparatus for 

*NoTE. — A quintal is loo pounds. 



1120 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

com, cereals, potatoes, etc., and presses for the oleaginous fruits 
will be required. 

Centrifugal machines for making oil and butter, pumps worked 
by hand or by horse power, sometimes also petroleum or gas 
apparatus, small ice-making machines for the conservation of 
products easily decomposed, machinery for working tin into 
boxes for conserves, small presses for cement and appliances for 
the laying of pavements, and portable railways will play an 
important role in exploiting the countries in question. The very 
high temperature will also favor the importation of machinery for 
the manufacture of aerated waters. There will also be found 
occasions for placing small cylinders for the manufacture of choc- 
olate in the important cities. 

The many rivers and streams in these countries will permit the 
establishment of small mills for the grinding of local products 
and also favor the establishment of small sawmills. The supply 
of these needs will be relatively slow, and the natives will often 
hesitate to adopt new articles. They do not know how to repair 
them without instruction, and their experiences in this line have 
been delicate and costly. 

The importation of tools, however, presents itself under a much 
more fevorable light than that of machinery and mechanical appa- 
ratus. Although the inhabitants of these countries have displayed 
a certain conservatism in regard to modem and perfected tools of 
United States and European manufacture, this hesitation soon 
disappeared before the demonstration of their real value. As 
soon as the native recognizes the value of the article, no price is 
too high, and he pays what is asked for it. 

A certain style of German knife has been fumished by millions 
in Central and South America; other knives, as well as hatchets, 
hammers, etc., have been sent out for hand work in exploiting for- 
ests, mines, and the cultivation of the fields. Certain knives suit- 
able to one country would be useless in another. A style which has 
been perfectly utilized in Pemambuco and in the back country of 
Bahia would be worthless in Havana. There the Spaniards want 
a long and large knife (machete), resembling a saber, which serves 
as a weapon and for cutting sugar cane on the plantations. It 

is easily understood that the shape of the knife should suit the 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 1121 

character of the forests, plantations, and the principal cultures in 
which it is to be utilized, and that scientific improvements will 
serve for nothing. 

It is certain that better results would be obtained by the use of 
the plow than the hoe, but the native has nofcapital to expend in 
buying a plow, and the product of hoe culture suffices fully the 
needs of his family. He manages to live, and that is all he asks. 
On account of the great distances to be traveled, the bad condi- 
tions of the roads, and the high charges for transportation, the ship- 
ping of the surplus of the crops has not been thought of All this 
will change with the spread of civilization, and notably with the 
growth of the population of the countries in question. 

Pioneers of commerce and industry will not delay in awaking 
the needs of the inhabitants of these countries; if this were not 
true and if these latter were not entering upon a more advanced 
civilization their demands for foreign products would not increase. 
To create needs is the task of the first pioneers of commerce in 
these countries more than anywhere else. But this can only be 
arrived at by degrees, and it is in countries where new routes are 
to be opened to traffic that new needs will soon appear and that 
the population can devote itself to a more intensive culture. To 
create transportation facilities and open up the way to traffic is the 
principal object of the political economy of competing countries. 
What has been said of machinery and implements applies also 
to other articles. Small benches for boring and turning, of light 
construction and as simple as possible, grinding machines and 
traveling forges, pipes for carrying water, tin in sheets or other- 
wise, corrugated sheet iron, which is employed in the construction 
of houses and stores, presses for fruits and flowers destined for the 
production of perfumes and essences; machinery for the cleaning 
and decortication of coffee, grinding machinery of all kinds for 
stones, sand, plaster, cement; small apparatus for pressing between 
rollers, etc., are to be mentioned as interesting the countries in 
question. 

All these countries use powder and dynamite cartridges for 
blasting rocks, exploiting quarries, etc., wire and simple appa- 
ratus for hoisting purposes, light cables for mines, and light mate- 
rial for the construction of bridges; blacksmiths' tools, nails and 
wood screws, etc. 



1 1 22 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



STEAMSHIP SERVICE ON THE PACIFIC COAST. 

The Bureau is advised by the Hon. Henry L.Wilson, United 
States minister to Chile, that it is proposed by the two steamship 
lines running regularly between Valparaiso and Panama to extend 
their service to San Francisco. Under the proposed itinerary 
steamers will leave Valparaiso once a week, touching at Coquimbo, 
Antofagasta, Iquique, Mollendo, and Calico, making the run to 
Panama in twelve days. Leaving Panama on their northward 
voyage they will touch only at the principal Central American 
and Mexican ports, reaching San Francisco in twelve days from 
the date of departure frorn Panama. The entire trip, therefore, 
fr.om Valparaiso to San Francisco would consume twenty-two days. 

The increased facilities for passenger and freight traffic afforded 
by this new arrangement will be, of course, of great benefit to the 
ports on the Pacific Coast. 

The lines concerned are the Compafiia Sud Americana de Va- 
pores, sailing under the Chilean flag, but owned mostly by British 
subjects, and the Pacific Steam Navigation Company, exclusively 
a British corporation. Both companies are subsidized by the Chil- 
ean Government and are strong and successful lines. 



TRADE MISCELLANY. 

ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 

A leading firm in the Argentine Republic claims that 
great interest is being taken in the trade in sheet iron in 
that Republic, owing to its increased use for building purposes. American 
manufacturers are beginning to realize that the South American market is a very 
important one, and are making efforts to introduce their product in competition 
with the English. A great drawback to their success in this Imc has heretofore 
been the disparity in freight charges, the British quotations being about lo per 
cent lower than the lowest American rates. Steps will be taken to remove this 
obstacle, and it is believed that the greater dispatch in the delivery of wares 
from this side of the Atlantic will be of value in the trade rivalry which has 
sprung up. 



SbipoMBts of Fap«r. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 11^3 

BRAZIL. 

It is authoritatively stated that large consignments of 
paper are continually being exported to London from 
the United States for subsequent sale and reshipment to Brazil. Orders 
amounting to thousands of dollars for newspaper, roofing material, and station- 
ery supplies are received by export houses. This is because South and Central 
Americans are unacquainted with the merits of the productions of the United 
States, and that English firms in competition with German manufacturers prac- 
tically control a market to which little attention has been given by Americans. 

CHILE. 

_^ ^ _, According to the Chilian TinifS, the production of 

nitrate in 1896 amounted to 23,832,434 quintals,* and 
the exportation reached 24,066,189 quintals. The principal countries to which 
nitrate is exported from Chile are Germany, United States, Great Britain, 
France, and Holland. From a published statement showing the world's con- 
sumption of nitrate during the past seven years, it is noted that there has been 
an increase of 4,359,627 quintals, or about 200,000 English tons, in 1896 over 
the consumption in 1890. The excess of exports in 1896 over the estimated 
production of that year is due to the surplus of production in 1895. 
8o«h American Tobacco '^^^ South American Tobacco Company, established in 
Oompany. Valparaiso, employing 160 operatives, imports for the 

manufacture of cigarettes large quantities of American leaf tobacco, of the quality 
grown in Virginia and North Carolina. In addition to that imported from the 
United States, the company brings in tobaccos from Havana, Egypt, Turkey, 
and northern Brazil. The output of this establishment is stated to be 900,000 
cigarettes and 10,000 pounds of manufactured tobacco daily. It is believed 
that with proper effort on the part of exporters the consumption of American 
tobacco in Chile might be greatly increased. 

Recent advices from Chile report the crop prospects in 
that country as exceedingly favorable. An English firm 
engaged in the manufacture of agricultural implements has received from Valpa- 
raiso a telegraphic order to ship to that port a number of threshing machines. 
This would indicate that there is in Chile a large market open to manufacturers 
of agricultural implements, and that persons engaged in that business in the 
United States would find it worthy of their attention. It is estimated that the 
growing cereal crop of Chile will be fully 50 per cent greater than that of the 
previous year, and it is valued at $15,000,000. 

ECUADOR. 

_ , , . By Executive decree all merchandise destined for 

Ecuador must be accompanied by a consular invoice 
vis^d by the consul of that countfy, or by the person empowered to act in that 



*A Chilean quintal is equal to loi pounds. 



1124 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

capacity at the port of shipment. Every package weighing more than 50 
kilograms must have its gross weight marked on the outside in plain figures. 
Any weight in excess of 10 per cent of that declared in the invoice shall be 
assessed with a surcharge of 100 per cent on the duty applicable to the article, 
under the existing custom-house law. 

HAITI. 
The Department of State is informed by Minister 

New Line of Steamers. 

Powell, under date of November 28, 1897, that the 
Clyde line of steamers has extended its service from New York to Haitian 
ports. These are the first steamers carrying the American flag and having an 
American registry to engage regularly in the trade of Haiti. A bi-monthly 
service by the line is promised and the outlook for traffic is good. 

Gable Line to South The United States Cable and Telegraph Company has 

America. recently opened for business its line connecting with the 

South American line. The cable starts from London and ends at Cape Hayticn, 
where it connects with the French cable of the Antilles, which touches at Vene- 
zuela, Martinique, French and Dutch Guiana, and Pari (Brazil). At Pari the 
French cable unites with the Brazilian land lines and with the Argentine lines. 
This shortens the time of cablegrams between England and South America and 
reduces the cost about 25 per cent. 

MEXICO. 

Japanese Labor on Ooflbe ^^' William Laing Malcolmson, who resided for many 
Estates. years in Ceylon, engaged in coffee planting, and who has 

been for some time in Mexico investigating the possibilities of coft'ee culture in 
that Republic, has interested several wealthy coffee planters in the purchase oF 
extensive estates on the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. Negotiating through the Jap- 
anese minister in Mexico, Mr. Malcolmson has completed preliminary arrange- 
ments for introducing a large colony of Japanese laborers into the Republic to 
work the coffee estates. He considers the lands of southern Mexico better 
adapted for coffee production than any he has seen, and Japanese labor as 
peculiarly suited to their cultivation. 

With the advance of the industrial development of 

American Machinery. 

Mexico, the demand for machinery is correspondingly 

increasing. The call for mining machinery, especially boilers and engines, was 
particularly great last year, and was largely met by an enterprising and sagacious 
firm in Erie, Pennsylvania. The need for machinery, however, is not con- 
fined to any particular line, but all kinds are wanted, and there is awaiting the 
wide-awake manufacturers of the United States a rich field in Mexico for their 
enterprise. The manufacturers of England and the European Continent arc 
engaged in active competition for this business. 

Mexican Exports for According to statistics recently published by the Min- 

1896-^7. istry of Finance, Mexico exported during the fiscal 

year 1896-97 precious metals to the amount of $66,183,097, and other 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. lll^ 

articles valued at $45,163,397, a total of $1 1 1,346,494. The total exports 
for the preceding fiscal year amounted to only $105,016,902, an increase of 
$6,329,592 being shown. 

S«port of s«&or DonEnriqiM '^^^ Bureau is indebted to Sefior Don Enrique Sanchez 
Sanchez. f^^. ^ ^opy of a report made by him to Governor Prospero 

Cahuantzi, of the State of Tlaxcala, Mexico, on the subject of his mission as 
official delegate of that State to the Mercantile Congress, held in June last in 
Philadelphia, U, S. A., under the auspices of the Philadelphia Commercial 
Museums. The report is comprehensive in its character and interesting in 
detail, and sets forth the magnitude of the projects of the Museums for amplify- 
ing the trade of the United States with Mexico and other Latin- American 
countries. Senor Sanchez urges that samples of the productions of the State 
of Tlaxcala — agricultural, mineral, and industrial — be placed on exhibition in the 
Museums, where they may be seen by persons interested in the trade with 
Mexico. 

NICARAGUA. 

^^ Reports from the Department of Matagalpa regarding 

the coffee crop for the year 1897-98 indicate that it 
will far exceed the transport capacity of the mules and ox carts now used for 
the purpose. In consequence, the Nicaraguan congress has authorized Presi- 
dent Zelaya to construct or enter into a contract for making a railway from 
the city of Matagalpa to connect with the National Railroad. The increased 
production of sugar and coffee estates is such that improved and larger machinery 
and more rapid processes for preparing the products for market are required by 
the planters. The attention of persons engaged in railway construction, and 
manufacturers of farm machinery is called to the opportunities indicated above. 



PERU. 

AboUtion of Export Duty on ^^ ^^^ 1 uh of September last, the Peruvian Govern- 
SiiTtr. ment issued a decree whereby the duty of 3 per cent 

ad valorem which was levied on exports of silver coin, bullion, and chafalonia 
(discarded wrought silver for melting) is abolished. This exoneration does not 
extend to national coined gold, or gold in bars or dust, which shall continue 
paying an export duty of 3 per cent. 



UNITED STATES. 
The United States Board of General Appraisers, on 

CaUUdns Free of Duty. rr » 

December 3, 1897, decided that raw calfskins, from which 
nearly all the shoes worn in this country are made, shall hereafter be admitted 
free of duty. According to the decision, imported raw calfskins, under the 
existing tariff, are not to be classed as uncured hides of cattle, which are subject 
to a duty of 15 per cent ad valorem, but are wholly exempt from duty, coming 



1126 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



Son^ Amnican 0«dar. 



under the head of raw skins, included in the free list. The board also finds 
that the term ''hide" is technically applied to skins of the larger animals, such 
as horses, oxen, cows, and bulls, while the term " skin '* is used in reference to 
the coverings of sheep, calves, and goats. The term " hide " in trade was found 
to cover skins weighing 25 pounds or more, all under that weight receiving the 
classification ''skin." In dried hides and dried skins, the dividing line is con- 
sidered passed at 12 pounds. 

A New York market report of December, 1897, states 

that a rival to Spanish cedar is found in cedars from 
several points in the West Indies, Mexico, and Central and South America. 
This substitute gives general satisfaction, is not so high priced, and will proba- 
bly permanently, affect the market for Spanish cedar hereafter, the stock of which 
is at present small. 

A comparison of the statistics of the bicycle trade with 

Latin- America for the fiscal years of 1896 and 1897 
shows a remarkable increase in the values for 1897. In the distribution of 
these exports, Mexico took, in 1897, $73,117 worth, an increase of $48,839 
over the previous year; Argentina shows $42,091 in 1897, against $4,065 in 
1896, while Brazil comes third in the list, with $29,355 ^" ^^97 ^"^ $^3»592 
in 1 896. Central America, Santo Domingo, and Colombia increased the value 
of their imports for the two years $6,020, $4,642, and $1,278, respectively. 
The other South American States imported bicycles to the value .of $73,507 in 
1897 and only $13,401 in 1896, showing the remarkable increase of $60,106. 

Trade of United StaSM with Latin-AnMrican OoimtilM for the Fiscal Tear ISS^?. 



Bicycle Trade. 



Countries. 



Imports from. 



$3, 439. 374 
I, 862. 589 

847. 230 

1. 262, 701 
1.112,534 

18,511,572 
1, 460, 220 

2, 369. 424 
Cuba ! 18, 406, 815 



Costa Rica. 
Guatemala . 
Honduras. , 
Nicaragua . 
Salvador . . 
Mexico . . . 

Haiti 

Santo Domingo. 



Puerto Rico , 

Argentine Republic, 
Boli 



iivia 



2, 181, 024 
10. 772, 627 



Brazil «. . 

Chile 

Colombia 

Ecuador 

Falkland Islands 

Paraguay 

Peru 



Uruguay. . 
Venezuela 



69, 039, 389 

3, 792. 434 

4. 730. 933 
566, 526 



722, 089 
3.515.054 
9. 543. 572 



Sxporta to. 



$1. 292, 709 

2,992, 118 

669,682 

1. 03S, 664 
I, 596, 861 

22, 726, 596 

3. 554. 433 

1. 045. 037 

7. 59Q, 757 
1, 964, 850 

5. 945. 202 

5.155 
12, 406, 785 

2. 587. 168 
3,711,399 

734. 276 

800 

740 

1,105,381 

1.045,266 

3. 376, 184 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 11 27 

URUGUAY. 

Trade Between the xjnited ^'O™ ^ published Statement of the exports from the 
ststee and Montevideo, p^j.^ q£ Montevideo for the first nine months of the 

current year it is learned that the United States ranks first as importer of dry . 
ox hides, having for* the time under consideration taken 245,605, or more than 
one-half of a total of 466,795, shipped. Of salt ox hides the United States 
took nearly one-fifth of Uruguay's export, ranking fourth in the order of the 
nations engaged in that trade. The statement shows that in the import of 
wool the United States ranks third, having taken 11,738 bales out of a total of 
50, ^52, while in the trade in hair she took more than one*third of the entire 
shipment from Montevideo, which amounted to 940 bales. 

VENEZUELA. 

The Venezuelan cattle trade is reported by Minister 

Oattle Trade. 

Francis B. Loomis as likely to become a menace to 
United States stock raisers, and he quotes in support of his statement the 
remarkable increase in the number of cattle raisod in Venezuela during the past 
three years. In 1894 there were 5,000,000 he^d in the country. This number 
has grown to 10,000,000 head for the present year, and it is expected that it 
will be more than doubled within the next four years. The efforts of the 
Republic to open up a market for its cattle in Brazil have been so successful that 
it is proposed to extend the trade to Cuba and the islands of the Caribbean Sea. 

RAMIE. 

-. _ , Owing to the low price of cane sugar, growing out of 

ItiCiiltttwaiidMwwifactar©. ,. ^ ., . 

overproduction and competition with beet sugar in the 

niarkcts of the world, the producers of South America and the West Indies find 

H necessary to look about for new fields of industry to which their lands and 

labor may be more profitably devoted. In this emergency the cultivation of 

I'amic seems to have presented itself. 

Extended experinjent has developed the fact that this plant will grow abun- 
dantly, and at little expense for cultivation, in various parts of Mexico, Central 
*iid South America. Hitherto the production of ramie on a scale commen- 
surate with its value and possibilities has been discouraged by the want of 
proper machinery for decorticating and degumming the fiber, in order that it 
^^%^^ compete with the hand-prepared article of China. Recent and conclusive 
^^pcrimcnts made in the Island of Jamaica have shown that the machine 
**^igned by Mr. Macdonald accomplishes this work effectively. 

^^om the GUaner, published at Kingston, it is learned that a company regis- 
^^^d as the "Jamaica Fiber Company, Limited," has been organized for the 
P'^fpose of cultivating the plant on a large scale and preparing the fiber for 
uic market. The personnel of the corporation, according to the Gleaner, is 
*°^P^c guaranty of the thorough soundness of the enterprise. 



1128 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF MANUFACTURERS. 

The warehouse for the exhibition of American manu- 
Caracas WarehouM. i i- i i ^ ... , 

factures established at Caracas is the pioneer and experi- 
mental attempt in this direction of the National Association of Manufacturers. 
The demand for space by exhibitors has been so' great that the managers found 
it necessary to limit the time for the receipt of goods to December 14, 1897. 
In a report recently received at the Department of State, Consul Proskaueh, 
writing from Puerto Cabello, speaks in the following favorable terms of the 
enterprise : 

"Its usefulness will at first be confined to, the large and rich territories tribu- 
tary to Caracas, using the best and highest grade of goods ; but its fame and 
benefits will no doubt induce merchants from the central and western portions 
of the Republic to inspect it. The actual sight of the goods or manufactures, 
their comparison with similar articles upon the spot, the interchange of opinion 
between American representatives and Venezuelan merchants with regard to the 
minor details of purchases must prove instructive and profitable to both and 
disabuse their minds of serious misconceptions. The Government is doing its 
utmost to encourage the undertaking, while the friendly feeling of the natives for 
everything American will certainly induce them to exert their influence to crown 
the efforts of the projectors with success." 

PHILADELPHIA COMMERCIAL MUSEUMS. 

Proposed International Com- The Philadelphia Commercial Museums, which found 
merciai Oongreae. j^.g inception in the idea of extending the trade of the 
United States with Mexico and the various countries of Central and South 
America and the AVest Indies, is pow rapidly developing plans for holding an 
international congress composed of representatives of the entire commercial 
world. A recent number of the "Manufacturer" states, '* that Chambers of 
Commerce and other trade organizations in Asia, Africa and Australasia are 
being invited to appoint members to the Museums' advisory board." As is 
known, this board already has representatives in many business centers in the 
United States, and also zealous and interested friends in other parts of the con- 
tinent, in Mexico, in the Central American States, in Brazil, the Argentine 
Republic, Chile, and the various countries of South America. As the trade of 
the United States is constantly growing in South Africa, China, Japan, and 
Australia, it is highly desirable that the Museums should have its representatives 
there also. Judging by the favorable responses which are being received, there 
is no reason to think that the ambitious plans of the management will not be 
successfully carried out. 



BOLETiN MENSUAL 

DE LA 

OFICINA DE LAS REPOBLICAS AMERICANAS 

UNldN iNTERNACiONAL DE REPOBUCAS AMERICANAS 

Vol. V. ENERO, 1898. No. 7. 



RELACIONES COMERCIALES EN 

AMERICA.— VII. 

LA COSTA ORIENTAL DE LA AMERICA DEL SUR.* 

Los palses que ahora hay que tomar en consideracion, tratan- 
dose de este asunto, son las republicas sudamericanas que quedan 
sobre el Atlantico 6 tienen vias naturales de comunicacion que 
conducen a el. Clasificandolos en orden a las distancias que los 
separan de los Estados Unidos, esos paises son el Brasil, el Uruguay, 
la Republica Argentina y el Paraguay. Este ultimo es el unico 
que carece de costa sobre dicho mar. Los medios de trasporta- 
cion entre los Estados Unidos y esa vasta region sudamericana, 
que no solamente contiene inmensas riquezas naturales en via de 
desarroUo, sino que cuenta con una industria y un trafico bien 
establecidos, son buenos y directos, y no hay necesidad de esperar las 
facilidades adicionales, tan urgentemente requeridas en la costa 
^cidental, que ofrecera la construccion de un canal por Nica- 
^a 6 por el Istmo de Panama. La extension del comercio 
actual de los Estados Unidos en la parte oriental de la AnAerica 
del Sur depende, pues, de condiciones que ya existen y que no es 
"^enester crear. 

*•! primero de esta serie de articulos fu6 publicado en el BoLETfN Mensual corres- 
P^ndiente al mes de julio de 1897. 

1 129 



1 130 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

El canal interoceanico seria muy util para acortar la distancia 
entre la costa oriental de la America del Sur y el litoral occiden- 
tal de todo el continente, pero ejerceria solamente una influencia 
indirecta en el comercio entre la costa sudamericana sobre el 
Atlantico y el litoral de los Estados Unidos sobre esc mar y sobre 
el Golfo de Mexico. Las rutas mas cortas y practicas de comuni- 
cacion son las del Atlantico, y las unicas condiciones que se nece- 
sitan para el desarroUo comercial son las mismas que se observan 
siempre en el trafico maritimo. En otras palabras, no tenemos 
sino buscar los medios de aumentar el cambio de productos por 
las vias acostumbradas, donde no existen obstaculos naturales que 
remover. Si podemos obtener la cantidad necesaria de mercan- 
cias para ese comercio y los navios que las cqnduzcan, el problema 
ejjta resuelto. 

Aunque los puertos de la costa oriental de la America del Sur 
son el termino directo y preciso de las rutas que parten de los 
Estados Unidos, su posicion geografica respecto de este pais no 
es tal que pueda ofrecer grandes ventajas en la lucha comercial 
con las naciones europeas. Segun se expuso en el primer articulo 
de esta serie, el continente sudamericano avanza en el Atlantico 
bastante al este de una lineatirada de Nueva York directamentc 
al sur, y es por esto que los puertos de Europa que quedan mas 
al norte, distan de dicho continente poco mas que las grandes. 
ciudades del litoral de los Estados Unidos. 

Las condiciones son, pues, mas parecidas en la competencia 
comercial en Mexico, la America Central, las Antillas y la costa 
setentrional de la America del Sur, paises que quedan mucho 
mas cerca de los Estados Unidos, lo cual da a estos iiltimos grandes 
ventajas sobre sus rivales de Europa, y estas ventajas se extenderan, 
como lo hemos manifestado a menudo en estos articulos, al litoral 
occidental de la America del Sur, una vez que se haya construido 
el canal de Nicaragua 6 el de Panama. Sin embargo, es tan 
grande el trafico de la costa oriental de la America del Sur, que 
la parte que de el toca a los Estados Unidos, aun en condiciones 
poco favorables, geograficamente hablando, asume proporciones 
considerables, especialmente cuando se compara con lo que ocurre 
en la costa occidental. Segun datos de la Tesoreria de los Estados 
Unidos, las importaciones que de la costa oriental de la America 
del Sur se hicieron en este pais y las exportaciones que de aqui 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 1 I3I 

fiicron para alia, durante los afios economicos que terminaron el 
30 dc junio de 1896 y 1897, ascendieron a lo siguiente: 

Costa Oriental de la America del Sur. 



Repfiblica Argrentina 

Biasil 

Paraguay 

Uruguay 



Importacionea de. 



XS96. 



Prsos. 

9.313.385 
71, 060, 046 



Total 



3, 242. 428 



83.615,859 



1897. 



Pisas. 

10. 772. 627 
69, 039, 389 



3.515.054 



83, 327. 070 



Exportadone* A. 



X896. 



Prsos. 

5. 979. 046 
14. 258, 187 



1, 481, 200 



21, 718, 433 



1897. 



6. 384, 984 

12,450,061 

740 

1,213,426 



20, 049, 21 X 



El comercio total de los Estados Unidos con la America del 
Sur en el mismo ano, fue como sigue : 

America del Sur, 



• 

Importaciones de. 


Exportaciones A. 


X896. 


X897. 


1896. 


1897. 


J^sos. 

108, 828, 462 

i 


Pesos. 
107, 389, 009 


/^sos. 
36. 297. 671 


J^sos. 
33, 768, 493 



Vemos, pucs, que del total de lo que se importa en los Estados 
Unidos de la America del Sur, mas de las tres cuartas partes 
vienen de la costa oriental, mientras que casi las dos terceras par- 
tes de la exportacion total de cste pais para la America del Sur, 
van a la misma region. En comparacion con este trafico, el que 
los Estados Unidos hacen con la costa occidental es insignificante 
en la actualidad, segun se expuso en el articulo anterior. La 
posibilidad de su desarroUo es lo unico digno de atencion. 

Vcase el siguiente cuadro : 

Costa occidental de la America del Sur, 



Bolivia .. 
Chile . . . . 

Ecuador . 
Pcrd 

Total 



Importadones de. 


Exportaciones &. 


1896. 


1897. 


1896. 


1897. 


Pesos. 
Ninguoa. 
4,709,017 

763. 643 
712, 696 


Pesos. 

Ninguna. 

3, 792, 434 
566, 526 
722, 089 


P;sos. 

21,907 

3,431.808 

689, 416 

999. 381 


Pesos. 

7.787 
2,578,911 

734. 868 
I, 108, 436 


6. 185, 356 


5,081,049 


5.142,512 


4, 430, 002 



1132 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Mientras no se haya concluido el canal interoceanico que ofre- 
cera una ruta mas corta y barata entre los Estados Unidos y el litoral 
de la America del Sur sobre el Pacifico, debe esperarse, compara- 
tivamente hablando, muy poco aumento en el mencionado trafico; 
pero el monto total del que ya existe, asi como las riquezas agri- 
colas del Brasil y de Ips paises banados por et rio de la Plata, 
prometen un inmenso desarroUo en el comercio e indican que la 
costa oriental de la America del Sur esta llamada a cultivar rela- 
ciones mas estrechas con los Estados Unidos. 

Desde el punto de vista de los fabricantes y exportadores de los 
Estados Unidos, las actuales relaciones con los paises de la costa' 
oriental de la America del Sur no son satisfactorias, porque mien- 
tras este pais compra de aquellos mas de $83,000,000 en produc- 
tos cada ano, les vende solamcnte como $20,000,000, 6 sea menos 
de la cuarta parte. Hoy que el fabricante americano compite 
ventajosamente con el europeo en sus propios mercados, no ve 
razon ninguna para que no pueda hacer otro tanto en la America 
del Sur y en el resto del mundo. No toma en cuenta los obsta- 
culos creados por la costumbre, por antiguas relaciones comerciales, 
por hostilidades arancelarias y por el capital europeo, que cuenta 
con instituciones bancarias y que establece el tipo del cambio. 
Es indudable que con el tiempo se podran veneer estos obsta- 
culos, pero solamente por medio de esfuerzos inteligentes y 
continuos. 

El factor mas poderoso para acabar con ellos seria quiza una 
politica de reciprocidad bien meditada, que proporcionara la mayor 
facilidad posible en el cambio de productos sin menoscabo para 
las industrias establecidas. Semejante politica, calculada iinica- 
mente para producir los resultados mas beneficos en favor de las 
partes contratantes, contribuiria notablemente, sin duda alguna, a 
retirar de Europa el mencionado trafico y a unir a las republicas 
americanas no por meras consideraciones de sentimiento, sino por 
los estrechos lazos del interes. Ya se ban tratado en estos articu- 
los detalladamente las cuestiones secundarias, pero no por eso 
menos interesantes, que versan sobre la necesidad de que se 
aumenten las facilidades de transportacion con navios que nave- 
guen bajo las banderas de las republicas americanas; sobre lineas 
ferreas que unan a los diferentes paises entre si con eslabones de 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. ^ ^33 

acero, y sobre la conveniencia de que los usos comerciales de los 
Estados Unidos se adapten a las necesidades peculiares del trafico 
sudamericano; pero es precise que dichas cuestiones no es pierdan 
de vista, sino que se Uame constantemente hacia ellas la atencion 
de cuantos se interesan en el problema de las condiciones comercia- 
les de America, como cosa indispensable para la pronta y legitima 
extension del trafico. 

De los paises de que se trata, el Brasil es el que tiene el trafico 
mas grande con los Estados Unidos, el cual ascendio durante el 
ultimo ano economico, que termino el 30 de junio de 1897, a 
mas de $69,000,000 en cuanto a las exportaciones a los Estados 
Unidos, y a $12^4.50,000 por lo que hace a las importaciones de 
cste pais. Hubo una diminucion de $2,000,000 en las exporta- 
ciones, comparadas con las del ano anterior, y de $1,800,000 en 
las importaciones, pero esto no tiene significacion especial en un 
trafico total de mas de $81,000,000, y ya se habian visto estas 
fluctuaciones en afios anteriores. Hablando en general, no puede 
decirse que las compras que el Brasil hace en los Estados Unidos 
hayan aumentado de una manera permanente durante anos con- 
sccutivos, y por lo que respecta a lo que vende a este pais, ha 
disminuido de 1893 ^ ^^^ parte en $7,000,000. 

Este estado de cosas es tanto mas notable cuanto que no existe 

un pais sud americano que abrigue hacia los Estados Unidos senti- 

mientos mas cordiales que el Brasil, 6 con el que daten de mas 

tiempo intimas relaciones comerciales. Sus principales productos 

agricolas, tales como cafe, azucar, goma elastica, etc., son casi 

cxclusivamente tropicales, y, por tanto, no puede decirse que estan 

en competencia con los de los Estados Unidos. Asi es que este 

pais puede muy bien otorgarle concesiones arancelarias sin peli- 

gro de perjudicar sus propias industrias. Por otra parte, hay una 

inmensa variedad de articulos alimenticios y de artefactos que el 

Brasil importaria gustoso de los Estados Unidos en mayores canti- 

dades, si existieran condiciones mas favorables. Es de todos los 

paises del Hemisferio Occidental el que ofi*eceria mayores ventajas 

a los Estados Unidos, si se estableciera con el un sistema de reci- 

procidad cuidadosamente preparado. 

Las relaciones comerciales entre la Republica Argentina y los 
Estados Unidos presentan mayores dificultades, debido a la simili- 
BulL No. 7 5 



1 l^ BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

tud en algunos de los principalcs productos dc ambos paises, talcs 
como el trigo y las lanas. La Republica Argentina, sin embargo, 
tiene los productos de la zona torrida y de la templada, y algu- 
nos articulos, como el azucar, que no hacen sino ligera compe- 
tencia a productos de los Estados Unidos, podrian servir de base 
para mutuas concesiones. Se asegura tambien que cierta clase de 
lanas argentinas nose producen con ventaja en los Estados Unidos, 
y que su introduccion podria permitirse bajo condiciones mas 
favorables, aun que por otra parte se sostiene que, con la debida 
proteccion arancelaria, las ovejas que dan aquella lana prodrian 
criarse en los Estados Unidos. 

Cuestion es esta que deben arreglar de una manera practica 
aquellos que tienen la competencia necesaria para hacerlo, y a 
este respecto es quiza oportuno observar que la reciprocidad im- 
plica necesariamente concesiones mutuas con el objeto de alcan- 
zar para el mayor mimero los mayores beneficios. El trafico de la 
Republica Argentina es enorme, y asciende anualmente a la suma 
de $200,000,000. De esa cantidad solamente el 7 por ciento 
corresponde a los Estados Unidos, y es evidente que vale la pena 
de tomar en consideracion la posibilidad de que el monto dc esc 
comercio se eleve. 

Los principales productos del Uruguay se parecen mucho a los 
de los Estados Unidos, y son los siguientes: ganado vacuno, 
lanas, maiz, trigo, etc., pero los datos comerciales demuestran que 
el Uruguay vende a los Estados Unidos mucho mas de lo que les 
compra. Si los exportadores americanos hicieran los debidos 
csfiierzos, no cabe duda de que aumentarian el consumo de 
algunos articulos de los Estados Unidos, tanto en el Uruguay 
como en el Paraguay. En el Uruguay, por ejemplo, se necesitan 
^^ndes cantidades de kerosene y de maderas que los Estados 
Unidos podrian suministrar casi exclusivamente, si en aquel pais 
se redujeran los derechos sobre dichos articulos. 

Se observara que fuera del Paraguay, pais con el cual los 
Estados Unidos apenas trafican, todos los demas de la costa 
oriental de la America del Sur tienen un sobrante a su favor en el 
comercio con nosotros. Si se llegara a un arreglo en lo rclativo 
a derechos de aduana, es indiidable que, dadas las simpatias 
naturales que la Republica Argentina, el Brasil y el Uruguay 
sienten por la Republica hermana del norte, negociarian en mayor 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. ^^35 

escala con un pais que les ofrece tantas ventajas. La solucion 
del problema sobrc el aumento del trafico se encuentra en la 
celebracion de buenos convenios de reciprocidad y en esfuerzos 
mas activos por parte de los comerciantcs de los Estados Unidos, a 
fin de sobreponcrse a los que hacen los industriales y exportadores 
curopeos. 



>^)fe^^^ 




EL AUTOR DEL SISTEMA DE RECIPROCIDAD. 

Por Alex. D. Anderson. 

Desde que el Congreso de las Republicas Americanas, celebrado 
en Washington en 1889, inicio sus discusiones sobre la reciproci- 
dad, se ha tratado varias veces de poner en claro, desde las 
columnas de la prensa, quien fue el verdadero autor de aquella 
popular medida. 

Uno de los periodicos, despues de publicar un numero conside- 
rable de comunicaciones, en todas las cuales se atribuia la creacion 
de aquel sistema a estadistas modemos, declaro al fin en un edi- 
torial que aquella cuestion no habia sido resuelta y que, por tanto, 
S^edaba pendiente todavia como materia abierta a discusion. 

Scgiin opinion general, la doctrina de la reciprocidad es de 
creacion moderna, pero en realidad data casi desde de la flinda- 
cion del Gobierno aitiericano y debe su origen a uno de los padres 
de la Republica. 

El mejor medio de decidir la controversia es tomar desde su 
principio la historia comercial de los Estados Unidos, tal como 
^ registra en los " American State Papers," y estudiarla en orden 
cronologico, hasta dar con la pagina en que por primera vez se 
"^a mencion del asunto. 

El primer volumen, relativo a las relaciones exteriores durante 
^ pamera administracion del Presidente Washington, contiene 
^^uypocos datos sobre el comercio extranjero* hasta el ano 1793, 
^ que Thomas Jefferson, Secretario de Estado, dirigio a la 
Camara de Representantes un informe sobre la materia. Este 
^nforrtie fue escrito en cumplimento de una "resolucion" de 



1136 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

aquella Camara (febrero 23 de 1791), en la cual se ordenaba al 
Secretario de Estado que informase al Congreso " de la naturaleza 
y extension de los privilegios y restricciones de las relaciones 
comerciales de los Estados Unidos con las naciones extranjeras, y 
de las medidas que, a su juicio, debieran adoptarse para el ade- 
lanto del comercio y la navegacion." 

El texto del informe y el tiempo empleado en su preparacion, 
muestran que aquel esta basado sobre una investigacion cuida- 
dosa del asunto. Este informe es el primer documento formal 
sobre nuestras relaciones comerciales con el extranjero, y es digno 
del espiritu organizador de aquel gran estadista americano. 

Despues de sentar los hechos relativos a nuestro comercio con 
las principales naciones del mundo, Mr. Jefferson entra a tratar 
extensamente sobre la teoria 6 plan, que, a su juicio, debiera regir 
las relaciones comerciales. Dice: "Conocidos los obstaculos que 
impiden el desarroUo del comercio y de la navegacion de los 
Estados Unidos, la cuestion ahora consiste en encontrar los medios 
mas adecuados para remover aquellos obstaculos, modificarlos 6 
contrarestarlos. 

"Encuantoal comercio, pudieran emplearse dos metodos: el 
primero consiste en negociar tratados con las naciones cuyo 
comercio con los Estados Unidos adolece de aquellos obstaculos 
6 restricciones ; el segundo consiste en la accion independiente de 
nuestro poder legislativo para contrarrestar aquellos efectos. 

" De estos dos medios, el primero es indudablemente el mejor. 

"En vez de obstaculizar el comercio con un sinnumero de 
reglamentos, derechos y prohibiciones, se le podria librar de sus 
trabas en todas las partes del mundo; todos los paises podrian 
dedicarse a la produccion de aquello a que estan mas adecuados 
por su naturaleza, y podrian cambiar libremente sus productos, 
satisfaciendo asi sus respectivas necesidades; la produccion de los 
varios articulos de comercio que contribuyen a la vida y a la 
felicidad humanas aumentaria entonces considerablemente, y le 
genero humano creceria en numero y mejoraria de condicion. 

" Aunque haya de iniciarse este sistema con una sola naci^n, es 
de recomendarse que asi se haga, pues su aplicacion a cada pais 
separadamente es el unico medio de extender aquel sistema a 
todos los demas. Cuando sea necesario para una d otra de las partes 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. ^^37 

levantar recursos por medio de la imposicion de derechos al 
comercio, el libre cambio entre las dos naciones podria alterarse 
respecto de los articulos que sean objeto del impuesto, por medio 
de acuerdos de reciprocidad, preservando el libre cambio en todo 
su vigor en cuanto al resto del comercio. 

Pero en caso de que alguna nacion, contra nuestros deseos, 
considere que es mejor para sus intereses continuar su sistema de 
prohibiciones, derechos y ordenanzas, seria entonces nuestro deber 
dar proteccion a nuestro comercio y a nuestra navegacion por 
medio de un sistema analogo de prohibiciones, derechos y orde- 
nanzas. El comercio libre y la navegacion libre no deben concedcrse en 
cambio de restricciones y perjuicios que no es de suponerse que al fin 
sean aminorados por aquella franquicia, 

" Los siguientes principios fundados en la reciprocidad parecen ser 
ferfcctamente justos y no ofrecen ningun motivo de queja para ninguna 
nacion. 

Cuando una nacion imponga altos derechos a nuestros productos 
6 prohiba en absoluto su introduccion, nosotros tendremos razon 
de hacer otro tanto con los suyos, gravando 6 excluyendo primero 
los que importe en nuestro pais en competencia con los nuestros; 
despues excogiendo aquellas manufacturas que le compremos en 
mayor cantidad y que al mismo tiempo nosotros podamos pro- 
curarnos facilmente u obtener de otros paises, e imponerles al 
principio derechos bajos, aumentandolos a medida que se abran otros 
mercados que las suministren. Estos derechos fomentarian indi- 
rectamente las industrias nacionales de la misma clase e inducirian 
a Jos fabricantes de dicha nacion a venir a nuestro pais, en donde 
una subsistencia mas barata, la igualdad de leyes y la salida de sus 
productos libres de derechos, asegurarian la mayor utilidad a su 
P^^(c/a a diligencia." 

^ocumento del cual copiaitios los parrafos que preceden, es 

• . P^^i^l importancia para las camaras de comercio y otras 

lan ^^^^^s comerciales de los Estados Unidos, que tal interes 

procj ^^^^^^ liltimamente en la cuestion de reciprocidad, y debiera 

^^^^^ como materia de consecuencia y utilidad piiblicas. 



1138 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



REPUBLICA ARGENTINA. 

COMERCIO EXTRANJERO DURANTE EL PRIMER SEMESTRE 

DEL ANO DE 1897. 

Del informe publicado por el Departamento Nacional de 
Estadistica, se han tornado los siguientes datos acerca del comercio 
extranjero de la Republica Argentina durante los primeros seis 
meses del ano corriente : 

El total de las importaciones y exportaciones, exceptuando 
la moneda acunada, ascendio a $113,742,314, en oro, contra 
$121,773,627 durante el mismo periodo en 1896, 6 sea una 
diminucion de $8,031,313, de los cuales $2,068,868 pertenecen 
a la importacion y $5,968,445 a la exportacion. 

Las importaciones ascendieron a la suma de $49,987,541, dis- 
tribuida del modo siguiente : 

Artlculos gravados $43, 045, 658 

Articulos libres 6, 658, 128 

Moneda acuRada 283, 762 

Comparadas con las importaciones de la primera mitad del ano 
de 1896, estas cifras muestran una diminucion de $2,143,428 en 
articulos gravados, y de $5,387,390 en moneda acufiada, mientras 
que los articulos libres han aumentado en un valor de $74,560. 

La diminucion se ha notado principalmente en los productos del 
reino vegetal ($1,349,339); en maderas y sus manufacturas 
($591,412); en tejidos y materias textiles, con excepcion de los 
articulos de seda y algodon ($1,170,960); en alcoholes, vinos y 
otros bebidas ($355,830). 

La diminucion creciente que se nota en las entradas de vinos 
ordinarios en barriles es, sobre todo, sorprendente. Este articulo, 
cuya importacion durante el primer semestre de 1895 represent© 
un valor de $3,280,000 en oro, cayo sucesivamente a $2,820,000 
durante el periodo correspondiente de 1896, y a $2,552,668 en 
1897. Esto se debe en gran parte al increment© que ha tornado 
desde hace algunos anos el cultivo de la vid en las provincias del 
noroeste de la Republica Argentina. Los vinos de San Juan, de 
Mendoza, etc., que son preparados con mas cuidado que antes, se 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. ^ ^39 

consumcn ahora como vinos de mesa ordinarios, y comienzan a 
hacer competencia seria a los vinos franceses e itaiianos. 
Los articulos 'que han aumcntado son los siguientes: 

Los productos quimicos y farmac6uticos • $200, 938 

Hierro y sus manufacturas *. I, 338, 300 

Tejidos de seda 7 lana 169, 921 

Verinut 109, 825 

El aumento que se observa en la tabla precedente es todo en 
fcivor de la importacion de Italia, pues el vermut italiano es casi el 
unico que se consume en el pais. 

A continuacion se vera el valor de las importaciones de dife- 
Tentes paises, hechas en la Repiiblica Argentina durante los anos 
dc 1896 y 1897. 



Pafs. 




Gran BretaAa. . . 

FVancia.- 

Alemania 

Italia 

Estados Unidos 

g^Igica 

Brasil 

^spafta !'.!.'..*.! 
JJaragr^jay 

fir^ 



^o^anda . . . 
f ortugal ... 
i*f AntiUas. 
Bolivia 



$18, 947. 560 
5. 778. 087 
5, 728. 254 
5, 342, 946 
4,985,746 
4, 186, 946 
I, 826, 803 

I. 755, i75 
578, 481 

295, 386 

96.343 
52, 166 

31. 229 

28,007 

23, 177 



1896. 



$20. 424. 

5,553. 
6. 358. 
5.400, 

4. 933, 
4,116, 

2. 479. 
1. 410. 

502, 

335. 
n. 
64, 

43. 
18, 

23, 



178 
070 
227 

741 
336 

154 
301 

244 

184 

163 

443 
189 

908 

III 

677 



Aumento. 



$225,017 




52, 410 
70, 792 


344,931 
76, 297 


84,900 


9.896' 



Diminucidn. 



$1,476,618 


629, 

57, 


973 
795 


652, 


498 




39. 


777 


12. 
12, 


023 
680 



500 



Durante el mismo periodo las exportaciones ascendieron a la 
s^^Xia de $65,218,829, y fueron como sigue: 

Artl^ulos gravados $39, 771, 228 

Art^culos libres 24, 267, 307 

^'^neda acuflada i, 180, 294 

Estos datos, comparados con los del primer trimestre del afio 
P^^cedente, muestran que la exportacion de articulos gravados ha 
^^nientado en $5^574*633, y la de moneda acunada en $1,076,132, 
y que la exportacion dc productos libres ha disminuido en 
$11,537,078. Esta dirainucion, que afecta casi unicamente a los 
productos agricolas, es consecuencia de la devastacion ocasionada 
por las langostas, que casi destruyeron por completo la ultima 
cosecha de cereales. 



1140 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



Los paises que compran productos argentinos figuran en el 
orden siguiente : 



Pais. 



Francia 

Alemania 

Gran Bretafla. . . 

B61gica 

Brasil 

Estados Unidos 

Italia 

Chile 

Uruguay 

Espafla 

Bolivia ... . . .. 

Las Antillas.. . . 

Paraguay 

Holanda 

Portugal 



1897. 



1896. 



$14, 871, 

9. 321, 

7.651. 

6, 303. 

5.675. 

5. 227, 

1.928, 

1, 127. 

I, 103, 

512, 

270, 

187, 

73. 
33. 
10, 



335 
283 

223 

584 
423 
765 
723 
721 

593 

285 

491 
546 
440 

133 
142 



$14. 932. 
8, 456. 
8, 146, 
7.665, 
4. 629, 
3.281, 
1,882, 

I. 354. 
1, 656, 

457. 
265, 

128, 
82, 

438, 
14. 



860 

197 
182 

597 

751 

279 
031 

712 

067 

934 

478 
253 
634 

528 
088 



Autnento. 



$865, 086 



1,045,672 

I, 946, 486 

46, 692 



54. 351 

5.013 

59. 293 



I>iminuci6ti. 



$61,525 



494. 959 
I. 363.013 



226, 991 
552,474 



9.194 

405, 395 

3.946 



El valor de las exportaciones a los Estados Unidos durante el 
primer semestre de 1897 y de 1896, muestra un aumento de 
$ 1 ,946486. 



COLOMBIA. 

MANUFACTURAS AMERICANAS. 

El Senor Bidlake, Consul de los Estados Unidos en Barran- 
quilla, Colombia, hace, en el infbrme anual a su Gobierno, algunas 
indicaciones oportunas respecto de las manufacturas americanas que 
llegan a aquella republica. Una de las quejas principales de los 
comerciantes colombianos, es que las mercancias americanas no son 
tan bien empaquetadas como las europeas. Ademas, la necesidad 
de negociar por medio de casas comisionistas, en vez de hacerlo 
directamente con los fabricantes, da por resultado el reempaque de 
las mercancias y, por conseguinte, un aumento de peso en el bulto. 
En Colombia los derechos de importacion se pagan sobre el peso 
bruto de los fardos 6 cajas, segun la clase, y, por lo mismo, debe 
evitarse que pesen mas de lo que es absolutamente necesario. 

Las herramientas americanas son preferidas a las europeas, 
porque son mas bien hechas, mas ligeras y mas comodas, siendo, 
ademas, mas baratas. Los fabricantes alemanes imitan exacta- 
mente los machetes de Collins, que son vistos en la America del 
Sur como los mejores, y los garantizan como de igual calidad, 
ofreciendo reponerlos si se rompen. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. II4I 

Los muebles son todos importados, y de los Estados Unidos sc 

llevan las sillas amarillas baratas de calidad ordinaria y con asiento 

de junco. Los aparatos para luz electrica que van de los Estados 

Unidos, cuestan mas que los europeos, especialmente las lamparas 

incandescentes que valen i8 centavos cada una, mientras que las 

italianas se venden a 10.6 centavos. El alambre americano se 

vende un 10 6 un 15 por ciento mas caro que el aleman. El 

calzado para mujeres y ninos es todo importado, y generalmente 

es del estilo frances. El calzado para hombres es hecho en ei 

pais, pero las palas son importadas. 



COSTA RICA. 

El General J. S. Casement, que ultimamente ha obtenido del 
Gobiemo de Costa Rica una concesion para construir el Ferro- 
carril del Pacifico, que atravesara la republica y pondra en comu- 
nicacion la costa del Atlantico con la del Pacifico, acaba de 
regresar de Costa Rica y ha dado al publico informes muy impor- 
tantes acerca de la situacion politica y comercial de aquel pais. 

El General Casement manifiesta que el Presidente Iglesias se 
muestra muy deseoso de fomentar las relaciones comerciales entre 
su pais y los Estados Unidos. Ya el trafico principal de Costa 
Rica es con los Estados Unidos, y dos quintas partes del mismo 
se hace con Nueva Orleans. No existe razon alguna para que, 
empleando los esfuerzos debidos, las cuatro quintas partes del 
comercio de Costa Rica no se haga con los Estados Unidos. Los 
costarricenses tienen necesidad de maquinaria, y a los fabricantes 
americanos sc les ofrece la oportunidad de proveerles de ese 
articulo. 

El Presidente Iglesias tiene el proyecto de realizar muchas me- 
joras en el pais. Se estan construyendo ferrocarriles, y el desarroUo 
de la navegacion de los rios mas navegables hacia el interior, 
ocupa mucho la atencion del Gobernante. Con este objeto se 
trata de atraer el capital extranjero a fin de que se exploten las 
grandes riquezas naturales. Casi todos los productos tropicales 
se pueden cultivar, y existen minerales de varias clases. El clima 
es excelente. 



1142 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



GUATEMALA. 

NEGOCIOS DE BANCO 

Los cuatro bancos principales de Guatemala, obrando dc 
acuerdo con el Gobierno, ban concluido un arreglo con el Deutsche 
Bank, de Alemania, para un emprestito de 6,000,000 de marcos 
($ 1 ,500,000) per el termino de doce meses. El objeto que se 
tiene en mira con esta medida economica es garantizar el pago de 
los billetes emitidos por los bancos interesados en el asunto. 

Tan pronto como el Gobierno de la autorizacion formal, el 
Deutsche Bank procedera a comprar barras de plata hasta por 
valor de $500,000, y las remitira a Guatemala. Con esto no hara 
otra cosa el banco aleman que dar mayor increment© a las grandes 
transacciones economicas que hace ya con el Gobierno de Guate- 
mala, pues los intereses del emprestito sobre el cafe se pagan por 
su medio. Los cuatro bancos interesados en la negociacion son 
los siguientes: El Agric6la Hipotecario, el Internacional, el Banco 
de Guatemala y el de Occidente. 



HAITf. 

NUEVO GABINETE. 

El Gabinete haitiano ha sido reorganizado del modo siguiente: 

Ministro del Interior, M. Auguste Tancr^de. 

Ministro de Comercio y Hacienda, M. Plaisance. 

Ministro de Relaciones Exteriores y de Asuntos Eclesiasticos, 
M. Brutus St. Victor. 

Ministro de Guerra y Marina, M. Guillaume Velbrun. 

Ministro de Fomentoy Agricultura, M. CmciNNi^TUs Leconte. 

Ministro de Justicia y de Instruccion Publica, M. Antoine 
Carmeleau. 

Los caballeros que componen el Gabinete han ocupado antes 
puestos oficiales de importancia y sus nombramientos han sido 
unanimemente aprobados por la opinion publica. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



1H3 



NUEVOS PROYECTOS ECONOMICOS. 

El Honorable William F. Powell, Ministro de los Estados 

Unidos en Haiti, avisa que ha sido sometido a la Camara de 

Diputados un proyecto de ley para la consolidacion de todas las 

deudas de la Repiiblica en una sola deuda nacional, a cuyo afecto 

se emitiran bonos. Con este objeto se trata de negociar un empres- 

tito de $6,000,000 en los Estados Unidos, con el 6 por ciento de 

interes anual. Dicha cantidad servira para el pago de toda la 

deuda actual del pais, que asciende a $26,875,784 en moneda de 

Haiti, y para poner fin al papel moneda y sustituirlo con moneda 

de oro, tomando como unidad monetaria el peso de los Estados 

Unidos. 

Para garantizar el proyectado emprestito, se tomira una parte 
de los derechos de exportacion sobre el cafe, que se calculan en 
cerca de $2,000,000 anualmente, y, ademas, si fuese necesario, se 
dedicara a eso mismo una parte de los derechos de importacion. 

Estas cantidades formaran un tondo de amortizacion para el 
servicio de la deuda y su redencion. Tambien se proyecta, en caso 
de obtener el emprestito, la reacunacion en los Estados Unidos de 
la moneda fraccionaria de plata, tomando por base la de este pais. 
El Ministro Powell opina que estos arreglos economicos tende- 
ran a establecer relaciones mas estrechas con los Estados Unidos, 
yienconsecuencia, a disminuir la influencia de Francia y Alemania, 
S^e ha predominado en la Isla. 



MEXICO. 



CULTIVO DE LA GOMA ELASTICA 6 HULE. 

Numerosas preguntas se han dirigido a esta Oficina ultimamente 
^cerca de la produccion de goma elastica en Mexico, y en con- 
testacion a cllas, publicamos los siguientes informes, que son el 
resultado de investigaciones hechas por Mr. George D. Coleman 
para el periodico titulado " The Two Republics." 

Hasta la fecha, el Brasil ha sido el primer pais productor de 
goma elastica, pues su exportacion anual de este producto asciende 
aunvalor de $100,000,000. Sin embargo, en Mexico y en la 



1 144 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

America Central se encuentran terrenes tan buenos para ese cultivo 
como en el Brasil, con la ventaj^ de gozar de un clima excelente. 
Antiguamente, toda la goma elastica se extraia de arboles silves- 
tres, pero habiendo aumentado el consumo de este articulo, y, en 
consecuencia, su precio, considerables capitales se invierten ahora 
en esa industria y muchos se dedican a ella con positivo lucro. 

Los arboles que producen la goma elastica no crecen bien a una 
elevacion mayor de 500 pies sobre el nivel del mar, y los mejores 
terrenos para ese cultivo son los bajos y humedos, pero no pan- 
tanosos. Hace poco se podian comprar grandes porciones de 
terrenos muy aparentes para la produccion de la goma elastica 
por 25 centavos el acre, pero con el desarrollo de la industria, el 
valor de aquellos ha aumentado y ahora cuestan generalmente de 
$2 a $5, moneda mexicana, el acre. No hay que olvidar, sin em- 
bargo, que en esos terrenos se pueden tambien sembrar otras cosas, 
tales como maiz, frijoles, etc., mientras que los arboles no han 
crecido demasiado, y dichos productos pueden venderse con sufi- 
cientes ganancias para cubrir los primeros gastos de la plantacion. 

Despues de comprar el terreno, el gasto principal es el de 
limpiarlo y prepararlo. Al limpiarlo, tambien se pueden sacar 
algunas ventajas, si hay buenos medios de transportacion, porquc 
los palos de tinte, el sandalo, la madera de aguila, el ebano, la 
caoba, etc., se venden a precios tan buenos, que su explotacion es 
lucrativa. 

Es conveniente escoger los terrenos en las riberas de los rios, 
donde el suelo es muy rico y arcilloso y la capa vegetal muy 
espesa. La presencia de muchos arboles de hule silvestres indica 
que el terreno es bueno para la produccion de goma elastica. 
Conviene dejar en pie los arboles ya desarroUados, asi como los 
tiernos, a fin de trasplantar estos ultimos a distancias conve- 
nientes. La estacion aparente para sembrar los arboles tiernos es la 
lluviosa, y debe ponerseles en hileras, mediando 15 pies entrc arbol 
y arbol, y evitando que los de una hilera queden enfrente de los de 
otra. De esta manera se colocan como 193 arboles en un acre, 
que es el numero que se puede poner con buenos resultados. Una 
vez sembrados, no han menester de cultivo 6 atencion alguna, y lo 
unico que se necesita es impedir que se desarrollen malezas, para 
lo cual conveniene sembrar maiz y frijoles. El arbol que produce 
la goma elastica se propaga por medio de las semillas y nueces 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 1145' 

que caen del mismo en los meses de mayo y junio. Estas nueces 
pueden sembrarse en almacigas y obtener asi un gran niimero de 
plantas, 6 se pueden trasplantar de los bosques los arboles cuando 
estan tiemos. 

A los seis 6 siete anos la plantacion esta lista para rendir cose- 
cha, y de aqui en adelante cada arbol debera dar de 3 a 5 
libras de goma elastica. Calculando en 600 libras lo que rinden 
193 arboles y en 50 centavos por libra la ganancia sobre los gastos, 
tenemos una utilidad de $300, oro, por acre. De las diversas 
clases de arboles que producen la goma elastica del comercio, la 
mejor y mas importante es la conocida con el nombre de " Castilla 
Elastica." Los arboles silvestres abundan en los bosques de los 
estados de Veracruz, Oaxaca, Chiapas, Tabasco y Campeche. 

JENGIBRE. 

Entre los productos tropicales de Mexico, se cuenta el jengibre. 
Esta planta ha sido considerada como originaria de las regiones 
tropicales de Asia y de Africa, donde ha sido cultivada desde 
tiempo inmemorial. En los estados de Puebla, Guerrero y 
Chiapas, en Mexico, se la encuentra silvestre, y se cree que fue 
introducida por Francisco de Mendoza como a mediados del siglo 
diez y seis. 

Ademas de usarse como comestible, el jengibre es un valioso 
agente medicinal para la cura de las fiebres paludicas y otras 
enfermedades que existen en los lugares donde crece. Para el 
cultivo de esta planta se necesita un suelo rico, y no crece en terre- 
nos areniscos 6 arcillos, 6 en los muy humedos, porque en estds 
ultimos la raiz se pudre. La planta ha menester de lluvias 
abundantes para desarrollarse, y se necesita una temperatura que 
no baje de 40° F. 

La epoca mejor para sembrar el jengibre en Mexico y en la 
America Central son los meses de marzo y abril. Se entierran 
pedazos de la raiz a una distancia que varia de 1 pie a 1 8 pulga- 
das. El cultivo se acemeja en general al de la patata. La planta 
florece en setiembre y octubre, y en enero esta lista para la cose- 
cha, que exige muy poco trabajo, pues se reduce a exir ler de la 
tierra los tuberculos. El procedimiento de preparacion es tambien 
muy sencillo y exige muy poco gasto. 

Un informe oficial sobre este asunto dice que, bajo condiciones 



1146 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

favorables, un acre de tierra debe producir 4,000 libras 6 mas, con 
un costo de uno y medio a dos centavos por libra. Los gastos de 
transportacion del lugar donde el jengibre crece al puerto de Vera 
Cruz, no pasan de $1 el quintal, incluyendo los sacos. El precio 
del articulo en Nueva York varia de 12 a 20 centavos la libra, 
por lo cual se puede ver que una hacienda de 10 acres producirfa 
una ganancia neta de 5 a 7,000 pesos por aiio. 

EL CULTIVO DEL TABACO. 

Personas entendidas en el cultivo y en el arte de labrar el tabaco, 
opinan que este es el momento mas opportuno de dar a conocer 
las excelentes calidades del tabaco mexicano para capas, en com- 
petencia con el articulo cubano, que en lo pasado ha tenido el 
primer puesto en el mercado. A causa del trastomo que la agri- 
cultura ha sufrido en Cuba con motivo de la revolucion, grandes 
areas de terrenos que se dedican al cultivo del tabaco, no han pro- 
ducido nada, y los plantadores se han trasladado a Mexico en 
numero considerable. Se manifiestan estos muy entusiastas 
respecto de la riqueza del suelo, la abundancia de agua. el clima, 
etc. Afirman tambien lo que muchos viajeros han dicho ya acerca 
de que los buenos terrenos de Cuba para la siembra del tabaco 
estan cansados, y que el alto precio de los abonos de primera clase 
que se necesitan a fin de poner a aquellos en perfecta condicion para 
el cultivo, haria imposible, aunque la guerra cesara ahora, el 
recuperar los antiguos mercados, porque el producto mexicano se 
hace cada dia mas conocido y puede venderse con mas lucro que 
el articulo cubano. 

El estado de Oaxaca, en particular, posee condiciones especiales 
para la produccion de un tabaco que, debido a su poco peso, finura, 
color y aroma, es excelente para capas y se vende a precios muy 
altos en los mercados del mundo. Se asegura que tabaco de la 
mejor calidad para capas y que se vende a $4, oro, la libra, puede 
producirse en estas favorecidas regiones, especialmente en las tierras 
altas, junto a Ozumacin, que tienen agua por ambos lados, y cuyo 
suelo esta compuesto de 80 ii 85 por ciento de arena, de 5 
6 6 por ciento de arcilla blanca, con el resto de substancias vege- 
tables en descomposicion. La ultima cosecha de tabaco de Ozu- 
macin y del Valle Nacional fue, por termino medio, de 3 a 4 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 1 I47 

arrobas por cada i ,000 plantas y se vendio a razon de 80 centavos 
a $1 la libra. El costo total, incluycndo almacigas, siembra, 
cosecha, preparacion, etc., asi como el interes del dinero, fue menos 
dc 15 centavos por libra, lo cual deja ver una ganancia satisfacto- 
ria. Debido a condic.iones climatologicas favorables, el producto 
resulto este ano de mejor calidad, y como no hubo necesidad de 
resiembra, se calcula que el costo de preparar el tabaco para el 
mercado fue como de 12 centavos por libra. Cuando las plantas 
son muy pequenas, los compradores pagan 80 centavos por libra, 
pcro los plantadorcs opinan que el precio justo es $ 1 .20 por tabaco 
no escogido y que ha de estar listo para embarcarse a fines de 
febrero 6 principios de marzo. 

Cigarros hechos de este buen tabaco ban sido conocidos y 
apreciados en paises extranjeros por largo tiempo. La preocupa- 
cion en favor del tabaco cubano para capas ha sido hasta ahora 
tan grande, que habia que empacar el tabaco en rama en fardos 
parecidos a los que envian de Cuba, a fin de poder venderlo 
pronto. Felizmente esta costumbre va decayendo ya, y como la 
&ma y buen nombre del tabaco mexicano para capas van aumen 
tando, es de esperar que la proxima cosecha sera toda exportada 
como tabaco mexicano y nada mas. Los fardos de "petate** 
hechos en Mexico ofi-ecen mas seguridad que los de "manta" 
que hacen en el Habana. Las facilidades para trasportar el 
tabaco de estos distritos por camino de hierro son excelentes, y 
cuando este concluido el ferrocarril de Playa Vicente a Ozumacin, 
el viaje a Tlacotalpan sera de doce horas solamente. Este puerto 
csta situado en el Golfo de Mexico, como a 25 millas tierra 
adentro, y la profundidad del agua a lo largo de los muelles es de 
30 pics. 

En el estado de Chiapas se produjo el afio pasado un tabaco 

muy bueno para capas, con un gasto casi igual al que se hizo en 

Oaxaca y con ganancias semejantes. 
Se calcula que la cosecha en el distrito de San Andres Tuxtla 

sera este aflo de 300,000 arrobas. Aunque este tabaco no es igual 

en calidad al de Ozumacin y al del Valle Nacional, en el estado 

de Oaxaca, es, sin embargo, muy bueno. 
Se ha calculado que un terreno de 75 acres, en el que se puedan 

sembrar un millon de plantas de tabaco, rinde una cosecha cuyo 

valor neto es como de $62,000. Dejando $12,500 para gastos, 



1 148 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

sobre la base de $3 por arroba, 6 sean 12 centavos por libra, aun 
queda una ganancia de $50,000 en solo la cosecha de tabaco, sin 
contar otros productos secundarios, tales como maiz, frijoles, etc., 
que aumentan considerablemente las ganancias en el cultivo de 
dichas tierras. 



LA CURTIDURfA EN MfiXICO Y LAS VENTAJAS QUE OFRECE. 

Entre las empresas que en Mexico presentan halagadoras ven- 
tajas al capital, figura el establecimiento de una curtiduria cerca 
de la ciudad de Mexico, con una fabrica anexa en que se prepare 
el cuero para correaje, para la manufactura de calzado, etc. 

En los bosques que se encuentran en las altiplanicies de Mexico, 
abundan el roble y otros arboles cuyas cortezas son utiles para 
curtir cueros. Se dedica especial atencion desde hace algunos 
anos al cultivo del canaigre, planta que contiene gran cantidad de 
acido tanico y que es muy aparente para curtir cueros de calidad 
superior. Ya se exportan cantidades considerables de este articulo 
a los Estados Unidos y a Europa. El arbol Uamado Cascalote 
(Rhus Cariaria), que se encuentra en abundancia en los estados 
occidentals, desde Oaxaca hasta Sonora, tiene una corteza que se 
exporta en grandes cantidades para el uso de las curtidurias. La 
produccion de este articulo en 1895 fue de 2,176,810 kilogramos, 
con un valor de $243,070. Ademas de las mencionadas cortezas^ 
la produccion en el mismo ano de otras usadas en la curtiduria, 
ascendio a 1 5,000,000 de kilogramos, con un valor de $457, 1 67. 

La principal industria pastoral de Mexico es la cria de ganado 
vacuno. Grandes cantidades de reses vivas son exportadas anual- 
mente a los Estados Unidos, ademas de las que se necessitan para 
el consumo interior. En los mataderos de la ciudad de Mexico 
solamente, se mataron, segun datos oficiales, 85,870 reces en 1895. 
Los cueros son exportados y regresan a Mexico ya curtidos 6 en 
la forma de efectos manufacturados. No hay razon para que la 
curtiduria no sea hecha en gran escala y con mucho lucro, dado el 
consumo de objetos de cuero en aquel mercado, y, sobre todo, 
teniendo a la mano las materias que se requieren para dicha 
industria. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. ^ H9 



PARAGUAY. 

COMERCIO DURANTE EL ANO DE 1896. 

Los siguientes datos relativos a la situacion comercial del Para- 
guay, han sido tbmados de un informe oficial de fecha reciente. 

AUMENTO DEL COMERCIO. 

Puede decirse sin temor de equivocarse que en general el comercio del Para- 
guay esti desen vol vi^n dose lentamente, pero por modo seguro. El aumento 
conscante en los ingresos de aduana durante estos ultimos afios, la construc- 
a6n de nuevos edificios para la residencia de particulares 6 para el servicio del 
comercio, la apertura de nuevos establecimientos y la creciente demanda de 
artfculosde lujo, tales como muebles y paiios finos, asi como comestibles del extran- 
jero, son muestras positivas de una creciente prosperidad. 

Hay en Montevideo y Buenos Aires gran demanda de maderas de construcci6n, 
caeros, yerba mate, frutas y legumbres, pero el surtido de estos productos no es 
bastante todavia & cubrir la demanda. 

CULTIVO DEL TABACO. 

£1 tabaco era la principal, sino la iinica, planta que se cultivaba en el Paraguay, 
tanto para la exportaci6n como para el consumo local ; pero debido & los altos 
derechos de la Argentina y i los bajos precios que se ofrecian por la hoja, tanto 
en aquella republica como en Europa, los labradores se han visto forzados, 
durante los dos ultimos afios, i sembrar s61o poco mis de lo que necesitan para 
tu consumo particular : en algunos casos han abandonado par completo el cultivo 
del tabaco y se han dedicado i los yerbales donde podian ganar bastante bue- 
Dos salarios. £1 Gobierno esti haciendo ahora esfuerzos especialcs por formentar 
esta industria y encontrarle nuevos mercados. 

DIFICULTAD DE CONSEGUIR TRABAJADORES. 

En toda empresa particular en que es necesario el empleo de muchos brazos, 
la cuesti6n del trabajo presenta serias dificultades. Estas dificultades no desa- 
parcccrin probablcmente mientras el pals no est6 mis poblado, 6 mientras no 
puedan obtenerse trabajadores extranjeros en lugar de los nativos. Pero hay 
adcmis otros obsticulos que veneer, y es la dificultad de trasporte y la falta de 
medios de communicaci6n. 

FERROCARRIL. 

La iinica via f6rrea en un pals cuya irea, sin contar el Chaco, se considera de 
^5»*6o millas cuadradas, es una llnea de 155 millas de largo, que va de la 
Asanci6n i Pirap6,y es conocidacon el nombre de Ferrocarril Central del Para- 
jaay. No existen ramales. 
Bull. No. 7 6 



1150 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

VERBA MATE. 

La ycrba mate 6 tc del Paraguay es el articulo de exportaci6n mis importante. 
Hay dos clases de yerba mate en el comercio, pero la diferencia consiste s61o en 
la manera de prepararla. La clase conocida con el nombre de " mborovir^ " sc 
prepara secando la yerba simplemente al horno y golpedndola despu6s con palos 
para dividirla en pequefios pedazos. La "molida" pasa por el mismo proceso, 
pero se muele despu^s en un molino. Los derechos de exportaci6n de la primera 
se aumentaron en 1895 de 30 centavos en papel 4 10 centavos, oro, y los de la, 
segunda, de 25 centavos en papel i 9 centavos, oro, por cada 10 kilos. El importe 
de los ingresos de aduana procedente de este articulo £u6, en 1895, de $471,668 
(;£^i 6,845). ^^^ yerbales eran antes propiedad del Estado, pero la mayor parte 
ha sido vendida y esti ahora en poder de unos cuantos capitalistas y compa- 
fiias. La Compafiia Industrial del Paraguay, que es duefia de la mitad aproxi- 
madamente de los yerbales del pais, exporta anualmente unas 400,000 arrobas 
(4,512 toneladas). El total de yerba exportada durante el afio pasado se cal- 
cula en 9,024 toneladas, y el promedio de precio por arroba (25 libras) fu6 de 
^11. 50 papel (7s. 8d.). 

MADERA DE CONSTRUCCI6N. 

A causa de la falta de estadistica y de datos.de ninguna clase, es diflcil hacerun 
c&lculo cor recto de la cantidad de madera exportada durante el afio pasado, pero 
se dice qua la exportaci6n de este producto durante el referido afio ha sido 
considerablemente mayor que la de 1895, especialmente la exportaci6n de 
madera dura. 

CURUPAY. 

A continuaci6n se mencionan las principales maderas con sus precios y los usos 
i que mejor se adaptan: 

El curupay es de color rojizo, duro en extremo y fuerte; dura muchos afio 
debajo de la tierra 6 del agua y se usa principalmente para atravesafios de 
caminos de hierro y pilotes para puentes y muelles. La c&scara se usa en el 
curtimiento de cueros. La gravedad especifica es de i.i'72 i 0.917, y el precio, 
45 centavos oro por vara. 

gUEBRACHO COLORADO. 

El quebraeho Colorado es una de las maderas mis duras y duraderas del 
Paraguay, y se dice que puede conservarse bajo tierra 6 agua tan bien como al 
aire. Es propio para pilotaje, atravesafios y puentes; tambi6n se usa para 
curtir. Este palo abunda principalmente en el Chaco, pero tambi^n se encuentra 
en la parte norte del pais. Gravedad especifica: de 1.3922 1.232. Precio en 
Asunci6n, unos $25 por tonelada. 

URUNDAYMf. 

El urundaymi difiere poco del quebracho en resistencia y duraci6n, pero no 
abunda tanto; el precio es el mismo, y su gravedad especifica de 1.091 i 0.920. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



PETEREVI. 



1151 



El peterevi es una madera de valor que se usa en la fabricaci6n de muebles, 
en trabajos de ebanisterla, etc. En veta y color no difiere mucho del nogal 
americano; es susceptible de brillante pulimento, esde duraci6n y relativamente 
ligero. Se dice que sirve tambi^n para m&stiles y vergas. Gravedad especifica, 
dc 0.810 & 6.19. Precio en Asunci6n, 55 centavos oro, por vara 

LAPACHO. 

El lapacho es de un color amarillo verdoso y de gran resistencia, Al aif e se 
conserva sano por muchos afios y no se raja ficilmente. Una gran cantidad de 
esta madera se exporta i Buenos Aires para su empleo en la construcci6n de 
caminos de hierro y barcos. Se usa en el pais para la construcci6n de rayos de 
niedas, botes y faluas. El " lapacho crespo " es una variedad vcteada, y con ^1 
pueden hacerse muebles hermosos aunque pesados. Gravedad especifica de 
1.072 i 0.952. El precio es de unos 40 centavos oro por vara. 

YBIRARO. 

£1 ybirar6 y el ybirapita se usan principalmente en la construcci6n de 
muebles y ruedas de carros. El primero es superior al segundo, pero no es tan 
abundantc. Gravedad especifica de 1.038 i 0.744. Precio en Asunci6n, J2 
por vara. 

PALMAS NEGRA Y ROJA. 

La palma negra y la palma roja son en extremo duras y se dice que i veces 
^mellan el filo de las mejorcs hachas de acero. La palma negra sirve para 
cnchapado fino y es susceptible de muy buen pulimento. Estas maderas duran 
por muchos afios en el agua y bajo tierra. Se encuentran en el Chaco y el 
Paraguay propiamente dicho. Precio en Asunci6n, $2 poco mis 6 menos. 

CEDRO Y TIMBO. 

^Qtre las maderas mis ligeras pueden mencionarse las varias clases de cedro 
7 ^1 timbo. El cedro se usa mucho en este pais para la fabricaci6n de mue- 
Wcs, pucrtas, hojas de ventana, cajas, etc.; es relativamente barato y se trabaja 
"cilincntc. Se encucntra en el sur y el suroeste, pero en el Alto Parani y en 
'^ Misiones paraguayas se da una clase de calidad superior. El timbo es una 
madera ligera de vetas semejantes i las del cedro, y crece i veces i gran altura y 
t^niafio. Los indios hacen de esta madera sus canoas, artesas para agua, etc. 
5c exporta muy poco. Gravedad especifica, de 0.440 i 0.328. 

OTRAS MADERAS. 

^^lo se han mencionado las maderas del Paraguay de mejor calidad y que mis 
^ usan, pero hay muchas otras, entre las cuales pueden mencionarse el tatan6, 
P^lo santOj palo de lanza, laurel negro, palo de rosa, incienso y variedades de 

citrus 



lljJ2 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

■ 

La cantidad de madera transportada por ferrocarril durante el afio pa&ado se 
calcula en 30,000 toneladas. 

TOMATES. 

EI tomate se da bien en el Paraguay, pero no es tan grande, ni de color tan 
intenso como el de Europa. Su demanda es grande en Buenos Aires i principios 
de la primervera, y puede venderse siempre i buen precio. Como unos 3,000 
cestos fueron embarcados rio abajo durante el afSo pasado. 

PLATANOS. 

Aunque el plitano crece aqui bien y es de excelente calidad, no se cultiva en 
lo que propiamente se llama grande escala. Los plitanos exportados i Buenos 
Aires ascienden probablemente i 10,000 racimos. 

LIENZO. 

En la importaci6n de tejidos, el "lienzo" es tal vez la clasc mis importante, y 
se dice que procede casi exclusivamente de Manchester. Se usa mucho en este 
pais, especialmente por las mujeres y los nifios de la clase pobre que hacen de 
aquel g6nero sayas y chales que usan en verano y en invierno. De las clases 
mds gruesas se hacen toldos, biombos, etc. Parte de este lienzo viene de Ale- 
mania. 

BRAMANTE. 

Otro importante articulo de importaci6n es el bramante, parte del cual viene 
de Alemania, aunque en su mayar parte es de fabricaci6n inglesa. Las mujeres 
lo usan para sus camisas y chales. 

CHALES. 

Los chales negros de lana, 6 mixtos de lana y algod6n, conocidos en el pais 
con el nombre de rebozos, son usados por casi todas las mujeres. Estos chales 
son, en su major parte, de fabricaci6n alemana y belga, y sou preferidos & los que 
se fabrican en Inglaterra, porque, son m&s baratos y los flecos son mis largos y 
llevan mas labor. 

TELAS DE ALGOD6n DE COLORES. 

Las telas de algod6n baratas y las muselinas vienen en su mayor parte de 
Inglaterra. El promedio anual de las ventas es de 100,000 piezas de 24 y 35 
metros. Los g6neros de esta clase, procedentes de Alemania, son superiores y 
obtienen, por consiguiente, un precio un tanto mis alto. 

DRILES, GInEROS PARA CAMISAS, ETC. 

Las varias clases de driles y g6neros de algod6n para ropa de hombre son de 
fabricaci6n alemana 6 italiana. Le mayor parte de las telas para camisas, imi- 
taci6n de Oxford y otras clases, proceden tambi6n de Alemania. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. *^53 

HILO DE ALGOD6n. 

Se importan anualmente unas 3,000 cajas de carreteles de hilo de algod6n de 
fabncaci6n inglesa. B61gica envia tambi6n algo de este articulo. 

ARPILLERA. 

Toda la arpillera que se importa es procedente de Dundee, y de 10 & 18 onzas 
en caiidad. £1 promedio de venta anual es de unas 500,000 yardas. Este 
g^nero se emplea principalmente para empaquetar yerba mate y tabaco. 

efectos de ferreterfa y qulncallerf a, porcelana, 

cristalerIa, etc. 

La mayor parte de los articulos de ierreteria y quincallerfa que se importan, 
son de fabricaci6n alemana y obtienen aqui preferencia i los de fabricaci6n 
inglesa por raz6n de su baratura. Los artefactos esmaliados, los cristales y la 
porcelana, vienen principalmente de Austria, y se dice que son de caiidad igual i 
los articulos de la misma clase t'abricados en la Gran Bretafia, pero mis baratos. 
Las herramientas de carpinteria, cucharas, cuchillos de mesa, tenedores y uten- 
silios de cocina, vienen en su mayor parte de Alemania y Francia y son de la 
clase mas ordinaria y barata. Hay aqui un comercio considerable en cuchillos 
de vaina y puiiales, pues casi todos los paraguayos cargan estas armas en sus 
fajas. Hasta ahora, estos articulos habian sido importados exclusivamente de 
Alemania, pero ultimamente se ban importado directamente de Inglaterra algu- 
nas cajas de cuchillos de caiidad superior que han encontrado aqui ficil salida. 
£1 precio de cada uno es de 3]^ i 10 pesos. 

ALAMBRE DE HIERRO. 

El alambre negro que se vende aqui para cercas, es de fabricaci6n inglesa. Se 
prcliercn los numeros 7, 8 y 9. Se importan anualmente unos 6,000 rollos de 
450 yardas cada uno. 

INSTRUMENTOS DE AGRICULTURA. 

La venta de instrumentos de agricultura no es grande al presente. Hachas, 
machetes y azadas, son los instrumentos que obtienen mis demanda, pues son i 
vcccs los unicos que se usan en este pais en la preparaci6n de la tierra para las 
siembras. Para cortar los irboles grandes, empl6ase primero el machete y des- 
pues el hacha para terminar la operaci6n ; la azada se usa para romper el suelo. 
La mayor parte de los arados que de vcz en cuando se ven en uso, son fabricados 
tn el pais y ticnen rejas de madera. La mayor parte de las hachas y picos que 
seven en los establecimientos, son fabricados en los Estados Unidos. De igual 
febricaci6n son los azadones, palas y azadas, pues solo unos cuantos de estos 
instrumentos vienen de Inglaterra y Alemania. Al presente, hay muy poca 
demanda de estos articulos. 



11 54 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

AZtJCAR. 

A pcsar de que la cafia crece en abundancia, no se fabrica azdcar. Todo el 
azdcar que se consume en el pais se importa de Buenos Aires y es de fabricaci6n 
francesa. Se importan anualmente unos 8,000 barriles de 115 kilos cada uno. 

ARROZ. 

La importaci6n anual de arroz se calcula eh 3,000 sacos del Uamado de Bremen 
J en 1,000 del conocido con el nombre de "Piemontc." En el pais se cultiva 
solamente una pequefia cantidad, que es inferior al arroz importado, y cuesta de 
$6.50 i $i7 la arroba (25 libras). 

VELAS. 

La mayor parte de las velas de estearina que se importan proceden de Amster- 
dam. Las velas de sebo y de cera se fabrican en el pais, 

petr6leo refinado. 

El petr61eo refinado — unas 10,000 cajas anualmente — se importa de los Escados 
Unidos. 

CERVEZA, VINOS Y LICORES. 

Cierta cantidad de la cerveza que se fabrica en Alemania, Montevideo y 
Buenos Aires se importa aqui en botellas, pero la mayor parte de la cerveza 
que se consume en el pais es de fabricaci6n local. Por raz6n de su ligera 
consistencia y su adaptabilidad al clima, estas cervezas obtienen preferencia 
sobre la cerveza inglesa De Francia, Italia y Espana se importan vinos en 
barricas y en botellas. Tambi6n se fabrica vino en el pais. No es de 
importancia el consumo de licores. extranjeros. 

PRINCIPALES COSECHAS. 

Las principales plantas que se cosechan son maiz, mandioca, cafia de aziicar, 
tabaco, alfalfa y frijolcs. £1 maiz y la mandioca constituyen el principal alimento 
de los campesinos y de la clase pobre. Es muy diflcil conservar el maiz por 
cierto tiempo, pues apenas se almacena es atacado por el gorgojo. El precio 
del maiz varia entre 50 centavos (4 d.) y $2 ( 1. s. 4d.) por arroba. La mandioca, 
es todavia el sustituto del pan entre una gran parte de la poblaci6n del campo. 
En los pueblos se han establecido molinos de harina y panaderias, y el consumo 
del pan se esti extendiendo con preferencia al de la mandioca, 

TRIGO. 

£1 trigo se importa de la Argentina. Se ha intentado varias veces el cultivo 
de este cereal en el Paraguay, pero sin 6xito. 

CANA DE AZCCAR. 

Se da bien aqui la cafia de az6car y hay numerosas plantaciones situadas en 
diversas secciones del pais, pero hasta el presente se ha derivado muy poco 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. ^^55 

deneficio de esce cultivo. No se produce aziicar. Una compafila se ha formado 
recientemente con el objeto de completar y explotar una f&brica de aziicar en 
Ibitimiy en la linea del ferrocarril. El duefio de esta fibrica quebr6 antes de 
que los edi£cios y trabajos de instalaci6n se concluyeran. Sin embargo, el 
capital que se nececita no ha sido suscrito todavla. Casi el (inico uso & que 
destinan los paraguayos la cafia de aziicar consiste en la destilaci6n de aguardiente 
7 fabricaci6n de ron. Abundan en el pais trapiches de madera y pequefios 
alambiques. 

ALFALFA. 

La alfalfa produce de cuatro i cinco cosechas al aflo y se vende de 30 cen- 
tavos i $1.30 la arroba. Se dice que la yerba mala obstaculiza considerable- 
mente el cultivo de esta planta. 

CA¥t. 

£1 cultivo del caf6 esti todavla en estado experimental, pero se estin fomen- 
tando numerosos cafetales en diferentes partes del pais y especialmente en los 
establecimientos del Gobierno. £1 cafetal m4s grande esti situado en el Departa- 
mento de Emboscada, cerca de la colonia de San Bernardino, que es un estable- 
cimiento alemin, situado en la orilla norte de la laguna Ipacary, la cual esti 
cerca de la estaci6n de ferrocarril de Patifiocu6 y distante unos 36 kilometros de 
Asanci6n. En este cafetal hay ya unos 200,000 matas en producci6n, cuyo 
fruto se dice que es superior al caf6 brasilero. Hasta la fecha los resultados 
son satisfactorios y alentadores, pero no es posible decir al presente si la empresa 
dejari utilidades en definitiva. 

El Gobierno asiste & los plantadores de caf6, facilit&ndoles la adquisici6n de la 
semilla y ofreci^ndoles un premio de 30 centavos por cada mata transplantada 
en buenas condiciones al tiempo de la solicitud. Puede solicitarse tambi6n un 
pr6stamo de 30 centavos por cada mata, pagadero en do« plazos anuales de 15 
centavos por mata. 

algod6n. 

El algod6n se cultiva en pequena escala y es de excelente calidad. Con tra- 
bajadores buenos y en numero suficiente el algod6n podria cultivarse en mayor 
escala que en la actualidad. El Banco Agricola se prepara i comprar algod6n 
con semilla y sin semilla & $4 y $12 por arroba, respectivamente. 

OTRAS PLANTAS TEXTILES. 

Hay varias clascs de plantas textiles en el pais, entre las cuales puede, men- 
cionarsc la caraguata que es una especiede pina silvestre que crece profusamente 
en muchos lugares. El rami6 se ha cultivado con ^xito en varias partes y se en- 
contr6 que podian hacerse cuatro 6 cinco corte's al afio, pero hubo necesidad de 
abandonar las plantaciones por falta de maquinaria descortezadora. 

ACEITE DE COCO. 

EI coco abunda en todo el pais y el aceite que de 61 sc extrae es de excelente 
calidad y se usa aqui principalmente en la fabricaci6n de jabones. £1 Banco 



1 156 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Agricola ha enviado muestras de estc aceitc i Europa y se han recibido pcdidos 
de Ingaterra 6 Italia en cantidad mayor de la de que el Banco puede disponeren 
la actualidad. £1 precio que el Banco paga por el coco es de $2.70 por arroba. 

NECESIDAD DE MAQUINAS PARA CASCAR EL COCO. 

Tal vez sea convenience decir aqui, que para el propio desarrollo de la indus- 
tria del aceite de coco en este pais, se hace necesario el empleo de m&quinas de 
mano para descascarar el coco. Las pocas ahora en uso estin en Asunci6n y 
no dan buenos rcsultados. La miquina debiera construirse de modo que pudiera 
romper la ciscara del coco sin dafiar la pulpa y producir unas 50 libras de coco 
por hora. La m&quina debe quebrar la c^scara lo suficiente para facilitar la 
extracci6n i mano de la pulpa, de la cual el 90 por ciento, & lo menos, deberi 
salir de la m&quina entero. £1 material de las m&quinas debe ser resistente y la 
construccion lo m4s scncilla posible. Su precio no debe exceder de 10 libras 
esterlinas. Como el tamafio del coco no es uniforme, debe insertarse una pieza 
que distribuya los cocos entre las diferentes cascadoras, segun su tamafio. 

Un cierto ndmero de estas m&quinas, tal como quedan descritas, encontraria 
inmediata salida. 

crIa de ganado. 

La cria de ganado es negocio m^s productivo que la mayor parte de las otras 
industrias del Paraguay ; es, al menos, segun se dice, uno de los negocios mis 
seguros. £1 aumento anual del ganado en una estancia puede calcularse de 25 
i 35 por ciento, pero el ultimo tanto por ciento mencionado talvez no podria 
obtenerse sino en estancias donde los animales reciben el propio cuidado y donde 
el pasto es de calidad superior al ordinario. 

El ganado cs atacado raras veccs de infecciones epizo6ticas, por mis que 
existen otros peligros i que esti expuesto con frecuencia y de los cuales i 
menudo victinia. £stos son las moscas, culebras, gusanos, sequins y, i veccs, 
los jaguarcs. 

PRECIO DE LA TIERRA. 

« 

Los mejores terrenos se encuentran en los departamentos de Villa Concepci6n, 
San Pedro, San Estanislao, Ajos, Misiones, Neembucu, Caacupu y Caazapi. 
Una legua cuadrada de tierra (5,76 acres) puede comprarse por 45 libras esterlinas 
6 mis; el precio varia segun la clase de tierra, su situaci6n y clase de yerba que 
produce. 

Algunos terrenos pertenecientes i la Anglo- Paraguayan Company, Limited, 
que es propietaria de unas 3,460 millas cuadradas de tierra en la Republica, se 
vendieron recientemente i raz6n de ;^50o la legua; pero este es un precio 
exccpcional y cualquiera porci6n 'de tierra, tal vez de tan buena calidad como 
aqu611a, puede comprarse por mucho menos de la mitad de aquella suma. 

Debe procederse con gran cuidado en la compra de terrenos en Paraguay, 
pues los titulos son i menudo defcctuosos. Por consiguiente, antes de firmar 
un contrato, debe consultarse la opini6n de un abogado respetable, en cuanto i 
la validez de los titulos del vendedor. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. ^^57 

INDUSTRIAS. 

Con excepci6ii de las industrias de la yerba mate, la madera, el tabaco y las 

frutas, hay pocas mis de importancia en el pals. Hay varias cervecerias, tene- 

rias, f&bricas de f6sforos y molinos de harina establecidos en Asunci6n y cerca 

de clla. Hay tambi^n una fibrica de jab6n cerca de la ciudad, y con el aceite dc 

coco se fabrica jab6n de bastante buena calidad. Tambi6n se fabrican en la 

capital, y en varios otros puntos del pais, ladrillos y tejas, jarros y botellas de 

barro, escobas, sombreros de palma, hielo, frutas en conserva, agua de soda, 

tabacos, cigarros y velas. Como ya he observado, hay alambiqucs para la pro- 

ducci6n de aguardiente en todo el pais. Las mujeres hacen una clase de encaje 

peculiar y artistico, asi como manteles, servilletas, sobrecamas, camisas y ex- 

celentes hamacas de algod6n basto del pais. Tambi6n hacen velas de sebo y de 

cera. 

VAPORES. 

Hay dos lineas de vapores de pasajeros entre el puerto de Asunci6n y el rlo 
dcla Plata. Cada una de estas lineas hace un viaje semanal. Tambi^n hay el 
*^rvicio quincenal (de carga solamente) de los barcos de la " Brazilian Lloyd," 
^ntre Montevideo y Corumba, haciendo escalas en Buenos Aires y Asunci6n. 



PERU. 

EL DISTRITO AURIFERO DE CARABAYA. 

Sll Ministro de los Estados Unidos en Lima, Senor Dudley, 

na enviado ultimamente al Departamento de Estado un intbrme 

fec\iado el 8 de noviembre de 1 897, respecto del distrito aurifero de 

Carabaya, en el Peru, y asegura que la pintura que alii se hace de 

la citada region es exacta y fidedigna. Los datos sobre que esta 

^ado dicho informe fueron suministrados por el ingeniero civil 

E- J. Prew, quien examino personalmente las minas de oro de 

Carabaya. 

Opina el Senor Prew que, comparativamente hablando, el pais 
a^n no esta desarroUado y que por donde quiera se encuentran 
filones y depositos muy ricos. Como el pais esta cubierto de 
"^sques muy espesos, es dificil explorarlo. Generalmente se 
^^scubren las minas siguiendo el curso de los rios que arrastran 
^n sus corrientes sustancias minerales. La mina mas importante 
4^c ahora se explota, es la de Santo Domingo, que una compania 
Americana compro ultimamente, al contado, pagando por ella 



1158 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

;^5'7,ooo. Esta corporacion tiene ahora en camino un molino de 
veinte pilones con todos los accesorios necesarios para triturar y 
amalgamar minerales. El filon de la mina Santo Domingo varia 
de un pie seis pulgadas a ocho pies de ancho y contiene oro en la 
proporcion de 8 a 800 onzas por tonelada. En algunas partes se 
ha encontrado el precioso metal en estado casi puro. Los operarios 
que se emplean son generalmente indios, a quienes se les pagan 
40 cent^vos al dia, moneda boliviana. 

Otros minas ricas que se hallan en este distrito son las de San 
Juan, Raquel y Maria, cuya produccion durante los diez y ocho 
meses pasados, unida a la de Santo Domingo, arroja un total de 
2,500 libras del precioso metal. 

Se conceden a los compradores de minas de oro tres meses des- 
de la fecha de la denuncia para examinar el titulo de propiedad ; al 
terminar este plazo, se les ortogan generalmente noventa dias mas, 
despues de lo cual, si no se toma posesion de la mina, esta puede 
ser denunciada de nuevo por otras personas. Desde el momento 
en que se establece un titulo perfecto de propiedad, el Gobierno 
recibe anualmente 15 soles por cada pertenencia. 

El unico obstaculo a la explotacion con buen exito de esta 
region minera, es la falta de medios de comunicacion. Las 
mercancias son llevadas a cuestas por indios y los viajeros van casi 
siempre en mulas. Cuando hay que cruzar rios que por su pro- 
fundidad no es posible vadear, y donde no existen balsas, extien- 
den un cable de hierro de un lado a otro, y el viajero, suspendido 
dentro de un cajon 6 canasta, es conducido de una ribera a otra 
por medio de un sistema de motones. El costo de trasportar 
maquinaria es excesivo. De las estaciones mas inmediatas en el 
ferrocarril de Juliana-Sicuani cobran j(^^o per tonelada. 

CONSTRUCCION DE UN FERROCARRIL. 

En el BoLETfN Mensual correspondiente al mes de deciembre 
de 1895, se publicaron los puntos principales de la concesion 
otorgada a Mr. Cuthbert B. Jones y sus asociados, ciudadanos de 
los Estados Unidos. En cumplimiento de su contrato, estos 
caballeros organizaron ultimamente en los Estados Unidos una 
corporacion con el nombre de la Compania del Pacifico, y a la 
fecha los ingenieros estan haciendo el trazo del ferrocarril a que la 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 1159 

concesion se refiere. La linea principal partira del puerto de 
Cherrepe y se extendera hacia el oriente, en la provincia trasandina 
de Hualgayoc, como 230 kilometres. Esta via abrira al comer- 
cio una region muy rica en carbon, plata y petr6leo, que ofirece 
tambien vasto campo a la agricultura por la posibilidad de cultivar 
alli la cana de azucar, arroz, granos, cafe, cacao y tabaco. Se 
asegura que cuando esta linea llegue hasta la inagotable region 
carbonera de Hualgayoc, se obtendra un carbon que es una com- 
binacion del bituminoso y de la antracita, tan rico como el de 
Pennsylvania, y que se vendera en el puerto de Cherrepe a $2 la 
tonelada, en competencia con el carbon ingles y otros que actual- 
mente se venden en el mismo lugar a un precio que varia de $7 
a $20 la tonelada. Se cree que, dada esta gran diferencia de precio, 
dichas minas podran proveer los mercados de la costa Pacifico, 
desde Chile hasta San Francisco, y hasta los del Japon y China. 

El Gabinete del Peru ha sido organizado ultimamente como 
sigue: 

Primer Ministro y Ministro del Interior, Senor Rom ana. 

Ministro de Relaciones Exteriores, Senor Riva-Aguero. 

Ministro de Hacienda, Senor Rey. 

Ministro de Formento, Seiior Flores. 

Ministro de Justicia, Senor Lavalle y Pardo. 

Ministro de Guerra y Marina, Senor Rosa Gil. 



ESTADOS UNIDOS. 

PARRAFOS DE^ MENSAJE DEL PRESIDENTE. 

En su Mensaje al Cong-eso, al abrirse las sesiones ordinarias de 
cste cuerpo el lunes 6 de diciembre, el Presidente McKinley 

hace referencia al asunto de reciprocidad comercial con paises 

cxtranjeros, en los siguientes terminos: 

A fin dc poner en ejccuci6n, tan pronto como sea posible, las disposiciones 
contcnidas en la tercera y cuarta secci6n de la Ley Arancelaria, aprobmda el 
^ dc Julio de 1897, he nombrado al Honorable John A. Kasson, de Iowa, 
comisionado especial plenipotenciario para que entable las negociaciones nccesa- 
rias con aqucllos paises extranjeros que deseen aprovecharse de dichas disposi- 
ciones. Ya se ha dado principio & las negociaciones con algunos Gobiernos, 
tamo europeos como americanos. Creo que ejcrciendo cuidadosamente el poder 



1 l6o BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

que dicha ley me conficre, se salvarin 6 evitarSn en gran parte algunas dc las 
dificultades con que nuestro pais y los otros tropiezan en sus mutuas relaciones 
comerciales, y que el trafico entre las partes contratantes puede aumentarse 
ventajosamente. 

El Mensaje se ocupa largamente en tratar de la importancia y 
utilidad que la conclusion del Canal de Nicaragua tiene para el 
comercio del continente americano. Acerca de este proyecto el 
Presidente dice lo siguiente : 

Asunto de magna importancia para este pais, y que cada dia aprecia m&s 
nuestro pueblo, cs la terminaci6n de la gran via comercial entre el Atlintico y 
el Pacifico que lleva el nombre de Canal de Nicaragua. Su utilidad y valor 
para el comercio americano son universalmente admitidos. 

Ya estd dedicada i su empresa la comisi6n nombrada el 24 de julio iiltimo 
para continuar los estudios 6 inspecciones autorizados por la ley de marzo de 
1895, con objeto de determinar la ruta mds conveniente, practicabilidad y costo 
de construcci6n del Canal de Nicaragua, i fin de levantar pianos completes para 
todas las obras de construcci6n. A su debido tiempo tendr6 ocasi6n de tras- 
mitir al Congreso el Lnforme de esta comisi6n, haciendo i la vez las consideraciones 
que crea del caso. 

EL CANAL DE NICARAGUA. 

El 17 de enero proximo se reunira en Kansas City, Missouri, 
una convencion con el objeto de pedir con urgencia al Congreso 
que destine el dinero para la construccion del canal de Nicaragua. 
Este movimiento ha sido iniciado por personas distinguidas de 
aquella ciudad que se dedican al comercio, a empresas de ferro- 
carril, a manufacturas y a la compra y venta de bienes raices. Se 
ha pedido a los gobernadores de los Estados del Oeste que nom- 
bren delegados a la convencion y que atiendan a ella en persona. 

Mr. James H. Harkless, que es el promotor original del pro- 
yecto y presidente de la asociacion, dice T ese respecto lo siguiente.- 

El Gobierno no podria gas tar dinero con m^s provecho para los Estados que 
se hallan al oeste del Misisipi, que invirti6ndoie en la construcci6n de un canal i 
trav^s del istmo que una el Atlintico con el Pacifico. En la actualidad estamos 
construyendo un puerto sobre el Golfo de Mexico para el embarque de granos, 
(Port Arthur), en la extremidad del ferrocarril llamado Pittsburgh & Gulf, y 
de esta manera Kansas City quedard 700 millas mds cerca de la costa de lo que 
estaba antes. Una Hnea de navios llcvari nuestros granos y productos de dicho 
puerto i Europa. Porqu6 no pueden estos barcos entrar eh competencia con 
otros en el Pacifico como van & hacerlo en el Atlintico? La (inica raz6n es que 
tendrian que dar la vuelta al Cabo de Homos y navegar 10,000 millas mis que 
si el canal estuviera abierto. El canal nos trairia directamente el comercio dc 
las islas del Pacifico y haria mis baratos los fletes entre los ya referidos Estados 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. II61 

del Misisipi y la China. Todo demuestra que cste Gobierno debe const ruir, 
posecr y dominar el canal. El plan de Lesseps era construir un canal de treinta 
xnillas de largo y en linea recta & trav^s del istmo. Se calcula que el canal 
americano costaria como $100,000,000, pero este gasto nada signiHcaria com- 
parado con las ventajas que este pais reportaria. Si los Estados Unidos no lo 
construyen, otro pals lo har^. 

IMPORTACION DE CUEROS Y PIELES. 

A pesar de la inmensa cantidad de cuero crudo que sale de los 
mataderos de Chicago y otras ciudades de importancia, los Estados 
Unidos se ven obligados a acudir al extranjero en busca del que 
necesitan para abastecer sus tenerias. 

El valor de los cueros sin curtir que se importan anualmente 
alcanza a la suma de $20,000,000. Los cueros se importan ya 
completamente secos 6 salados de fresco 

Las pieles de cabra constituyen casi la mitad de la importacion, 

b scan $10,000,000 anuales; Espana hace la mayor parte de la 

importacion de este articulo. Ocupan el segundo lugar los cueros 

de buey y de vaca, importados principalmente de la Republica 

Argentina y del Uruguay. 

La importacion de pieles y cueros curtidos, que antes era muy 
grande, ha decrecido considerablemente durante la ultima decada. 
^1 tafilete ocupa el primer lugar; su importacion anual es de 
%50o,ooo; las pieles de carnero vienen en segundo termino, con 
^^3 importacion de $650,000; en este articulo Francia es la 
P'''ncipal proveedora; vienen en ultimo lugar, la suela, con una 
"^pc^rtacion de $160,000; el cuero curtido a casca, $20,000, y 
tros productos en cantidad insignificante. 

L^^s Estados Unidos exportan un numero muy reducido de 
uerc^5 y pieles crudos, pero si exportan ciertas manufacturas de 
esta cilase, principalmente zapatos. 



VENEZUELA. 

COMERCIO DE TRANSITO CON COLOMBIA. 

*^1 Congreso de los Estados Unidos de Venezuela, en su ultima 

*^s^6n, aprobo un codigo de leyes sobre el comercio de transito 

^^^te aquel pais y Colombia. Estas leyes regulan et transito 

^ las mercancias extranjeras por la Republica de Colombia en 

los puertos de Maracaibo y Cucuta, y reciprocamente el transito 



\ 



1 l62 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

por Vene^ula de las mercancias colombianas destinadas a la 
exportacion por el puerto de Maracaibo. 
El articulo 2° del codigo dice: 

La introducci6n de mercancias extranjeras por el puerto de Maracaibo^ de 
tr&nsito para Coloinbia, quedarin sujetas & todas las formalidades, condiciones, 
y penas establecidas por las leyes de aduana respecto de las mercancias impor- 
tadas en Venezuela. 

Las mercancias de transito seran enviadas bajo factura consular 
por separado, consignandose que los articulos se destinan a un 
punto 6 a puntos en Colombia. Los generos asi destinados 
podran permanecer en deposito por treinta dias en la aduana de 
Maracaibo. Antes de que los generos se embarquen para el 
interior se exijira del dueiio que deposite en la oficina correspon- 
diente un ctrtificado pro forma ; las hojas en bianco para la exten- 
sion de este documento podran obtenerse en las aduanas. 

Ademas de los derechos de importacion ordinarios, los importa- 
dores pagaran uno por ciento sobre el importe de la factura como 
derecho de almacenaje. 

La misma ley autoriza la admision en Venezuela, por la aduana 
de San Antonio del Tachira, de las manufacturas y productos nati- 
vos de Colombia. 

El articulo 32 dice: 

Las frutas y productos naturales de Columbia ser&n admitidos libres de derechos 
en las aduanas de Maracaibo y Tachira mientras los de Venezuela disfruten de 
los mismos privilegios en Colombia. 

Por el articulo 33 los productos nativos, manufacturados en 
Colombia, estan sujetos al pago de los derechos establecidos en la 
tarifa de Venezuela, segun sus respectivas clases. Estas leyes 
empezaron a regir el primero de octubre del presente ano, dero- 
gando todas las leyes anteriores relativas al comercio de transito 
entre los dos paises. 



LA EXPOSICI6N PAN-AMERICANA DEL 

NIAGARA. 

En el numero del Boletin correspondiente al mes de octubre, 
se publico una extensa descripcion del proyecto de la Exposicion 
Pan- Americana del Niagara, y se dieron a conocer los nombres de 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. i 163 

sus principales iniciadores y los de los miembros de la comision 
organizadora. 

El proyecto tan meritorio en si mismo, ideado con el objeto de 
acercar mas entre si a los pueblos e industrias del hemisferio occi- 
dental, parece que esta recibiendo toda la atencion que merece, 
tanto en los Estados Unidos como en el extranjero. La magnitud 
de la obra y la energia con que se esta desenvolviendo, ban recomen- 
dado el proyecto a la consideracion del Gobierno nacional. 
Tratase de obtener del Congreso una consignacion que al mismo 
tiempo que de al proyecto la sancion del Gobiemo nacional, sen- 
tandolo asi sobre una base firme por medio de su auxilio material, 
sirva tambien para preparar de la manera debida la mejor exhibi- 
cion de los productos especial es de los Estados Unidos. 

Los nombres que figuran a la cabeza del proyecto, son una garan- 
tia de que el apoyo del Gobiemo sera debidamente secundado y 
que la exposicion sera rival, en muchos particulares, de la Expo- 
stcion Universal y superior a esta en algunos respectos. 

El lugar escogido es, por demas, apropiado al objeto, pues es 

una isla en el rio Niagara, que cuenta con un area bastante 

cxtensa, y situada a la vista de la poderosa catarata, cuyas titanicas 

fiierzas no se ban utilizado hasta el presente, sirviendo solo como 

el espectaculo mas grande ofrecido al hombre por la naturaleza. 

El tiempo es oportuno tambien para dar a conocer el progreso 

nacional del Nuevo Mundo en el siglo diez y nueve. Mexico y 

las principales republicas de la America Central y del Sur ban 

solicitado espacio, que ya se ha concedido y asignado, para la 

exhibicion de sus respectivos productos. 

El Secretario, Mr. R. C. Hill, hablando de la exposicion y sus 
propositos, dice : 

"Lo que nos proponemos es mostrar el progreso de este hemis- 
ferio en sus principales ordenes, y abrir una gran exposicion de 
arte e industria. No es una exposicion universal, y solo es inter- 
nacional por cuanto en ella habran de figurar todos los paises de 
este hemisferio, al cual quedara limitada. Creemos que no solo 
sera de utilidad para nuestras industrias, sino que dara por resultado, 
tambien, una mejor compenetracion dc intereses entre los dife- 
rentes paises. Sera ademas una especie de ilustracion de la doctrina 
dc Monroe, por cuanto evidenciara que existe una America para los 
americanos y explicara por si sola la razon por la cual los america- 



1164 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

nos deben permanecer unidos. Aniinciase que el Congreso Pan- 
Americano se celebrara en Washington en el ano de 1900, pero yo 
creo que esta fecha sera alterada y que aquel congreso tendra 
lugar aqui en 1899, f^^^^a de nuestra exposicion. Asi pensaban 
los delegados del Congreso Pan-Americano cuando conferenciamos 
aqui con ellos acerca de la exposicion el ano pasado." 

La direccion de los trabajos esta en manos del Capitan John 
M. Brinker, de Buffalo, como Presidente, cuya sagacidad descu- 
brio el uso practico a que podia aplicarse la prodigioso fuerza 
dinamica de la catarata, y a cuya energia se debe la construc- 
cion del ferrocairil del Niagara. Las personas que le asisten, 
todas las cuales cuentan con conocimientos y experiencia en la 
clase de trabajo que tienen entre manos, son W. Caryl Ely, 
director-general; F. C. M. Lantz, tesorero, y Richmond C. 
Hill, secretario. 

Las oficinas generales de la compania ocupan un piso entero 
. del " Coal and Iron Exchange Building," de Buffalo, N. Y., y se 
proyecta el establecimiento de oficinas sucursales en Nueva York, 
Chicago y Washington, D. C. 



COMERCIO DE MAQUINARIA Y HERRAMIENTAS 

CON LA AMERICA LATINA. 

La " Revue du Commerce," de 4 de diciembre de 1897, publica 
un articulo muj' importante y oportuno sobre la clase de maqui- 
naria e instrumentos de agricultura propios para la importacion en 
la America latina y otros paises tropicales. La demanda de estos 
articulos crece cada dia, y el principal obstaculo para un desaroUo 
mas rapido del comercio es la falta de conocimiento por parte de 
los fabricantes y exportadores, de los habitos industrials y condi- 
cion en general de estos paises. Al considerar esta cuestion, no 
debe perderse de vista el hecho de que las piezas de maquinaria, 
despues de recibidas por el importador, necesitan ser dispuestas 
y unidas en debido orden, lo cual es a veces imposible sin el 
auxilio de ingenieros 6 mecanicos practicos. En las mas avanza- 
das colonias inglesas y en los puertos de mar, puede encontrarse el 
auxilio necesario para llevar a cabo aquella operacion, pero en los 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 1 1 65 

pueblos del interior y aun en grandes ciudades, como Rio de 
Janeiro, Buenos Aires y Valparaiso, no siempre se encuentran los 
grandes talleres de maquinaria con el personal competente para 
prestar aquella clase de auxilio, y en los distritos rurales es comple- 
tamente imposible. El febricante que envia la maquinaria no 
cuenta mas que con la inteligencia de sus propios empleados. 

En los climas calidos los centros de civilizacion se limitan 

principalmente a las ciudades de la costa y a los puertos de mar. 

En el interior la poblacion se desarrolla casi completamente ajena 

a la influencia extranjera. Esta poblacion pudiera decirse que 

vive adaptada a las condiciones naturales del pais y se compone a 

veces de descendientes de europeos, criollos 6 mestizos. Asi pasa, 

por ejemplo, en Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela, Peru, Bolivia y 

Mexico. Hay vastos territorios no abiertos todavia a la navega- 

cion fluvial 6 a los ferrocarriles, donde el trasporte se hace 

todavia par medio de bestias de carga y vehiculos de construcion 

primitiva. A menudo se usan tambien carretillas de mano 6 

cargadores. Es evidente que en estas condiciones el trasporte de 

las maquinas y la ordenacion de sus piezas tienen que presentar 

grandes dificultades. 

Toda la maquinaria que haya de usarse en el interior de los 

mencionados paises, debiera fabricarse teniendo en cuenta que 

alii no se emplea mas combustible que la lena. Es muy raro 

cncontrar carbon lejos de la costa. Tambien se emplea raras veces 

el gas como fuerza motriz, pero en cambio el petroleo puede utili- 

zarse con aquel objeto, pues kerosene refinado es ya un articulo de 

comercio universal que puede encontrarse en todas partes al objeto 

de aplicarlo como motor para maquinas. La electricidad, ya para 

alumbrar, ya como fuerza motriz, promete un gran porvenir, porque 

cl caudal de agua es abundante en estos paises y hace posible la 

instalacion de pequenas maquinarias electricas y telefonos. Los 

aparatos electricos tienen tambien la ventaja de que pueden 

trasportarse mas facilmente, porque son menos voluminosos que 

las maquinas de vapor, y por medio de mulas dispuestas en una 

sola fila y unidas por largas varas, puede hacerse el trasporte de 

aquella maquinaria, aun por las montanas donde la pendiente no 

cs muy rapida. 

Ademas, las piezas que se trasporten por medio de mulas no 

BuU. No. 7 7 



11 66 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

deben pesar mas de uno y medio a dos quintales, a lo sumo, y la 
carga debe distribuirse por parejo a ambos costados de la bestia. 
Los adelantos de la civilizacion se encargaran de modificar y 
mejorar este medio de trasporte ; los senderos seran substituidos 
por caminos y carreteras, y territorios de dificil acceso ahora que- 
daran apropiados a un trafico mas amplio. La conformacion 
fisica de aquellos parses es precisamente lo que nos obliga a 
hacer estas indicaciones respecto del progreso en las vias de comu- 
nicacion. Dichos paises son muy ricos en toda clase de productos, 
y como ejemplo de esta riqueza puede citarse a la Repiiblica 
Argentina, que se prepara para iniciar una competencia en pro- 
ductos agricolas de importancia manifiesta. 

M ientras mayor sea la producion agricola de estos paises, menos 
podremos contar con sus mercados para nuestra exportacion. En 
los territorios del interior, los productores trataran de manufacturar 
sobre el terreno los productos del suelo con el objeto de economizar 
los gastos de trasporte, y habra naturalmente una demanda de 
aparatos tales como alambiques para los productos del maiz, de 
los cereales, de la patata, etc., y de prensas para frutos oleaginosos. 
Tambien jugaran importante papel en la explotacion de las 
industrias de estos paises, las maquinas centrifugas para la fabrica- 
cion de aceite y mantequilla; bombas de mano 6 movidas por 
fiierza animal ; aparatos de petroleo 6 gas ; maquinas pequenas para 
la fabricacion del hielo necesario para la conservacion de los pro- 
ductos que se descomponen facilmente ; maquinaria para la fabri- 
cacion de cajas de lata para conservas; prensas pequenas para 
cemento y utensilios para pavimentar y ferrocarriles portatiles. 
La alta temperatura de aquellos climas, favorece tambien la 
importacion de maquinaria para la fabricacion d^ aguas gaseosas. 
Tambien se presentaran ocasiones para la instalacion de pequenos 
cilindros para la fabricacion de chocolate en las ciudades impor- 
tantes. 

El gran numero de rios y arroyos que hay en estos paises faci- 
lita la instalacion de pequenos molinos para moler los productos 
locales, y favorecera tambien el establecimiento de pequenos talle- 
res de aserrar. La introduccion de estas maquinas se Uevara a 
cabo con relativa lentitud y habra que veneer, en muchos casos, la 
indecision de los habitantes de aquellos paises, respecto a la adop- 
cion de nuevos articulos. No saben como hacer las reparaciones 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 1 167 

necesarias sin previa informacion, y su experiencia en la materia 
ha sido costosa. 

La importacion de herramientas ofrece campo mas vasto que la 
de maquinaria y aparatos mecanicos. Aunque los habitantes de 
cstos paises se han mostrado rehacios en cuanto a la adopcion de 
las herramientas modemas y perfeccionadas de los Estados Unidos 
y Europa, esta repugnancia desaparecio pronto cuando palparon 
su verdadero valor. Las dificultades del trasporte influyen menos 
en la importacion de herramientas que en la de maquinaria. Tan 
proDto como los nativos se dan cuenta del valor de los articulos 
perfeccionados, pagan lo que se les pide por lo que han encon- 
trado bueno. Se han importado millons de cierta clase de cuchi- 
Uos alemanes en la America Central y del Sur; otras clases de 
cuchillos, asi como tambien hachas, martillos, etc., se han impor- 
tado para trabajos de mano, para el corte de los montes, para la 
cxplotacion de minas y para el cultivo de las tierras. . Algunos 
cuchillos utiles en un pais serian iniitiles en otros. Una clase 
de cuchillo que se ha usado con provecho en Pemambuco y el 
interior de Bahia, seria iniitil en la Habana. En este ultimo 
punto, los espanoles usan el machete que sirve de arma y tambien 
para cortar cana en los ingenios. Se comprende facilmente que 
b torma del cuchillo debe ser apropiada a la naturaleza del monte, 
plantacion 6 cultivo en que ha de utilizarse y que los demas ade- 
bntos cientificos serian inutiles. 

« 

Es evidente que con el arado se obtienen mejores resultados 
que con la azada, pero esto no le importa al nativo que no tiene 
dincro para comprar un arado y los productos de cuyo plantio 
bastan a satisfacer las necesidades de la familia. El hace lo que 
nccesita para vivir y esto es lo unico que pide. Por razon de las 
grandes distancias y del mal estado de los caminos y de lo costoso 
del trasporte, no se piensa en la exportacion del sobrante de la 
cosecha. ^ A que conduce, pues, la extension de un cultivo que no 
hade rendir provecho? Esta condicion y estado de cosas cam- 
biaran con el ensanche de la civilizacion y principalmente con el 
aumento de la poblacion de aquellos paises. 

Los emisarios del comercio y de la industria no tardaran mucho 
en despertar las necesidades de los habitantes de estos paises; si 
cllo no fuera cierto y si los paises de que hacemos merito no estu- 
viescn ya entrando en una civilizacion mas avanzada, no aumenta- 



1 t68 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

ria su demanda de productos extranjeros. La mision de aquellos 
emisarios es crear necesidades en aquellos paises mas que en 
ningun otro lugar. Pero esto solo puede conseguirse por grados; 
y es en los paises no abiertos completamente al trafico donde 
aparecen mas pronto nuevas necesidades y donde la poblacion se 
dedica con mayor empeno a un cultivo mas amplio. 

Por otra parte, en los lugares no abiertos a la circulacicn es donde 
el hombre permanece por largo tiempo contento con el mezquino 
comercio en cuentas multicolores y articulos de bagatela, y en donde 
se echa de menos el gusto por los articulos de verdadero valor que 
tienen demanda en los centros civilizados. Facilitar los medios 
de comunicacion y abrir campo al trafico es el objeto principal de 
la economia politica de los paises competidores. Lo que se ha 
dicho de maquinaria y herramientas es aplicable tambien a otros 
articulos. Son dignos de mencion como articulos utiles en estos 
paises, los cepillos niveladores y tomos de barrenar de construccion 
tan sencilla como sea posible ; maquinas para moler y fraguas por- 
tatiles ; tubos para caneria de agua ; estano en hoja 6 de otra clase ; 
hierro acanalado que se emplea en la construccion de casas y alma- 
cenes ; prensas para frutas y flores destinadas a la produccion de 
csencias; maquinas para limpiar y descascarar el cafe; molinos de 
todas clases para piedras, arena, yeso y cimento, y pequenas prensas 
de cilindro. 

Todos estos paises usan polvora y dinamita para volar rocas, 
explotar canteras, etc., y necesitan tambien alambres y aparatos sen- 
cillos para levantar pesos, asi como tambien cables sencillos para 
minas y materiales para la construccion de puentes. Podrian im- 
portarse asimismo herramientas de herrero, clavos y tomillos para 
madera, etc. 



SERVICIO DE VAPORES EN EL PACf PICO. 

El Honorable Henry L. Wilson, Ministro de los Estados 
Unidos en Chile, comunica a esta Oficina que las dos lineas de 
vapores que hacen el servicio entre Valparaiso y Panama pro- 
yectan extenderlo hasta San Francisco. Segun el itinerario actual, 
los vapores salen de Valparaiso una vez a la semana y hacen escala 
en Coquimbo, Antofagasta, Iquiqui, Mollendoy el Callao, haciendo 
el viaje a Panama en doce dias. Saliendo de Panama en su viaje 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 1 1 69 

hacia el norte, dichos vapores haran escala en los principales 
puertos mexicanos, llegando a San Francisco en doce dias, a 
contar desde la fecha de su salida de Panama. Por consiguiente, 
el viaje completo de Valparaiso a San Francisco sera solo de 
vcinte v dos dias. 

Las mayores fecilidades que este nuevo arreglo ofrece, tanto a 
trafico de pasajeros como al trasporte de mercancias, seran natural- 
mente de gran beneficio para los puertos de la costa del Pacifico. 

Las Imeas mencionadas son La Compania Sud Americana de 
Vapores, bajo la bandera chilena, pero de la propiedad en su mayor 
parte de subditos ingleses, y la "Pacific Steam Navigation Com- 
pany," compania exclusivamente britanica. Estas dos companias 
estan subvencionadas por el Gobierno chileno y se hallan en con- 
diciones prosperas. 



COMERCIO MISCELANEO. 

REPtJBLICA ARGENTINA. 

Bo)a da Paiastro ^"^ ^^ ^^^ primeras casas comerciales de la Reptiblica 

Americano. Argentina asegura que el tr&fico en hoja de palastro ha 

alcanzado gran incremento en aquel pais, debido & que cada dia se la emplea 

mas para construcciones. -Los fabricantes de los Estados Unidos comienzan fi 

ccnvcnccrsc de que los mercados sudamericanos son muy importantes y hacen 

«f\icrzos para que sus productos puedan conipetir alii con los ingleses. Uno 

de Ids obst&culos con que tropiezan ha sido hasta ahora la diferencia en los 

flctcs, porque estos cuestan como 10 por ciento menos de Inglaterta que de los 

Estados Unidos. Sc tomarin medidas para obviar esta dificultad, y se cree que la 

prontitud en la remisi6n de mercancias de los Estados Unidos favorecerd 4 este 

pais en la competencia que se ha suscitado. 

Se aseeura, apoyindose en autoridades, que constante- 

EmbarqoM de Fapel. & ' r / > n 

mente sc exporta i, L6ndres papel de los Estados Unidos 
para ser de alii reembarcado al Brasil. Papel para peri6dicos, para techos y 
para papelcros ha sido pedido por casas cxportadores en cantidades que ascicn- 
dcn & millares de pesos. Esto se debe i que en la America Central y del Sur 
ignoran lo que es la producci6n de este articulo en los Estados Unidos, y k que 
casas inglcsas, en competencia con los fabrici^ntes alemanes, disponen de un 
trifico al que los americanos han dedicado poca atenci6n. 

CHILE. 

Segiin el " Chilian Times ", la producci6n de nitrato en 
PnrfnocitodeHilrato. « / - ,, , o • 1 1 - 1 a 

1896 asciendo a 23,832,434 qumtales, y la exportacion a 

24,066,189. Los principales paises adonde dicho articulo se cxport6, son Ale- 



1 lyO BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

mania, los Estados Unidos, la Gran Bretafia, Francia, y Holanda. Por los 
datos publicados y que muestran la cantidad de nitrato que se ha consumido en 
el mundo durante los (iltimos siete afios, se ve que ha habido un aumento de 
4,359,627 quintales, 6 sean 200,000 tonelades inglesas en 1896, sobre lo que se 
consunii6 en 1890. El exceso de la exportaci6n en 1896 sobre la producci6n 
que se calcul6 por ese afio, se debe i la excesiva producci6n en 1895. 
La Oompania Tabaquera ^a Compafiia Tabaquera Sudamericana, establecida en 
SQdamericana. Valparaiso, y que em plea 160 operarios, importa para 

la manufactura de cigarrillos grandes cantidades de tabaco americano en rama, 
de la clase que crece en Virginia y en la Carolina del Norte. Ademis de lo que 
introduce de los Estados Unidos, la compafiia hace venir tabaco de la Habana, 
de Egipto, de Turqula y de la parte norte del Brasil. Se asegura que la pro- 
ducci6n de este establecimiento es de 900,000 cigarrilloss y 10,000 libras de 
tabaco labrado. Si los exportadores hicieran esfiierzos adecuados, aumentarfa 
mucho el consumo de tabaco americano en Chile. 

ECUADOR. 
Por un decreto del Ejecutivo todas las mercancias des- 

Factnras Oonralaroa. 

tinadas al Ecuador deben ir acompafiadas de una factura 

consular con el visto bueno del c6nsul 6 de la persona autorizada para obrar 

como tal en el puerto de embarque. Todo bulto que pese mis de 50 kilogramos 

debe llevar marcado en la parte exterior, con niimeros claros, su peso bruto. 

Todo peso que execeda del 10 por ciento al declarado en la factura, pagari un 

recargo de 100 por ciento sobre los derechos aplic;^bles al articulo, de con- 

formidad con las leyes aduaneras existentes. 

HAITi. 

Lmaa de Oabie i la Amtfrica La Compafiia de Tel6grafo y Cable de los Estados 
del Snr. Unidos ha inaugurado (iltimamente su linea cablegrifica i 

la America del Sur. El cable sale de L6ndres y termina en el Cabo Haitiano, 
donde hace conexi6n con el cable francos de las Antillas que toca en Venezuela, 
la Martinica, las Guayanas Francesa y Holandesa, y Pari, en el Brasil. En 
este filtimo punto el cable franc6s se une con las lineas telegrificas del Brasil, y 
despu6s con las de la Argentina. Este cable acorta la distancia para los cable- 
gramas entre Inglaterra y la America del Sur, y reduce el costo de los mismos 
como 25 por ciento. 

MfiXICO. 

Trabajadorea japoneMs El Sefior William Laing Malcolmson, quc residiS 
en lot Oafctaies. pQj. muchos afios en Ceilin dedicado al cultivo de caft en 

gran escala, y que por algun tiempo ha estado en M6xico investigando las ventajas 
que puede ofrecer dicho cultivo en esa Repdblica, ha logrado interesar & muchos 
ricos plantadores de caf6 en la compra de grandes plantaciones en el istmo de 
Tehuantepec. Por medio del ministro japon6s en M6xico, el Sefior Malcolmson 
ha concludio algunos arreglos preliminares para la introducci6n de una gran 



EUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. II7I 

colonia de trabajadores japoneses i la Repdblica, i fin de emplearlos en los 
cafetales. Opina dicho sefior que los terrenos del sur de Mexico se adaptan 
mejor para el culticivio del caf6 que cuantos 61 ha visto, y que el trabajador 
japon6s es especialmente adecuado para este cultivio. 

El desarroUo industrial de M6xico ha dado por resultado 

ACaqninaria Americana* 

mayor demanda de maquinaria americana, y durante el 

afio pasado^ sobre todo^ hubo mucho necesidad de miquinas y calderas para 

minas. Una casa emprendedora y activa de Erie, Pennsylvania, envi6 lo que se 

necesitaba. No es solamente una clase de maquinaria, sino todas las que hacen 

falta sMSl, y los fabricantes americanos tienen un vasto campo para sus negocios. 

Los de Europa les hacen enorme competencia. • 

Ezportaciones Mesdcanaa Segdn datos estadisticos tiltimamente publicados por el 

en 18967x897. Ministerio de Hacienda, Mexico export6 durante el alio 

econ6mico de 1896 i 1897, metales preciosos por valor de $66,183,097, y otros 

articulos por valor de $45,i63,3Q7, formando un total de $111,346,494. 

La exportaci6n total durante el afio econ6mico anterior fu6 solamente de 

$105,016,902, lo cual prueba que ha habido un aumento de $6,329,592. 

Inibnne del Senor Don ^^ Sefior Don Enrique Sanchez ha tenido la atenci6n 

Enrique Sanches. ^^ enviar i estaOficina una copia del informe que dirigi6 

al Gobernador Pr6spero Cahuantzi, del Estado de Tlaxcala, Mexico, relativa- 

mente i su misi6n como delegado oficial de aquel Estado al Congreso Mercantil 

que se reuni6 en junio pasado en Filadelfia, Estados Unidos de America, al favor 

de los Museos de Filadeltia. ' 

£1 informe es claro 6 interesante y pone de manifesto la magnitud del proyecto 
que dichos Museos tienen i la mira para fomentar el trifico de los Estados 
Unidos con M6xico y otros paises latino-americanos. El Sefior Sanchez reco- 
niienda que se exhiban en las Museos muestras de los productos agrfcolas, min- 
^ales 6 industriales del Estado de Tlaxcala, i fin de que puedan verlas aquellas 
pcrsonas que estin interasadas en el adelanto de Mexico. 

NICARAGUA. 
Los informes recibidos del departamento de Matagalpa 

CoMcha de Oaftf. ^ 

relativos i la cosecha de caf6 para el afio de 1897 4 1898, 

^"^Oan que seri demasiado grande para ser trassportada por medio de mulas y 

*'*'^tas de bueyes. » Con este motivo, el Congreso de Nicaragua ha autorizado 

"I'csidentc Zelaya para que haga construir una via f6rrea que, partiendo de 

*^^\idad de Matagalpa, se una con el ferrocarril nacional. Las plantaciones 

^zficar y de caf6 se han desarrollado tanto, que se hace necesario disponer 

^ ^n&quinas mis grandes y mejores, asi como de m6todos mis ripidos, para 

^^^ncr los productos respecfivos. 

PERU. 

^^^^dtedeiDereehodeBz- El 1 1 de setiembrc iiltimo, el Gobierno peruano emiti6 
Portadto Sobre u Plata. ^^ decreto por el cual fii6 abolido el derecho de cxpor- 

^^6n de 3 por ciento ad valorem que se pagaba sobre la plata acufiada, en pasta 



1172 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

y chafalonia. Esta exenci6n no se extiende i la moneda de oro nacional 6 al oro 
en barras 6 en polvo, que seguirSn pagando el derecho de exportaci6n del 3 por 
ciento. 

EST ADOS UNIDOS. 

^^"*!f ?f Ternero son La Junta dc Aforadores Generalcs de los Estados 

Librea de DerechoB en Iob J 

Estados Unidos. Unidos dccidi6, el 3 dc diciembre de 1897, que las pieles 

crudas de ternero, que sirven para hacer casi todo el calzado que se usa en estc 
pais, serin en lo future introducidas libres de derechos. Segun esta r6soluci6n, 
las pielas crudas de ternero no deben clasiHcarse, siguiendo el arancel de Dingley, 
como cueros de res crudos, que pagan un derecho de 15 por ciento ad valorem, 
sino que estdn exentas de todo derecho y figuran en la lista de articulos libres, 
bajo el nombre de pieles crudas. La Junta encuentra tambi6n -que la palabra 
'* cucro " se aplica t6cnicamente i las pieles de animales grandes, tales corao 
caballos, bueyes, vacas y toros, mientras que la expresi6n "piel" se emplea 
hablando de las de ovejas, terneros y cabras. La palabra "cuero," como 
t6rmino comercial, se refiere i los que pesan veinticinco libras 6 m£s. A los 
que pesan menos se les llama "^ pieles." Tratindose de pieles y cueros secos, un 
peso de doce libras marca la linea divisoria. 

En un informe de mercado de Nueva York, corespon- 

El Oedro Sndamericano. 1 1 • 1 1 rt 1 

diente al mes de diciembre de 1897, se asegura que el 

cedro espafiol ha encontrado un rival en el que se produce en varias partes de 

las Antillas, Mexico, la America Central y de la Sur. Este se ha usado i satis- 

faci6n general, no es tan caro como el otro y es probable que afecte la venta del 

cedro espafiol en lo futuro de una manera permanente. La cantidad que de este 

iiltimo hay ahora en el mercado es pequena. 

Al comparar los datos estadisticos del tr&Bco de bici- 
TrfllcodeBiciclelat. ia/i-j i« /• 

cletas con la America latina durante los afios economicos 

de 1896 y 1897, se ve un aumento notable en el valor del mismo en 1897. Del 

mencionado artlculo se export6 para M6xico en 1897 una cantidad por valor de 

$73,1 17, lo cual indica un aumento de $48,839 sobre el afio precedcnte. A la 

Argentina se envi6 por valor de $42,091 en 1897, contra $4,065 en 1896, 

mientras que el Brasil ocupa el tercer lugar, con un valor de $29,355 ^^ ^^97 ^ 

dc $13,592 en 1896. La exportaci6n i la America Central, Santo Domingo 

y Cclombia, aument6 durante los dos anos en $6,020, $4,642 y $1,278, repec- 

tivamcntc En los otros paises sudamericanos se imporrtiron bicicletas por 

valor dc $7^,507 en 1897, y de $13,401 solamente en 1896, lo cual mucstra un 

aumento notable dc $60,106. 

URUGUAY. 

TrtLfloo entre los Estados Scgiin datos que se han publicado relatives i las expor- 
UmdosTMontendeo. tacioncs hcchas por el puerto de Montevideo durante los 
primeros nueve mescs del afio corriente, se ve que los Estados Unidos ocupan 
cl primer lugar entre los paises que importan cueros de buey secos del Uruguay, 
pues en el espacio mencionado tomaron 245,605 cueros, 6 sea m&s de la mitad 
del total exportado, que fu6 de 466,795. De los cueros salados, los Estados 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 1173 

Unidos rccibicron cerca dc la quinta parte de la cantidad que el Uruguay export6, 
ocupando asi el cuarto lugar entre las naciones que se dedican i ese tr&fico. En 
cuanto a la iniporcaci6n de lanas del Uruguay, los Estados Unidos ocupan el 
icrcer lugar, pues dc las 50,552 pacas que se exportaron, este pais tom6 1 1,738. 
Mas de una tercera parte de la cantidad de pelo que se embarc6 en Montevideo 
vino i los Estados Unidos, ascendiendo la exportaci6n total i 940 pacas. 

« 

VENEZUELA. 
Scgfin tnforma el Ministro Francis B. Loomis, el negocio 

£1 O omer cio de Q^aziado. _.. 

de ganado en Venezuela puede convertirse en una amenaza 
para los que se dedican i 6\ en los Estados Unidos. En apoyo de su aserci6n, el 
Ministro hace referencia i lo que ha aumentado en Venezuela el ganado durante 
los trcs afios pasados. En 1894, habla en el pais 5,000,000 de cabezas, y hoy 
se cucntan 10,000,000. Se cree que este numero ser5 mis del duplo de lo que es 
ahora dcntro de los cuatro anos venideros. Los esfuerzos que Venezuela ha 
hecho i fin de obtener un mercado para su ganado, han tenido un 6xito tan 
fevorable, que se trata de extender dicho trifico i Cuba y & otras de las Antillas. 

Segun el " Heraldo de Venezuela," las noticias relativas fi 

R««ifa do Oto del Goarico. ° j 1 j- • j r^ . j j. 

las minas de oro del distnto de Guanco, son cada dia 
mas halagadoras. Al presente, hay ocho companias extranjeras explorando el 
distrito. Se han concedido ya treinta y cuatro pertenencias mineras y se han 
dcnunciado muchas otras minas cuyos pianos han sido previamente prcsentados. 
Dicese que una compania ha pedido i Inglaterra doce molinos que habran de ser 
movidos por fuerza hidriulica. La vena en esta mina tiene diez pi6s de ancho 
y conticnc cuarzo tan rico en oro, que este metal aparece perfectamente visible. 

La Orinoco Company se prepara para la inmediata 

La Orinoco Oompany. . ' . . 

explotaci6n de las minas de hierro descubiertas dentro de 
los limitcs de su concesi6n. En estas ultimas semanas se ha descubierto una vena 
mineral dc 100 4 200 pi6s de ancho y cinco millas dc largo, i dos millas de Santa 
Catalina. A cinco millas de la mencionada ciudad, se han encontrado otros 
dcp6sitos mayores. Estos dep6sitos se consideran inagotables, y scdice que el 
hierro es superior en calidad al procedentc de Espafia y Africa. La gran compa- 
nia, a cuyas manos ha pasado por virtud de concesi6n esta parte de Venezuela, 
ioiciari pronto otras emprcsas en esta rica regi6n. 

ASOCIACION NACIONAL DE FABRICANTES. 

Awciaeito iTacional de ^^ Oficinaha rccibido la noticia de que varies exporta- 
Fabncantea dorcs y fabricantcs prominentes dc las principales ciudades 

dc los Estados Unidos estin tomando las medidas necesarias para satisfacer la 
nccesidad que se ha venido sintiendo desde hace largo tiempo respecto de una 
comunicaci6n directa con los puertos del none y del este de la America delSui. 
Elasunto scri discutido en unareuni6nde la Asociaci6n Nacionalde Fabricantcs, 
que sc vcrificari en la ciudad de Nueva York en el mes de enero, y se dar&n 
los pasos preliminarcs que conduciian 4 la realizacion del pensamiento. 



1174 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

£1 dep6sito 6 almac6n para la exhibici6n de manufac- 

Depdaito en Oarftcas. * . i i . • r-< 

turas amencanas, establecido en Caracas, es la primera 
tentativa experimental que ha hecho en ese sentido la Asociaci6n Nacional de 
Fabricantes. La demanda de espacio por los exponedores ha sido tan grande, 
que los encargados de la administraci6n se han visto obligados & Hjar el 4 de 
diciembrc como llmite del t6rmino para recibir mercancias. En un informe 
fechado en Puerto Cabello, y que acaba de llegar al Departraento de Estado, el 
C6nsul pROSKAUER se expresa de la siguiente favorable manera acercd de la 
empresa y sus resultados en lo que toca el comercio de Venezuela : 

"Al principio sus buenos efectos se limitarin 4 los grandes y ricos territories 
que son tributarios de Caracas y que consumen articulos de primera calidad, 
pero su fama y los beneficios que producirfi no tardarin en inducir i los comercian- 
tes de las regiones central y occidental de la Republica & visitar la exposicidn. 
La vista misma de las mercancias y artefactos, la comparaci6n de ellas en el 
lugar mismo con otros objetos semejantes, el cambio de ideas entre los repre- 
sentantes americanos y los comerciantes venezolanos acerca de pequefios detalles 
mercantiles, no pueden sino ser provechosos para ambas partes, y contribuir 4 disi- 
par s6rios errores que adn existen. £1 Gobierno esti haciendo cuanto puede 
para fomentar la empresa, y los sentimientos amistosos de los hijos del pais h&cia 
todo lo que es amencano, har&n que desarrollen la mayor energia 4 Hn de que los 
csfuerzos de los iniciadores del proyecto se vcan coronados de buen 6xito." 

LOS MUSEOS COMERCIALES DE FILADELFIA. 

pYofecto de nn Oongreao ^^^ Museos Comerciales de Filadelfia que tuvieron su 
Oomercial internaeionai. Qflgen cn la idea de ensanchar el comercio de los Estados 

Unidos con Mexico y otros paises de la Am6rica Central y del Sur, y tambi6n 
con las Antillas, trabajan ahora con gran actividad para llevar 4 cabo el pro- 
yecto de un congreso internaeionai compuesto de representantes de todo el 
mundo comercial. Un ndmero reciente del "Manufacturer" anuncia que se 
est4 invitando 4 las c4maras de comercio y 4 otras instituciones comerciales 
de Asia, Africa, y Australasia, para que designen los comisionados que han de 
representarlas en el congreso. 

La comisi6n consultiva de los Museos tiene representantes en muchos centros 
comerciales de los Estados Unidos y cuenta con personas amigas que atienden con 
celo 6 interns 4 la instituci6n, en Mexico, America Central, Brasil, Republica 
Argentina, Chile y dem4s paises de la America del Sur. Como el comercio de 
los Estados Unidos crece cada dla m4s en el sur de Africa, China, Jap6n y Aus- 
tralia, es de desearse que el Museo en vie tambi6n sus representantes 4 aquellos 
paises. A juzgar por las respuestas favorables que se est4n recibiendo el 
proyecto promete alcanzar un 6xito complete. 



BOLETIM MENSAL 

DA 

Secretaria das Republicas Americanas 

UniXo Internacional das Republicas Americanas 

Vou V. JANEIRO DE 1898. No. 7. 



RELA9OES COMMERCIAES ENTRE OS PAIZES 

, AMERICANOS.— VII. 

A COSTA ORIENTAL DA AMERICA DO SUL.* 

As republicas da America do Sul que seguem em ordem na 

considera9ao deste assumpto, s2lo as que estlo situadas na costa do 

Atlantico, ou pelo menos, encontram suas sahidas naturaes nesta 

costa. Estas republicas, dadas na ordem de sua distancia dos 

Estados Unidos, sJo o Brazil, o Uruguay, a Republica Argentina 

c o Paraguay, sendo este o unico paiz que nSo tern um porto na 

costa oriental. O transporte entre os Estados Unidos e esta vasta 

Tegiio da America do Sul, que possue nao somente grandes 

recursos naturaes para desenvolver-se, mas industrias muito desen- 

volvidas e um commercio de grande propor9So, e feito directa- 

"f^cnte e com facilidade, e nao espera as facilidades addicionaes 

4^e acosta occidental necessita com muita urgencia, e que seguir^o 

* construc9ao de um canal atravez de Nicaragua ou do Isthmo de 

"anama. A extensSlo do commercio actual dos Estados Unidos 

para as republicas situadas na parte oriental da America do Sul, 

^^pcnde, portanto, de condi96es que ja existem e n^Lo das que 

^^ni de ser creadas. 

A constniC92lo do canal interoceanico daria em resultado uma 

*0 primeiro artigo desta serie foi publicado no Boletim de Julho de 1897. 

1175 



1176 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

economia de distancia entre a costa oriental da America do Sul e 
toda a costa occidental do Hemispherio, mas teria pouca influencia, 
salvo indirectamente, sobre o commercio entre a costa do Atlantico 
da America do Sul e o littoral do Atlantico e os portos do Golfo 
dos Estados Unidos. Ja se encontram no vasto oceanodo Atlan- 
tico caminhos maritimos curtos e practicos, e os requisites para o 
desenvolvimento commercial sao simplesmente os ordinarios que 
formam a base de todo o commercio maritimo. Em outras pala- 
vras, a unica cousa que temos de fazer, e descobrir os meios de 
augmentar a permuta de productos pelos caminhos estabelecidos, 
sem ter necessidade de remover difRculdade alguma natural. Si 
pudermos obter a quantidade de artigos que se exige para a troca, 
e OS navios para leval-os, a questao ficara resolvida. 

Mas ainda que os portos da costa oriental da America do Sul 
sejam pontos terminaes de caminhos directos e definitivos dos 
Estados Unidos, sua posi9ao geographica relativa a este paiz 
nao e de natureza a dar-lhe vantagem na concurrencia com as 
na9oes europeas para seu commercio. Como se mostrou no 
primeiro artigo desta serie, uma grande parte do continente sul- 
americano esta situado a leste de uma linha perpendicular tra9ada 
de New York para o sul, e, por conseguinte, a costa da America 
do Sul e pouco mais distante dos portos europeos do Norte do 
que dos portos dos Estados Unidos. 

As condi96es, portanto, sao mais similares do que na concurren- 
cia para o commercio do Mexico, America Central, as Antilhas e 
a costa septentrional da America do Sul, e o facto de que esteS 
paizes estSo mais proximos aos Estados Unidos, da a este paiz 
grande vantagem sobre os seus competidores europeos — uma van- 
tagem que como varias vezes tem-se mostrado nestes artigos, seria 
estendida a costa occidental da America do Sul, logo que esti- 
vesse concluido o canal de Nicaragua ou de Panama. Mas, 
apezar disto, o total do commercio da costa oriental da America 
do Sul e tao grande, que a parte que os Estados Unidos tomam 
nelle, monta a grandes propor96es, ainda mesmo que as condi96es 
geographicas fossem menos favoraveis, especialmente comparada 
com a parte que tem o trafico da costa occidental. Segundo as 
tabellas publicadas pela Reparti9ao de Estatistica do Ministerio 
da Fazenda dos Estados Unidos, o commercio de importa9io e 
exporta9ao dos Estados Unidos na costa oriental da America 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



1177 



do Sul, durante os ultimos dous annos fiscaes findos a 30 de Junho 
de 1896 e 1897, foi o seguinte: 



Costa oriental da America do Sul. 



Republica Argentina'. 

Brazil 

Paraguay 

Uruguay 



Total 



Importayflo. 



1896. 



Dollars. 

9. 313. 385 
71, 060, 046 



3, 242. 428 



83.615.859 



1897. 



Dollars. 
10. 772. 627 

69. 039. 389 



3.515.054 



Kxporta9ao. 



1896. 



Dollars. 
5, 979, 046 
14, 258, 187 



1,481, 200 



83. 327. 070 



21,718,433 



1897. 



Dollars. 

6, 384. 984 

12, 450, 061 

740 

1,213,426 



20,049, 211 



total do commercio dos Estados Unidos com a America do 
Sul durante os mesmos annos foi o seguinte : 

America do Sul, 



Importa9flo. 


Bxporta9&o. 


1896. 


1897. 


1896. 


1897. 


Dollars. 
108, 828, 462 


Dollars. 

107, 389. 009 

• 


• 

Dollars. 
36. 297, 671 


Dollars. 
33, 768, 493 



Assim, vemos que do total das importa96es da America do Sul 
DOS Estados Unidos, mais do que tres quartas partes procedem da 
costa oriental, em quanto que quasi dous ter90S do total das expor- 
ta^Ses dos Estados Unidos para a America do Sul sao recebidos 
pelo mesmo grupo de paizes. O commercio dos Estados Unidos 
na costa occidental comparado com o da costa oriental parece 
rouito insignificante. Apenas as possibilidades deste trafico attra- 
hcni a atten9ao. Sens algarismos s2Lo os seguintes : 

Costa occidental da America do Sul. 



Bolivia 
Chile... 

|quador 
Peru . 



Total 



Importa9ao. 



1896. 



Dollars. 



4.709.017 
763, 643 
712, 696 

6, 185, 356 



1897. 



Dollars. 



3, 792, 434 
566. 526 
722, 089 

5,081,049 



Bxporta^fto. 



1896. 



Dollars. 

21,907 

3,431,808 

689, 416 

999.381 

5. 142, 512 



1897. 



Dollars. 

7.787 

2,578.911 

734. 868 

1. 108, 436 

4, 430, 002 



1 1 yS BUREAU O^ AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Espera-se pouco augmento nestes algarismos ate que a conclus^o 
do canal interoceanico abra um caminho maritimo mais curto c 
mais barato dos Estados Unidos ao littoral do Pacifico da America 
do Sul; mas o total do trafico actual, assim como as grandes 
riquezas agricolas do Brazil e dos paizes do Rio da Prata, que 
proraettem grande desenvolvimento de commercio, parece indicar 
a costa oriental da America do Sul como terreno fevoravel no 
qual cony em cultivar rela9des mais estreitas com os Estados 
Unidos. 

Sob o ponto de vista do ^bricante e exportador dos Estados 
Unidos, as actuaes rela95es commerciaes com os paizes da costa 
oriental da America do Sul nio sao sads&ctorias, porque os Esta- 
dos Unidos, em quanto que importam annualmente destes paizes 
productos no valor de mais de $83,000,000, Ihes vendem produc- 
tos no valor de so $20,000,000, ou menos de um quarto desta 
somma. Agora que o febricante americano fez concurrencia com 
bom exito com o seu competidor europeo no proprio mercado 
deste, nao ha raz^o para que nao tenha bom exito na concurrencia 
com o seu competidor europeo nos mercados da America do Sul, 
ou em qualquer outro mercado estrangeiro. Elle descuida-se dos 
obstaculos de costume, de rela96es commerciaes por tanto tempo 
estabelecidas, de predisposi9oes de tarifa, e do capital europeo que 
esta entrincheirado nas institui9oes bancarias e govema o cambio. 
Estes obstaculos, sem duvida, podem ser eventualmente vencidos, 
mas somente por esfor9os pacientes e intelligentes. 

Talvez a melhor agencia que se possa empregar para removel-os, 
seja um systema de reciprocidade que assegure a livre troca de 
productos sem prejuizo das industrias estabelecidas. Si um sys- 
tema de reciprocidade fosse iniciado de tal modo que cada parte 
fosse beneficiada, contribuiria, sem duvida, para desviar o com- 
mercio dos caminhos europeos e para unir as republicas americanas 
numa verdadeira communidade de interesses. As questdes subsidia- 
rias, mas nem por isso menos importantes, do augmento das fecili- 
dades de transporte com vapores sob as bandeiras das republicas 
americanas e de estradas de ferro ligando os differentes paizes com 
la90s de a90, e da adapta9§lo de manufacturas dos Estados Unidos 
e de methodos de negocio as exigencias do commercio sul-ameri- 
cano, ja foram tratadas extensamente nesta serie de artigos, mas 
devem ser lembradas constantemente e submettidas a atten9So dc 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 1^79 

todos OS interessados no grande problema de condi95es commerciaes 

na America como indispensaveis a um . rapido desenvolvimento. 

Dos paizes de que trata este artigo o Brazil tem o maior trafico 

com OS Estados Unidos. Durante o ultimo anno fiscal findo a 

30 de Junho de 1897, o valor das exporta^des do Brazil para os 

Estados Unidos montou a mais de $69,000,000, e o das im- 

porta96es montou a $12,450,000. Houve uma diminui95o de 

$2,000,000 no valor das exporta9oes comparadas com as do anno 

anterior e de $1,800,000 no das importa9Qes, mas essa dimi- 

nui9ao e de pouca importancia no valor total de um commercio 

que montou a $81,000,000, e encontra precedentes nas fluctua96es 

dos annos anteriores. Fallando em geral, nao se pode dizer que 

as importa9oes dos Estados Unidos no Brazil, tem augmentado 

numa serie de annos, em quanto que suas exporta95es para os 

Estados Unidos tem diminuido desde 1893 no valor de $7,000,000. 

Este estado de cousas e tanto mais notavel quanto e sabido que 

o Brazil, mais do que nenhum outro paiz da America do Sul, tem 

manifestado, desde muitos annos, a maior cordialidade nas suas 

redoes, quer politicas quer commerciaes, com os Estados Unidos. 

Os principaes productos agricolas do Brazil, taes como o cafe, 

assucar, boiracha, etc., sendo quasi exclusivamente tropicaes, este 

paiz nio pode fazer concurrencia com os cereaes dos Estados 

Unidos, e, por conseguinte, estes podem fazer concessSes de tarife 

scm prejudicarem suas industrias nacionaes. Por outro lado, ha 

grande variedade de productos manufacturados e alimenticios que 

Brazil desejaria importar dos Estados Unidos em maior quanti- 

dade, si as condi95es fossem mais favoraveis. Nao ha paiz no 

Hemispherio Occidental que pare9a ofFerecer maiores beneficios, 

SI se estabelecer um bem elaborado systema de reciprocidade entre 

die e OS Estados Unidos. 

Asrela96es entre a Republica Argentina e os Estados Unidos 
s5o menos faceis de ajustar*se, em consequencia da similhan9a dos 
pnncipaes productos dos dous paizes, taes como o trigo e a la. A 
R^ublica Argentina, entretanto, produz artigos da zona torrida, 
^^to como da zona temperada, e pode ser que os jrtigos (taes 
conio assucar) que n2lo entram em concurrencia com* os princi- 
P^^s productos dos Estados Unidos, salvo em pequena escala, 
Possam ser usados como base para concessSes mutuas. Tambem 
^2-se que certas qualidades da la da Republica Argentina nao 



ll8o BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

podem ser cultivadas nos Estados Unidos coni vantagem, e, con- 
seguintemente, podiam ser admittidas em condi9oes mais favora- 
veis; mas declara-se, por outro lado, que os Estados Unidos, com 
a protec9^o da tarifa, podiam cultivar em certas localidades a 
mesma qualidade de la. 

Esta e uma questSo para ser ajustada por aquelles especial- 
mente habilitados para resolvel-a, mas pode-se dizer que a recipro- 
cidade subintende uma politica de dar e receber, com o fim geral 
de fornecer a todos o maior beneficio possivel. O commcrcio da 
Republica Argentina e de grandes propor9oes, montando a mais 
de $200,000,000 por anno. Actual mente a parte que os Estados 
Unidos tomam neste commercio e somente de 7 por cento. 
Evidentemente seria de vantagem considerar as possibilidades de 
augmentar a troca de productos. 

Os principaes productos do Uruguay s3io semelhantes aos dos 
Estados Unidos, a saber, gado, 1^ milho, trigo, etc.; mas as esta- 
tisticas mostram que o Uruguay exporta para os Estados Unidos 
mais productos do que importa deste paiz, e nos paizes do Para- 
guay e Uruguay, os exportadores americanos encontrariam, sem 
duvida, um bom mercado para a venda de certas classes de merca- 
dorias. No Uruguay, por exemplo, ha grande procura de kero- 
sene e madeiras de construc9ao, e os Estados Unidos podiam, sem 
duvida, supprir este mercado quasi exclusivamente si os direitos 
impostos pelo Uruguay sobre estes artigos fossem reduzidos. 

Com a excep9ao do Paraguay, com que os Estados Unidos tern 
pouco commercio, os paizes da costa oriental da America do Sul 
tem o balan9o de commercio a seu favor. Com um ajuste de 
direitos aduaneiros e esfor90S systematicos por parte dos exporta- 
dores dos Estados Unidos, nao e de duvidar, que, em vista das 
sympathias naturaes da Republica Argentina, do Brazil, e Uru- 
guay para a republica irmS do Norte, estes paizes desejariam 
comprar em maior quantidade de um freguez tSLo lucrativo. Para 
resolver o problema do augmento do commercio, necessitam-se 
arranjos* de reciprocidade e esfor90s energicos por parte dos homens 
de negocio dos Estados Unidos afim de veneer os esfor9os indus- 
triosos dos manufectureiros e exportadores europeos. 



Jfe^^^ (^^^^...a^ 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 1 l8l 



O AUTOR DA DOUTRINA DE RECIPROCIDADE. 

Por Alex. D. Anderson. 

Desde que as republicas americanas reuniram-se em Wash- 
ington em 1889, ^ discutiram profundamente a questSio de recipro- 
cidade, varias vezes tem-se feito nas columnas dos periodicos 
muitas tentativas para descobrir o autor desta doutrina popular. 

Um jomal, depois de dedicar muito espa9o a articulistas conhe- 
cidos para suas communica96es sobre este assumpto, nas quaes 
todas a attribuiram a estadistas recentes, final mente declarou no 
scu editorial que ainda a questSo nao ficava resolvida. 

E a opinao geral que a doutrina de reciprocidade e de crea9ao 
modema, emqiianto que e de facto tao antigua como o proprio 
Govemo e originou-a um dos fiindadores da Republica. 

O melhor meio que se pode empregar para determinar esta con- 
froversia, e examinar desde o principio a historica commercial dos 
Estados Unidos, como consta das publica96es officiaes ameri- 
canas, para descobrir a primeira men9ao do assumpto. 

No volume i das Rela95es Exteriores durante a primeira admi- 

Distra9io do Presidente Washington, encontra-se pouco sobre o 

cammercio estrangeiro ate o anno de 1793, quando Thomas 

Jetferson, entSo Secretario de Estado, fez um relatorio sObre o 

assumpto a Camara dos Representantes. 

Foi isto em resposta a uma resolu9ao, approvada pela Camara, 
dous annos antes (23 de Fevereirode 1791), para que o Secrefario 
de Estado fizesse um relatorio ao Congresso sobre "a natureza e 
extensao dos privilegios e restric95es das rela96es commerciaes dos 
Estados Unidos com as na95es estrangeiras, e as medidas que 
julgasse conveniente adoptarem-se para o melhoramento do seu 
commercio e navega92io." 

relatorio, assim como o tempo consumido na sua prepara92Lo 

mostram que foi baseado n'uma investiga9Socuidadosa do assumpto. 

Foi primeiro relatorio bem estudado sobre nossas rela95es 

commerciaes com o exterior, e e um documento digno do espirito 

^fganisador do grande estadista americano. 

Depois de apresentar os factos relativos ao nosso commercio 

^ni as principaes na9des do mundo, o Sr. Jefferson entra em 
BaU. No. 7 8 



Il82 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

uma discussao elaborada sobre o piano que deve govemar as 
rela96es commerciaes. EUe diz o seguinte : 

" Sendo estas as restric96es sobre o commercio e navega92lo dos 
Estados Unidos, a questao e saber como estas podem ser remo- 
vidas, modificadas ou combatidas. 

" Quanto ao commercio ha dous methodos de agir; primeiro, 
por meio de arranjos amistosos com as varias na^des com as quaes 
se dao essas restric9oes ; e, segundo, por meio de legisla9io especial 
afim de contrabalan9ar seus efFeitos. 

" Destes dous methodos, n2io ha duvida que o arranjo amistoso 
e o melhor. 

" Si o commercio, em vez de ser embara9ado com a accumu- 
la9ao de leis, regulamentos, direitos e prohibi95es, pudesse ser 
libertado de todos os obstaculos em todas as partes do mundo e 
cada paiz pudesse dedicar-se a produc9ao de artigos a que fosse 
adaptado pela natureza, e si os paizes pudessem livremente trocar 
seus mutuos excessos de produc9ao pelos productos de que carecem 
mutuamente, entao seria produzida a maior quantidade possivel de 
taes productos que contribuem para a vida e felicidade humana, a 
popula9ao seria augmentada, e sua condi9ao melhorada. 

**Ainda que uma so na9ao quizesse iniciar este systema de 
commercio livre com os Estados Unidos, seria conveniente ini- 
cial-o com essa na9ao, desde que e somente de uma a uma que 
se pode estender o systema a todas. Quando as circ.umstancias de 
uma ou outra parte exigem a imposi9ao de direitos sobre o com- 
mercio, sua liberdade neste particular podia ser modificada por 
medidas mutuas e equivalentes, conservando-a inteira em todos os 

outros particulares." 

» » » * » » # 

" Mas si uma na9ao, contra nossos desejos, suppuzer ser de mais 
vantagem continuar seu systema de prohibi96es, direitos e regula- 
mentos, e preciso tambem que protejamos nossos concidadSos, seu 
commercio e navega9ao, por outras prohibi96es, direitos e regula- 
mentos semelhantes. O commercio e navega9ao livres nao devem 
ser trocados pelas restric95es e vexames, e n^o e provavel que estes 
sejam mitigados por aquelles." 

Os principios seguintes baseados na reciprocidade parecem per- 
feitamente equitativos, e nSo ofFerecem as outras na9des raz^o para 
reclama92lo. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. ^^83 

Quando uma na9ao imp5e direitos excessivos sobre nossos 

productos, ou os prohibe, sera conveniente fazermos outro tanto, 

primeiro onerando ou prohibindo os productos que nos trazem em 

concurrencia com os nossos semelhares; em segundo lugar, esco- 

Ihendo os productos manufacturados que recebemos dellas em 

maior quantidade, e que, ao mesmo tempo, podiamos produzir 

nos mesmos no menor espa90 de tempo, ou obter de outros paizes, 

impondo sobre elles direitos primeiramente pequenos, e depois 

augmentai-os a propor9ao que outros meios de supprimento se 

abrirem. Estes direitos dando em resultado a anima9ao indirecta 

das febricas nacionaes, podem persuadir o manufactureiro a immi- 

giar para estes Estados, onde os meios baratos de subsistencia, as 

leis equitativas e a venda de suas mercadorias livres de direito, 

podem garantir-lhe grandes lucros para sua habilidade e diligencia." 

Este documento, cujos trechos ficam citados, e de interesse 

especial para as juntas de commercio, e outras organisa96es com- 

merciaes nos Estados Unidos, que tem mostrado recentemente 

grande interesse na doutrina de reciprocidade, e deve ser publicado 

de novo, como materia de valor e interesse para o publico. 



REPUBLICA ARGENTINA. 

COMMERCIO ESTRANGEIRO DURANTE O PRIMEIRO SEMESTRE 

DO ANNO DE 1897. 

Do relatorio publicado pela Reparticao Nacional de Estatisticas, 
sao tornados os seguintes dados relativos ao commercio estrangeiro 
da Republica Argentina durante o primeiro semestre do anno 
conente : 

total das importa9oes e exporta95es, exceptuando a moeda 
cunhada, montou a $113,742,314, em ouro, contra $121,773,627 
durante o mesmo periodo em 1896, ou uma diminui9ao de 
$8,031,313, dos quaes $2,068,868 pertencem as importa9oes e 
$51968445 as exporta96es. 

As importa95es attingiram a somma de $49,987,541, distri- 
buidas do modo seguinte : 

Artigos sujeitos a direitos $43i 045i 658 

Artigos 1 ivrcs 6, 658, 12 1 

Mocda cunhada 283, 762 

Comparados com os do primeiro semestre do anno de 1896, 
estes algarismos mostram uma diminui9ao de $2, 143,428 eni artigos 



1184 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



sujeitos a direitos, e de $5,387,390 em moeda cunhada, em quanto 
que OS artigos livres tern augmentado em um valor de $74,560. 

A diminui9ao se tem notado principalmente nos productos do 
reino vegetal, na importancia de $1,334*339; em madeiras e suas 
manufacturas, $591,412; em tecidos, com excep9ao dos artigos de 
seda e algodao, $1,170,960; em licores, vinhos e bebidas espiri- 
tuosas, $355,830. 

A diminui9ao crescente notada nas entradas de vinhos ordi- 
narios em barris e, sobre todo, extraordinaria. As importa96es 
deste artigo, que durante o primeiro semestre do anno de 189^ 
montaram a somma de $3,280,000 em ouro, diminuiram successi- 
vamente a $2,820,000 para o periodo correspondente de 1896, e 
a $2,552,668 em 1897. ^^^^ ^ devido em grande parte ao aug- 
mento nos ultimos annos da cultura das vinhas nas provincias do 
noroeste da Republita Argentina. Os vinhos de San Juan, de 
Mendoza, etc., que s^o preparados com mais cuidado que no pas- 
sado, se consumem em grande escala como vinhos de mesa ordi- 
narios e come9am a fazer concurrencia seria aos vinhos francezes e 
italianos. 

Os artigos em que se nota um augmento sio os seguintes : 

Os productos chimicos e pharmaceuticos $200, 938 

Ferro e suas manufacturas I, 338, 300 

Tecidos de seda e l2L 169, 921 

Vermouth 109, 825 

O augmento que se observa na tabella precedente e todo em 
favor da importa9So da Italia, pois o vermouth italiano e quasi o 
unico que se consume no paiz. 

A seguinte tabella da o valor das importa96es dos difFerentes 
paizes para a Republica Argentina nos annos de 1896 e 1897. 



Paiz. 



Gr^ Bretanha. . . 

Fran9a 

Allemanha 

Italia 

Estados Unidos 

Belgica 

Brazil 

Hespanha 

Paraguay 

Uruguay 

Chi e 

Hollanda 

Portugal 

As Antilhas. . . . 
Bolivia 



1897. 



$18, 947. 560 
5. 778. 087 
5, 728, 254 
5, 342, 946 
4, 985. 746 
4,186,946 
I, 826, 803 

i» 755. 175 
578. 481 
295, 386 

96,343 
52, 166 
31, 229 
28,007 

23.177 



1896. 



$20,424,178 
5.553.070 
6, 358, 227 
5,400,741 

4. 933. 336 
4,116, 154 
2, 479, 301 
1, 410, 244 
502, 184 
335. 163 

11.443 
64, 189 
43,908 
18, III 
23, 677 



Augmento. 





$225,017 




52. 410 
70, 792 


344.931 
76, 297 


84,900 




9,896 



Diminui^flo. 



$1,476,618 


629, 973 
57. 795 




652, 498 


39. 777 


12, 023 
12,680 



500 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. I185 

Durante o mesmo periodo as exporta95es attingiram a somma 
de $65,2 1 8,829, e foram como segue : 

Artigos sujeitos a direitos , $39, 771, 228 

Art gos livres 24, 267, 307 

Moeda cunhada i, 180, 294 

Estes dados comparados com os do primeiro trimestre do anno 
precedente mostram que a exporta9^o de artigos sujeitos a direitos 
tem augmentado em $5,574*633; a de moeda cunhada em 
$1,076,132; e a exporta9ao de artigos livres tem diminuido em 
$11,537,078. Esta diminui9ao, que afFecta quasi unicamente os 
productos agricolas, e consequencia da devasta9ao occasionada 
pelosgafanhotos, que destruiram quasi inteiramente a ultima colheita 
dt cereaes. 

Os paizes que compram productos argentinos figuram na ordem 
^guinte: 



Paiz. 

Xlf^Va 

Q '^nianha 

j^ ^ l^retanha. . . 

^^*il 

^^\ia 

*^«^Uguay 

i^^spanha 

^^ilivia 

^S -Antilhas.... 
,-jaraguay 

^ollanda 

*^ortugal 



1897. 



$14, 

9. 
7. 
6. 

5. 
5. 
I. 
I, 
I. 



871.335 
321,283 

651,223 

303. 584 

675. 423 
227, 765 

928, 723 
127,721 

103. 593 
512, 285 

270, 491 

187. 546 

73. 440 

33.133 
10, 142 



I896. 



$14, 932, 860 
8, 456, 197 
8, 146, 182 
7. 665, 597 
4.629,751 
3, 281, 279 
I, 882, 031 
1.354. 712 
1, 656, 067 

457. 934 
265, 478 

128, 253 
82, 634 

438, 528 
14, 088 



Augmento. 



$865, 086 



1,045.672 

I, 946, 486 

46, 692 



54. 351 
5.013 

59. 293 



Diminuicao. 



♦61, 525 



494. 959 
I, 363. 013 



226, 991 
552, 474 



9.194 

405. 395 

3.946 



O valor das exporta95es para os Estados Unidos durante o 
primeiro semestre dos annos de 1897 e 1896 mostra um augmento 
de $1,946,486. 



iJB 



BRAZIL. 

OBRAS DE MELHORAMENTO DO PORTO DE PERNAMBUCO. 

Govemo dos Estados Unidos do Brazil resolveo abrir con- 
^^rrencia para execu9ao das obras de melhoramento do porto do 
'^^cife, Estado de Pernambuco, a terceira cidade do paiz em 
^D^portancia commercial. O Recife possue um porto natural, 
^ndo o quebra mar constituido pelos arrecifes que a certa dis- 



ii86 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



tancia da terra se estendem ao longo de parte da costa norte do 
Brazil. Requer-se comtudo melhorar as condi95es existentes, se- 
gundo o piano geral elaborado pelo engenheiro brazileiro Alfredo 
LisBOA, a que o concessionario tera de sujeitar-se com as altera- 
96es que durante a execu9§o forem julgadas necessarias, a juizo 
do Govemo. As obras referidas comprehendem os seguintes 
trabalhos : construc9ao de um quebra mar sobre o recife submerso; 
alteiamento dos recifes ; construc9ao de caes definitivos, acostaveis 
por navios de grande calado ; dragagem em todo o porto ; collo- 
ca9ao de boias e postes de amarra9ao nos ancoradouros ; construc9ao 
de armazens necessarios ao recebimento, guarda e conserva9ao das 
mercadorias, os quaes gozar^o das vantagens e favores concedidos 
por lei aos armazens alfandegados ; estabelecimento, ao longo do 
caes, de vias ferreas em communica9ao com os seus armazens e 
com as estradas de ferro e tramways existentes ; estabelecimento e 
bateria completa de guindastes hydraulicos ou electricos, e con- 
struc9ao de diques ou estaleiros destinados a exame e concertos d< 
navios. 

O contractante submettera a approva9ao do Govemo as plantar 
definitivas dentro do prazo de 6 mezes depois da appro va9alo d^ 
contracto pelo Congresso, e as obras come9arao no prazo de i 
mezes, devendo ficar concluidas dentro de 5 e 10 annos. 

Para remunera9ao e amortiza9ao do capital empregado o co 
tractante percebera ate o prazo de revers^io das obras ao Govei 
4 categorias de taxas; de atraca9ao, de utilisa9ao do caes, de cai — ^ 
e descarga (capatazias) e de armazenagem, alem da percep9ao .«z 
outras imposi9oes relativas ao transporte de carga e estadias czio 
navios nos diques. 

Quando a renda liquida exceder 12 por cento, as taxes sofFrerso 
reduc9ao geral. 

Se as obras forem executadas por empreza estrangeira, sera elia 
considerada nacional para todos os efFeitos do presente contractro. 

As propostas serao apresentadas, em carta fechada, ate as tres hon^^ 
da tarde do dia 28 de Fevereiro de 1898 na lega92Lo do Brazil esm 
Washington, e ser^o abertas no dia e hora que forem annunciadc^s- 
Na mesma lega92Lo e no consulado geral em New York ser^^ 
prestadas todas as outras informa9oes que os pretendentes a co^*" 
currencia desejarem. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 1 187 



COLUMBIA. 

MANUFACTURAS AMERICANAS. 

O Sl Bidlake, Consul dos Estados Unidos em Barranquilla, 

Columbia, faz, no relatorio annual a seu Governo, algumas indi- 

ca96es opportunas relativas as manufacturas americanas que se 

importam n'aquella Republica. Uma das queixas principaes dos 

commerciantes e que as mercadorias americanas nSio sSo tao bem 

cinpacotadas 'Como as europeas. Alem disto, a necessidade de 

^egociar por intermedio de casas de commissao em vez de fazel-o 

rfirectamente com os fabricantes, da em resultado o empacotamento 

de novo das mercadorias, e por conseguinte, um augmento de peso 

^o Volume. Nos portos columbianos, se cobram os direitos sobre 

® peso bruto do volume em caixa, segundo a classe, e, por con- 

^guinte, deve evitar-se que pesem mais do que e absolutamente 

'^^crcssario. 

Preferem-se as ferramentas americanas as europeas, porque slo 

'^^is aperfei9oadas, mais .leves e mais commodas, mas sSo mais 

^^r^. Os fabricantes allemSes imitam exactamente os fa95es de 

ollins, que se consideram os melhores na America do Sul, e os 

antem como de igual qualidade, ofFerecendo repol-os, si se 

H^^brarem. 

Os moveis s^o todos importados, e dos Estados Unidos se 

^^xiportam as cadeiras amarellas baratas de qualidade ordinaria e 

com assentos de rotim. Os apparelhos para luz electrica que 

vem dos Estados Unidos, custam mais que os europeos, especi- 

almente as lampadas incandescentes que valem 18 centavos cada 

^nia, ao passo que as lampadas ordinarias da Italia se vendem a 

^0.6 centavos. O arame americano se vende por um pre9o de 10 

^ 15 por cento mais caro que o allemao. O cal9ado para mulhe- 

^^s e crian9as e todo importado, e geralmente e de estylo francez. 

cal^ado para homens e feito no paiz, mas as palas sSLo importa- 
das. 



Il88 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



COSTA RICA. 

O General J. S. Casement, que obteve recentemente uma con- 
cessSo do govemo de Costa Rica para a construc9ao da estrada de 
ferro do Pacifico, que deve atravessar a Republica e unir a costa 
do Atlantico a do Pacifico, acaba de vol tar de Costa Rica e da 
informa95es importantes relativas as condi95es politicas e com- 
merciaes deste paiz. 

Segundo o general Casement, o Presidente Iglesias deseja que 
se estreitem as rela96es commerciaes entre os Estados Unidos e o 
seu paiz. Ja os Estados Unidos predominam no coramercio de 
Costa Rica, do qual duas quintas partes sSo feitas com New 
Orleans, e, si se esfor9arem diligentemente, nSio ha razao por 
que OS Estados Unidos nao possam alcan9ar quatro quintas partes 

do commercio de Costa Rica. Os cidadaos de Costa Rica neces- 
sitam de machinas e a opportunidade e ofFerecida aos manufac- 
tureiros americanos para que se aproveitem deste mercado. 

O Presidente Iglesias projecta muitos melhoramentos internos. 
Estao-se construindo estradas de ferro e o desenvolvimento da 
navega9ao fluvial recebe cuidadosa atten9ao. Com este objecto, 
convida-se capital estrangeiro para explorar os grandes rccursos 
naturaes do paiz. Quasi todos os productos tropicaes podem ser 
cultivados, os recursos mineraes sao varios e o clima e excellente. 



HAITI. 

NOVOS PROJECTOS FINANCEIROS. 

O Honrado William F. Powell, ministro dos Estados Unidos 
em Haiti, communica que a Camara dos Deputados esta discu- 
tindo um projecto de lei para a consolida92io de todas as dividas 
da Republica em uma so divida nacional. Com este objecto se 
prop5e a negociar um emprestimo de $6,000,000 nos Estados 
Unidos, com 6 por cento de juro annual. Esta quantia servira 
para o pagamento de toda a divida actual do paiz, que monta a 
$26,875,784 em moeda de Haiti, e para por fim ao papel moeda 
e substituil-o com moeda de ouro, tomando como unidade mone- 
taria o dollar dos Estados Unidos. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 1 189 

Para garantir o prqjectado emprestimo, se tomara uma parte dos 
direitos de exporta9ao de cafe, que se calculam em cerca de 
$2,000,000 annualmente, e, alem disso, si for necessario, se dedi- 
cara ao mesmo fim uma parte dos direitos de importa9ao. 

Estas quantias formarao um fundo de amortiza9ao para o ser- 
vi9o da divida e seu resgate. Tambem se projecta, no caso de se 
obter o emprestimo, a recunhagem nos Estados Unidos da 
nioeda fraccionaria de prata tomando por base a deste paiz. 

Ministro Powell ere que este arranjo financeiro contribuira 
para estabelecer rela96es mais estreitas com os Estados Unidos, e, 
conseguintemente, para diminuir a influencia da Fran9a e AUe- 
'^anha que tern predominado na ilha. 



MEXICO. 

CULTURA DA BORRACHA. 

^4uitas pessoas tem pedido a esta Secretaria informa96es relativas 

^Viltura de borracha no Mexico. Como resposta a estas perguntas, 

^Vilicamos a seguinte informa9ao, que e o resultado das investi- 

^^6es feitas pelo Sr. Geo. D. Coleman, para o periodico intitulado 

i"he Two Republics." 

-Ate agora o Brazil tem sido o grande productor de borracha, 

»^T:ido suas exporta95es por anno no valor de $100,000,000. Ha, 

E>OTem, no Mexico e na America Central, terrenos igualmente 

^claptados a cultura de borracha, com a vantagem de gozar de um 

dima muito superior. Outr'ora, toda a borracha foi extrahida de 

arvores silvestres, mas havendo augmentado o consumo de borracha, 

^ por conseguinte o seu pre90, os capitaes estao sendo empregados 

'^csta industria e muitos se dedicam a ella com proveito. 

As arvores de borracha nSo crescem bem a uma eleva9ao supe- 
^^or a 500 pes sobre o nivel do mar, e os melhores terrenos para a 
^^Itura dellas saLo os baixos e humidos, mas nao pantanosos. Ha 
P^^co tempo que se podiam comprar grandes areas de terreno ade- 
4^ado para a cultura de arvores de borracha pelo pre90 de 25 
c^ntavos por geira, mas com o desenvolvimento desta industria, o 
P^^9^ de terreno augmentou muito, e agora o pre90 ordinario por 
S^ira e de $2 a $5 na moeda mexicana. Deve-se lembrar, porem, 
4^e OS terrenos de borracha podem ser utilisados na cultura de 



1 190 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

outros productos, taes como milho^ feijao, etc., ate as arvores che- 
garem a tanta altura que cobram de sombra os terrenos, e que estes 
productos podem ser vendidos com lucro sufRciente para liquidar 
OS gastos incorridos na prepara9ao do terreno de borracha. 

Depois de comprar o terreno, o gasto principal e o de desmon- 
tal-o e preparal-o. O desmonte pode ser feito com proveito si ha 
boas facilidades de transporte, porque os paus de tinturaria, pau 
sandalo, pau setim, ebano, mogno, etc., quando exportados se ven- 
dem por pre90s que compensam os gastos. 

O terreno que se escolha deve estar situado nas margens dos 
rios e o solo deve ser fertil, lodoso e espesso. A presen9a de arvores 
de borracha silvestres, indica que o terreno e bom para a cultura de 
borracha. Devem-se deixar em pe estas arvores quando se des- 
montar o terreno, assim como as novas plantas que devem ser 
transplantadas a distancias regulares. A esta92lo em que se devem 
plantar as novas arvores e a das chuvas, e ellas devem ser coUoca- 
das em fileiras, tendo 15 pes entre arvore e arvore. As arvores 
devem ser plantadas alternativamente de modo que uma nao sejr: 
opposta a outra nas fileiras successivas. Segundo esta distribuicac 
havera 193 arvores por geira, que e o numero maximo que 
pode coUocar com bons resultados. Depois de plantada a arvoi 
nao necessita de atten9ao ou cultura alguma, senSLo a de limpar 
mato, e para este fim, convem semear milho e feijao. A arvore 
borracha propaga-se por meio das sementes ou nozes que caem 
arvore nos mezes de Maio e Junho. Estas nozes podem 
plantadas em viveiros e se pode obter assim um grande num< 



de plantas, ou se podem transplantar das florestas as novas arvor 

A seis ou sete annos a planta9ao come9a a produzir e de s^^ t 
annos em diante deve produzir de 3 a 5 libras de borracha j> ^)i 
arvore. Calculando em 600 libras a produc9ao de 193 arvores e 
em 50 centavos por libra o lucro liquido, temos um lucro de $SCIZDo 
em ouro por geira. Das diversas classes de arvores que produzeM: ^n 
a borracha, a mais importante e a conhecida com o nome ^t-^ 
"Castillo a Elastica." Arvores silvestres abundam nas florest^^ 
dos Estados de Vera Cruz, Oaxaca, Chiapas, Tabasco e Campech^^* 

GENGIBRE. 

Entre os productos tropicaes do Mexico, conta-se o gengibre 
Essa planta tem sido considerada como indigena das regides tropi- 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. IIQI 

caes da Asia e Africa, onde tern sido cultivada ha muitos seculos. 
Cresce sem cultura nos Estados de Puebla, Guerrero e Chiapas no 
Nexico, e se ere que foi introduzida por Francisco de Mendoza 
no meio do decimo-sexto seculo. 

Alem de ser usada como comestivel, a planta de gengibre e um 

remedio valioso no tratamento das febres palustres e outras enfer- 

midades que existem nos districtos onde cresce. Para a cultura 

dessa planta se necessita um solo rico, e nao cresce em terrenos 

arenosos ou argillosos, ou nos muito humidos, porque nestes ulti- 

inos a raiz apodrece. A planta necessita tambem de chuvas 

abundantes e uma temperatura que nao baixe de 40° Fahrenheit. 

A esta95o melhor para plantar o gengibre no Mexico e na 

America Central e os mezes de Mar90 e Abril, e os peda90s da 

'aiz devem ser enterrados na terra* a uma distancia de 12 a 18 

pollegadas entre si. A sua cultura em geral e semelhante a da 

I>atata. A planta comeca a florescer em Setembro ou Outubro, 

c ein Janeiro esta prompta para a colheita, que exige pouco tra- 

oalho e que consiste simplesmente em extrahir da terra os tuber- 

cvilos. O processo de prepara9So e tambem simples e exige 

pouco gasto. 

De um relatorio official sobre o assumpto, sabe-se que, em con- 

di^oes favoraveis, uma geira de terra deve produzir 4,000 libras 

ou mais, com um custo de um e meio a dous centavos por libra. 

O custo de transporte desde o lugar onde o gengibre cresce ao 

porto de Vera Cruz, nao excede de $1 por quintal, inclusive o 

custo dos saccos. Em New York o pre90 do gengibre varia de 

12 a 20 centavos por libra, pelo que pode-se ver que uma planta- 

9*0 de dez geiras produziria um ganho liquido de $5,000 a 

$7»ooo por anno. 

A CULTURA DO TABACO. 

As pessoas entendidas na cultura e fabrico do tabaco, julgam 
^^e este e o momento mais opportuno para dar a conhecer as 
^ualidades valiosas do tabaco do Mexico como tabaco de capa, 
cm concurrencia com o artigo cubano, que dominou o mercado 
^ passado. Em consequencia das perturba95es agricolas resul- 
^^^sda insurrei9ao em Cuba, os grandes terrenos de tabaco nesta 
"^^ nao tern produzido nada, e os cultivadores tern transferido 
scus interesses em grande escala para o sul do Mexico. Estes 



1192 B'JREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

cubanos fallam com enthusiasmo do clima do Mexico, da fertili- 
dade do solo, abundancia d'agua, etc. Tambem dizem, o que muitos 
outros viajantes tern dito, que os terrenos fertis de tabaco em Cuba 
estSo cansados e que o alto pre90 de adubos de boa qualidade que 
se necessitam para preparar o solo para semear, tornaria impossivel 
que este paiz ganhe de novo os antigos mercados, ainda que a 
guerra fosse agora coricluida, porque o producto mexicano toma-se 
mais conhecido cada dia e pode ser vendido com mais lucro que 
o artigo cubano. 

O Estado de Oaxaca, em particular, possue condi95es muito 
favoraveis para a produc92Lo de uma variedade desta planta, que, 
por causa do seu pouco peso, textura e cor, assim como suas quali- 
dades aromaticas, e muito valiosa como tabaco para capas de 
charuto, a qual se vende nos mercados do mundo por um pre90 
muito elevado. Diz-se com confian9a que o tobaco de capas que 
se vende a $4 (ouro), por libra, pode ser cultivado nestas sec9oes, 
especialmente nos planaltos contiguos a Ozumacin que estao situa- 
dos entre duas grandes por95es d'agua e cujo solo e composto de 80 
a 85 por cento de areia, de 5 a 6 por cento de substancias vegetaes 
em decomposi9ao, e o resto de argilla branca. A ultima colheita 
de tabaco de Ozumacin e do Valle Nacional deu a media de 3 a 
4 arrobas por cada 1,000 plantas e foi vendida de 80 centavos a 
$1 por libra. 

O custo de viveiros, semeadura, colheita, prepara9ao, etc., in- 
cluindo o juro sobre o dinheiro empregado, calcula-se em menos 
de 1 5 centavos por libra, deixando assim um lucro muito satisfacto- 
rio. Por causa das boas condi96es do tempo, a qualidade da produc- 
9ao deste anno e muito melhor, e devido ao facto de que nSo 
se necessitou renovar a semente, calcula-se em 12 centavos per 
libra o custo de preparar o tabaco para o mercado. Os commer- 
ciantes pugam 80 centavos por libra pelas plantas muito novas, 
mas OS cultivadores julgam o pre90 de $1.20 como justo pelo 
tabaco nao escolhido que estara prompto para se embarcar em 
fins de Fevereiro ou principios de Marco. 

Charutos feitos deste bom tabaco tem sido conhecidos e appre- 
ciados por muito tempo nos paizes estrangeiros. A preoccupa92Lo 
cm lavor do tabaco Cubano como tabaco de capas tem sido tao 
grande, que se tinha de empacotar o tabaco em rama em fardos 
parecidos aos de Cuba, afim de poder vendel-o promptamente. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. ^ ^9^ 

Felizmente, este costume vai descaindo e como a reputa9ao e bom 

nome do tabaco mexicano como tabaco de capas vai augmentando, 

cspera-se que a proxima colheita sera toda exportada como tabaco 

mexicano e nada mais. Os fardos de "petate" feitos no Mexico 

offerecem mais seguridade que os de "manta" de Habana. As 

fecilidades de vias-ferreas para o transporte do producto destes 

districtos sao excelientes, e quando estiver concluida a via-ferrea de 

Playa Vicente e Ozumacin, a viagem a Tlacotalpan sera de 12 

boras somente. Este porto esta situado no golfo do Mexico a 25 

milhas no interior, e a profundidade d'agua ate os caes e de 30 pes. 

No Estado de Chiapas produziu-se no anno passado um tabaco 

muito bom para capas com um gasto quasi igual ao que se fez 

cm Oaxaca e com um lucro semelhante. 

Calcula-se que a colheita no districto de San Andres Tuxtla, 
sera este anno de 300,000 arrobas. Ainda que este tabaco nao seja 
igual em qualidade ao de Ozumacin e ao do Valle Nacional no 
Estado de Oaxaca, e, no entanto, muito bom. 

Tem-se calculado que uma fazenda de 75 geiras, com um mi- 
Ihao de plantas de tabaco dara uma colheita no valor de $62,500. 
Deixando $12,500 para gastos, sobre a base de $3 por arroba, 
ou 12 centavos por libra, fico ainda um lucro liquido de $50,000 
pela colheita de tabaco so, sem contar outros productos secun- 
darios, taes como milho, feijSo, etc., que augmentam consideravel- 
mente os lucros na cultura de terras de tabaco. 



PARAGUAY. 

COMMERCIO NO ANNO DE 1896. 

A seguinte informa9ao relativa as condi95es commerciaes do 
Paraguay, e extrahida de um relatorio official recente. 

AUGMENTO DE COMMERCIO. 

Podc-sc dizer com confianya, que, considerado no seu total, o commercio do 
Paraguay csti melhorando lentamente mas com seguranga. As rendas da alfan- 
dcga que t6m-se augmentado constantemente durante os ultimos annos, a con- 
strucgao dc novos edificios particulares e dos para os fins de negocio, o cstabele- 
amcnto de novas lojas, e a grande procura de objectos luxuosos, taes como 
mobiJia rica, roupas finas, e comestiveis estrangeiros, mostram claramente uma 
prospcridade crescente. 



1194 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Madeiras, couros, yerba, fructas, e os legumes sao muito procurados em 
Buenos Aires e Monte vid6o, mas ainda o abastecimento d'elles nao corresponde 
i procura. 

O COMMERCIO DO TABACO. 

No passado o tabaco era o principal ou unico producto cultivado pelo agri- 
cultor paraguayo para exporta^ao e consumo domestico, mas em consequencia da 
alta dos direitos impostos na Republica Argentina e dos pregos baixos offerecidos 
nesta Republica e na Europa pelo tabaco em folha, elle foi forgado, durante os 
ultimos dous annos, a plantar pouco mais do que exigiria seu proprio consumo. 
De facto, em algumas instancias, deixou de cultivar o tabaco, e applicou-se aos 
campos de yerba, onde podia ganhar bons salarios. O Governo esti esfor- 
gando-se para fomentar esta industria e encontrar novos mercados. 

DIFFICULDADES ENCONTRADAS EM OBTER TRABALHADORES. 

Nas emprezas particulares que necessitam de muitos bragos, a questSo de 
trabalho apresenta serias difficuldades, e nSo 6 provavel que desapparegSm at6 
que o paiz esteja povoado mais densamente ou que se possam obter trabalhadores 
estrangeiros em vez dos nativos. Mas ha, tambem, outros obstaculos que tdm 
de ser combatidos, isto 6, difHculdades de transporte e falta de meios de 
communicagao. 

ESTRADAS DE FERRO. 

A unica estrada de ferro num paiz, cuja area, excluindo-se o Chaco, t calcu- 
lada em 65,160 milhas quadradas, 6 uma linha de 155 milhas de comprimento 
estendendo-se de Assumpgao at6 Pirap6 e 6 conhecida como a Estrada de Ferro 
Central do Paraguay. Nao ha ramaes. 

COMMERCIO DIRECTO COM A EUROPA. 

Aclualmente se-faz pouco commercio directo com a Europa. Compram-se 
em Buenos Aires e Monte vid6o quasi todas as mercadorias que se importam no 
paiz. Uma grande parte destas mercadorias procede da Gra Bretanha. A 
razao principal disto 6 que as casas de Montevideo e Buenos Aires dao um prazo 
maior do que as casas europeas, em que se possam fazer os pagamentos, per- 
mittindo um credito de seis a oito mezes a contar da data do embarque e 
offerecendo demais as facilidades para sua prorogacSo. Outra razao porque 
muitos commerciantes acham mais conveniente obter suas mercadorias das cidades 
acima mencionadas 6, que, sendo exportadores assim como importadores, podem 
pagar nas mesmas mercadorias, quando Ihes seja conveniente, em vez de dinheiro 
de contado pelas mercadorias recebidas, assim evitando o risco de soffrer perda 
no cambio. Um pequeno numero de casas, das quaes uma 6 ingieza, importa 
suas mercadorias directamente da Europa. 

YERBA-MATE. 

A yerba-mate, ou chl do Paraguay, 6 o artigo mais valioso de exportagSo. 
Ha duas qualidades que se vendem, mas differem s6mente no seu modo de 
preparagao. A qualidade que 6 conhecida com o nome de " mborovir^ " 6 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. '^^95 

simplesmente seccada num forno e depois quebrada em pedagos pequenos por 

meio dc varas. A " moida " passa pelo mesmo processo, mas depois € moida. 

O direico de exporta^ao sobre aquella foi augmentado em 1895 ^^ 3^ centavos 

de papcl-moeda a 10 centavos de ouro, e sobre esta de 25 centavos de papel 

moeda a 9 centavos de ouro por 10 kilos. A renda recebida desta fonte em 

1895 montou a ^16,845. Os campos de yerba chamados "yerbales" 

pertenciam antigamente ao Estado, mas muitos delles foram vendidos e agora 

estao na posse de alguns capitalistas e companhias. A Companhia Industrial do 

Paraguay, que possue quasi a metade dos "yerbales" do paiz, exporta 

annualmente quasi 400,000 arrobas. Calcula-se em 9,024 toneladas a quanti- 

dade total da yerba exportada durante o anno passado, e o pre^o m6dio por 

arroba foi j£ 0-7-8. 

MADEIRAS. 

Na falta de estatisticas ou relatorios, 6 difficil calcular a quantidade de madeira 
exportada durante o anno passado, mas diz-se que foi muito maior que a expor- 
tada em 1895, especialmente madeiras duras. 

CURUPAY. 

As segaintes sao as principaes madeiras, seus pre90s e os Hns a que sSo de 
mclhor modo adaptadas : 

O curapay *6 uma madeira de cdr vermelha, muito rija e forte, dura por mui- 
tos annos quando coUocada dentro da terra ou da agua, e usa-se principalmente 
para dormentes de estradas de ferro, estacas para pontes, ou docas. Usa-se a 
casca para cortimento. A gravidade espccifica 6 de 1.172 a 0.917, e o prejo 6 
45 centavos de ouro por vara. 

QUEBRACHO-COLORADO. 

Quebracho-colorado 6 uma das mais duraveis madeiras do Paraguay, e 
diz-se, que dura o mesmo tempo quer na terra, quer na agua como ao ar. E bem 
adaptada para estacas, dormentes e pontes. Usa-se tambem como madeira de 
cortir. Acha-se principalmente no Chaco, mas encontra-se em pequena quanti- 
dade no norte do paiz. Sua gravidade especifica 6 de 1.392 a 1.232; prego 
em Assumpyao, quasi $25 por tonelada. 

urunday-mI. 

Urunday-mi i pouco differente do quebracho quanto & sua rigidcz e dura- 
bilidadc, mas nSo 6 tSo abundante. O prejo 6 o mesmo ; a gravidade especifica 
^f 1.091 a 0.920. 

PETEREVI. 

Pctcrevi 6 uma madeira valiosa para mobilia, marcenaria etc. Quanto aos 
vciosccor 6 muito semelhante i nogueira americana; recebe muiio lustre, e € 
duravcl c pouco pesada. Diz-se tambem que 6 propria para mastros e vergas 
denavios. A gravidade especifica 6 0.810 a 6.195 prejo em Assump^ao, 55 
centavos de ouro por vara. 



11Q6 bureau of AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

LAPACHO. 

O lapacho 6 de uma cdr de um amarello esverdeado e de muita rigidez. Ao 
ar dura por muitos annos, e nao se quebra facilmente. Uma grande quantidade 
desta madeira € enviada para Buenos Aires para ser usada na construc^ao de 
estradas de ferro e de navios. Na localidade usa-se na manufactura de raios de 
roda e embarca^oes. O ** lapacho crespo " 6 uma variedade rugosa de que 
se faz mobilia rica, ainda que seja pesada. A gravidade especifica 6 1.072 a 
0.952. O preyo 6 quasi 40 centavos de ouro por vara. 

YBIRA-R6. 

CJsam-se o ybira-r6 e ybira-pita principalmente na manufactura de mobilia e 
rodas de carro. Aquella 6 uma madeira superior a esta, mas nSo € tao abun- 
dante. A gravidade especifica 6 de 1.038 a 0.744, pre^o, em Assumpgao, 2 dol- 
lars por vara. 

PALMAS PRETAS E VERMELHAS. 

As palmas pretas e vermelhas sSo madeiras muito duras, e, segundo se diz, 
algumas vezes embotam os melhores machados de a^o. A palma preta 6 excel- 
lente para foliado e recebe muito lustre. Quando collocadas dentro da terra ou 
da agua, estas madeiras duram por muitos annos. £ncontram-se no Chaco, e no 
norte do Paraguay. Os pre^os em Assumpyao, sao quasi 2 dollars por cada vara. 

CEDRO E TIM BO. 

Entre as madeiras mais leves podem-se mencionar as varias qualidades de 
cedro conhecidas no commercio como mogno feminino e timbo. Usam-se 
aquellas extensamente neste paiz na manufactura de mobilia, portas, portas de 
janella, caixas, etc. Sao relativamente baratas e faceis de trabalhar. Encon- 
tram-se as arvores no sul e no sudoeste, mas uma qualidade superior cresce na 
Alta Parana e nas Missoes do Paraguay. O timbo 6 uma madeira pouco pesada 
e muito semelhante ao cedro quanto aos veios, e, algumas vezes cresce a uma 
grande altura. Os indios fazem suas canoas e caixas para agua desta madeira. 
Exporta-se em pouca quantidade. A gravidade especifica 6 de 0.440 a 0.328. 

OUTRAS MADEIRAS. 

As melhores madeiras do Paraguay e as que se usam mais extensamente, 
s6mente sSlo dadas na lista precedente, mas ha muitas outras tambem, entre as 
quaes podem-se mencionar o tatan6, p&u santo, piu de lanya, p&u preto de lou- 
reiro, p&u de rosa, incionso, e as variedades de cidreira. 

Calcula-se em 30,000 toneladas a quantidade de madeira transportada na 
estrada de ferro durante o anno passado. 

TOMATES. 

Os tomates crescem muito bem no Paraguay, mas nSo s3o tamanhos ou de cdr 
tao escura como os produzidos na Europa. Na primavera procuram-se muito 
em Buenos Aires e podem ser vendidos por um prego remunerador. Uns 3,000 
cestos de tomates foram enviados para Buenos Aires durante o anno passado. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 11 97 

BANANAS. 

Ainda que as bananas cresgam bem neste paiz e sejao de qualidade excellente, 
nSo sao cultivadas em grande escala. A quantidade que se embarcou para Bue- 
nos Aires montou approximadamente a 10,000 caches. 

PANNO PARDO. 

O panno pardo, ou, como se chama aqui, lienzo, 6, talvez, a fazenda mais 
importante que se importa, e, segundo se diz, 6 fornecido quasi inteiramente pelas 
casas de Manchester. Usa-se extensamente neste paiz, e especialmente pelas 
mulheres e crean^as pobres, sendo feito em saias e chales que se usam igualmente 
no verao e no inverno. As qualidades mais grossas usam-se para toldos, biom- 
bos, etc. Uma porgao deste panno procede da Allemanha. 

CHITAS. 

Urn outro artigo importante que se importa, 6 a chita, conhecida aqui com o 
nomcdc "bramante." Uma porgao procede da Allemanha, mas a maior parte 
i de manufactura ingleza. £ muito usada pelas mulheres para camisas e chales. 

CHALES. 

Quasi todas as mulheres usam chales pretos de la ou de 13 misturada com 
algodSo, que sao conhecidos aqui com o nome de "rebozos." Sao fabricados 
principalmente na Allemanha e Belgica, sendo estes preferidos aos manufac- 
turados na Inglaterra porque sao mais baratos e a f'ranja 6 mais larga e mais 
trabalhada. 

CHITAS DE ALGODAO. 

As chitas baratas e as cassas sao fornecidas principalmente pela Inglaterra. As 
▼cndas madias por anno sao de 100,000 pegos de 24 a 35 metros cada uma. 
wzcm que as chitas da Allemanha sao superiores, e, por conseguinte, sao mais 
custosas. 

RISCADOS, FAZENDAS PARA CAMISAS, ETC. 

As varias qualidades de riscados e tecidos de algodao para os fatos de homem 
**o todas de fabricas da Allemanha e Italia. 

LINHAS PARA COSTURA. 

^"Jportam-sc annualmente quasi 3,000 caixas de carreteis de linhas para costura 
^* n^anufactura ingleza. A Belgica, porem, tem uma pequena parte desta 
^Porta^ao. 

CANHAMAgO. 

^^hama^o crii, chamado aqui " arpillera" i todo de fabrica de Dundee ede 
*°* 18 on^as cm qualidade. As vendas madias por anno sao de quasi 500,000 
J^'das. Usa-se este panno principalmente para enfardar yerba e tabaco. 

BuU. No. 7 9 



1198 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

FERRAGENS, PORCELANA, VIDRO, CUTELARIA, ETC. 

A maior por^ao das ferragens precede da Allemanha, tendo estas a preferen- 
cia sobre as de manufactura ingleza por causa da sua barateza. Os artigos 
esmaltados, vidro, e porcelana sao importados principalmente da Austria, e 
dizem que sao da mesma qualidade que os manufacturados na Gra Bretanha 
e sSo mais baratos. As ferramentas de carpinteiro, facas, garfos e colheres, 
panellas de ferro de cozinha e os utensilios de cozinba em geral, sao importados 
principalmente da Allemanha e da Franga, e sao muito ordinarios e baratos. 
Faz-se um bom commercio aqui nas facas de bainha e nos punhaes, porquc 
todos OS paraguayos, quasi sem excep^ao, trazem uma destas armas no cinto. 
Antigamente estas eram importadas da Allemanha, mas ultimamente algumas 
caixas de armas de qualidade superior foram importadas directamente da Ingla- 
terra e foram promptamente vendidas. Vendem-se por $3.50 a ^10 cada uma. 

ARAME DE FERRO. 

O arame preto vendido aqui para cercas 6 de manufactura inglesa. Preferem- 
se OS Nos. 7, 8, e 9. Quasi 6,000 rolos de 450 jardas cada um sao importados 
annualmente. 

INSTRUMENTOS AGRICOLAS. 

Actualmente a venda dos instrumentos agricolas nao 6 grande. O machado, 
machete e a enxada sao os instrumentos que se procuram em maior escala, sendo 
muitas vezes os unicos que se usam neste paiz para preparar o solo para a semen- 
teira Depois de empregado o machete, usa-se o machado para cortar as grandes 
arvores, e finalmente a enxada para quebrar o solo. Muitos dos arados que se 
podem ver casualmente sao fabricados no paiz e tern relhas de madeira. Quasi 
todos OS machados e picaretas que se vem nas lojas sao fabricados nos Estados 
Unidos, assim como as pis e enxadas, poucos sendo importados da Inglaterra e 
Allemanha. Actualmente ha pouca procura para machinas de qualquer classe. 

ASSUCAR. 

Nao obstante a canna de assucar crescer em abundancia aqui, o assucar nSo 
€ manufacturado. Todo o assucar que se usa no paiz 6 importado de Buenos 
Aires, e 6 de manufactura franceza. Importam-se annualmente quasi 8,000 
barricas de assucar de 115 kilos cada uma. 

ARROZ. 

Segundo se calcula, 3,000 saccos de arroz de Rangoon, chamado aqui arroz 
de Bremen, e 1,000 saccos de arroz italiano, conhecido com o nome de 
" Piemonte," sao importados annualmente. Cultiva-se em pouca quantidade 
no paiz. £ muito inferior ao arroz estrangeiro e custa de ^6.50 a ^7 por 
arroba. 

VELAS. 

Muitas das velas de estearina que se usam aqui sSo importadas de casas de 
Amsterdam. As velas de sebo e cera sao fabricadas no paiz. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 1 I99 

KEROSENE. 
Quasi 10,000 latas de kerosene sac importadas annualmente. 

CERVEJA, viNHOS, E BEBIDAS ESPIRITUOSAS. 

Uma pouca quancidade de cerveja em garrafas 6 importada da AUemanha^ Mon- 
tevideo e Buenos Aires; mas muita cerveja usadaaqui 6 de manufactura domestica. 
For causa de sua falta de peso e de sua adaptabilidade ao clima, estas cervejas 
tern a preferencia sobre as fabricadas na Inglaterra. Importam-se da Franga, 
Italia, e Hespanha os vinhos que vem em barris e garrafas; o vinho 6 fabricado 
no paiz. O consumo de bebidas estrangeiras nao 6 grande. 

COLHEITAS PRINCIPAES. 

Os principaes artigos que se cultivam sao milho, mandioca, canna de assucar^ 
tabaco, alfalfa e feijao. O milho e mandioca formam o alimento principal dos 
camponezes e pobres das cidades. Acha-se muito difiicil conservar o milho por 
muito tempo porque logo que 6 guardado 6 atacado pelo gorgulho. O prego 
do milho varia de 50 centavos a 2 dollars por arroba. Um grande numero dos 
camponezes ainda usam a mandioca como um substituto do pao. Nas cidades 
foram installados moinhos de trigo e padarias, e por conseguinte^ o pao tern 
substituido em grande escala a mandioca. 

TRIGO. 

trigo 6 importado da Republica Argentina. Foram feitos muitos ensaios 
para cultivar este cereal no Paraguay mas at6 agora tiveram miio exito. 

CANNA DE ASSUCAR. 

A canna de assucar cresce bem e ha muitas plantagoes em todas as partes do 
paiz ; mas at6 agora resultou pouco lucro da sua cultura. Nao se produz o assucar. 
Foi organisada recentemente uma companhia afim de construir uma fabrica de 
assucar cm Ibitimi, situada na estrada de ferro, e fazer funccionar a mesma, mas 
done qucbrou antes de concluida a obra. O capital exigido, portanto, ainda 
nao tinha sido subscripto. Quasi o unico uso a que os Paraguayos destinam a 
canna de assucar 6 para destillagSo, de que fabricam cafia ou aguardente. Os 
engenhos de moagem construidos de madeira e as pequenas fabricas de destillagao 
abundam em todas as partes do paiz. 

ALFALFA. 

Alfalfa d& de quatro a cinco colheitas por anno e vende-se de 30 centavos a 
$1.30 per arroba. Dizem que as hervas mis impedem muito a cultura desta 
planta. 

CAFE. 

A cultura do caf^ esti ainda num estado experimental, mas actualmente vSo-se 
estabelecer muitas plantagdes em varias partes do paiz e especialmente nos esta- 
bclccimcntos do Governo. Encontra-se a maior plantagao no Departamento de 
Emboscada, perto da colonia de San Bernardino, estabelecimento allemao situa- 



1200 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS, 

do na costa septentrional da Lagoa de Ipacary, que 6 situada junto i esta^ao 
de Patifio-cu6 e distante de Assump^ao quasi 36 kilometros. Ha nesta planta- 
gao algumas 200,000 arvores j4 produzindo fructo. Algumas pessoas dizcm que 
6 superior ao do Brazil. Os resultados sao considerados satisfactorios e favo- 
raveis, mas nao se pode dizer si a empreza provari ser lucrativa afinal. 
Governo favorece os cultivadores de caf6 dando-lhes facilidades para adquirir 
semente, e offerecendo-lhes uma remuneragao de 30centavos por cada planta que 
se transplantar e estiver em boa condigao no momento de ser plantada. Podc-sc 
obter tambem um emprestimo de 30 centavos por cada planta, que 6 pagavel 
em duas poroses annuaes de 1 5 centavos por planta. 

ALGODAO. 

A planta de algodao 6 cultivada tambem em poucas quantidades. A quali- 
dade 6 excellente. Si se podesse obter trabalhadores suificientes, n^o haveris 
razao para que o algodao nao fosse cultivado em maior quantidade do que 4 
actualmente. O Banco Agricola paga $4 por arroba pelo algodio com carog 
e $12 pelo algodao sem caroyo. 

OUTRAS PLANTAS DE QUE SE FAZEM TECIDOS. 

Ha no paiz varias classes de plantas de que se fazem tecidos, entre as qua.^ 
pode-se mencionar a Caraguata, que 6 uma cspecie de bromelia e cresce ^ n 
abundancia em muitas partes do paiz. A rami foi cultivada com bom exm r^ 
em muitas partes e quatro ou cinco colheitas podem ser feitas num s6 anm. o 
mas as plantaydes foram abandonadas por falta de machinas de descortigar. 

OLEO DE PALMA. 

A palma de coco abunda em todas as partes do paiz. O oleo espremido do 
caro^o 6 de qualidade excellente, e usa-se aqui principalmente na manufactura 
de sabao. Amostras deste oleo foram mandadas para a Europa pelo Banco 
Agricola de Assump^ao e ordens foram recebidas da Inglaterra e Italia para gran des 
quantidades. O Banco paga pelo caro^o o pre^o de $2.70 por arroba. 

FALTA DE MACHINAS DE QUEBRAR COCOS. 

Convem dizer, talvez, que para o proprio desenvolvimento da industria «^ 
oleo de coco neste paiz, sao exigidas boas machinas a mSo para quebrar os coc*^** 
As poucas machinas que se usam actualmente sao fabricadas em Assumpga* 
n^Lo dao bons resultados. A machina deve ser construida de modo que quel 
a casca sem prejudicar o caro^o, e deve produzir 50 libras de cocos por ho 
As cascas devem ser quebradas sufficientemente para que um homem possa ti^^ 
o carogo com a mao, e 90 por cento dos carogos, pelo menos, devem sa3^^ 
intactos da machina. A machina deve ser simples em construcgao e feita dei*^^ 
material forte. O pre^o nao deve exceder de 10 libras esterlinas. Visto c^^^ 
o coco nao 6 uniforme em tamanho, deve-se inserir um crivo que transmitta o^ 
grandes e pequenos cocos para as quebras correspondentes. Um certo numcr(^ 
de machinas desta classe seria vendido aqui promptamente. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 1201 

CRIA^AO DE OADO. 

A cria9ao de gado 6 uma empreza mais lucrativa do que muitas outras do 
Paraguay ou, pelo menos, uma das mais seguras. O augmento annual de uma 
manada numa estancia pode ser calculada em 25 e 35 por cento, mas a ultima 
dfra 6 alcan^ada s6mente nas estancias em que os animaes sao tratados com 
cuidado e em que a pastagem € muito boa. 

Doengas epizooticas occorrem raramente, mas ha outros perigos a que estSo 
frequentemente expostos e aos quaes muitas vezes cahem victimas. Estes sao 
as mordeduras das serpentes e moscardos, os bichos, seccas, e occasionalmente 
OS jaguares. 

PREfO DA TERRA. 

Encontram-se as melhores terras nos departamentos de Villa Conceigao, San 
Pedro, San Estanislaus, Ajos, Missoes, Neembucu, Caacupu, e Caazapi. Pode-se 
comprar uma legua quadrada de terra por 45 libras esterlinas em diante, variando 
prego segundo a qualidade da terra, sua situagao e a qualidade de capim que 
sc produz. Uma porgao de terra pertencente &. Companhia Anglo-paraguaya, 
Limitada, que possue algumas 3,460 milhas quadradas de terra na Republica, foi 
vcndida recentcmente por $500 por legua, mas este 6 um prego excepcional e 
uma grandc porcao de terra, talvez igualmente boa, pode ser comprada por menos 
que a metade desta somma. 

Dcvc-sc tomar muito cuidado em comprar terra no Paraguay, porque os titulos 
podcm ser, e muitas vezes sao, defectives. Antes de assignar um contracto, 
ponanto, deve-se consultar um advogado conhecido a respeito da validade do 
titulo do vcndedor. 

INDUSTRIAS. 

£xceptuando-se as industrias de yerba, madeira, tabaco, e fructas, ha poucas 
de importancia neste paiz. Ha varias fabricas de destillagao, alcagarias, fabricas 
dc phosphoros e moinhos de trigo em Assumpgao e nos arrebaldes desta cidade. 
Ha tambem uma fabrica de sabao perto da cidade, que manufactura sabao de 
boa qualidade de oleo de coco. Fabricam-se tambem na capital e em varias 
outras partes do paiz tijolos e telhas, j arras e garrafas de barro, vassouras, 
chapeos de palma, gelo, conservas de fructa," charutos, cigarros e velas. Ha 
fabricas de destillagao para a producgao de caiia em todas as partes do paiz como 
ja disse. Uma qualidade especial de renda, muito bonita, 6 feita pelas mulheres; 
tambem toalhas de mesa, guardanapos, camisas, e redes excellentes de um algo- 
dao grosso cultivado no paiz. As velas de sebo e de cera sao feitas tambem 
pclas mulheres nativas. 

EMBARQUES. 

Ha duas linhas de vapores para passageiros navegando entre o porto dc 
Assumpgao e o Rio da Prata, cada uma das quaes faz uma viagem por semana. 
Os vapores da linha Lloyd-Brazileiro navegam entre Montevideo e Corumbi, 
tocando em Buenos Aires c Assump9ao. Sao vapores para carga e sahem cada 
qoinze dias. 



1204 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

de Julho de 1897, nomeei o honrado John A. Kasson, do Estado 
de Iowa, commissario especial plenipotenciario para negociar com 
OS paizes estrangeiros que desejem aproveitar-se destas disposi96es. 
Negocia96es est^o actualmente em progresso com varios gov- 
ernes, tanto europeos como americanos. Espera-se que, no desem- 
penho judicioso dos poderes que confere esta lei, sejam removidas, 
ou pelo menos mitigadas as difficuldades existentes entre os paizes 
estrangeiros e os Estados Unidos quanto as nossas mutuas rela- 
96es commerciaes, e que a quantidade de mercadorias que se 
trocam, possa ser augmentada com proveito para as duas na95cs 
contratantes." 

Refere-se por extenso, a importancia e utilidade para 6 com- 
mercio do continente americano involvida na conclusao do canal 
de Nicaragua. Relativo a este projecto, o Presidente diz o qu^ 
segue : 

"Um assumpto de muita importancia para nosso paiz e qu^^^ 
vaisendo apreciado cada dia mass por parte do povo, e a conclu^- 
sao do grande caminho commercial entre o Atlantico e o Pacific^D^ 
conhecido como canal de Nicaragua. Sua utilidade e valor pa^-ra 
o commercio americano sao concedidos por todo o mundo. J a 
esta funccionando a commissao nomeada em data de 24 de JuUio 
proximo findo, de accordo com a lei approvada a 2 de Mar90 de 
1895, para continuar os estudos e exames afim de determinar o 
tra9ado, a possibilidade e custo de construc9ao do canal de Nics^- 
ragua, e de fazer todos os pianos para sua construc9ao. No futui 
remetterei ao Congresso o relatorio desta commissao e ao mesnm^ 
tempo farei as suggestoes que me parecerem convenientes." 





A EXPOSI9AO PAN-AMERICANA DO NIAGAR 

O numero do Boletim correspondente ao mez de Outubro 
uma extensa descripcao do piano geral e escopo da Exposi9 
Pan- Americana do Niagara, e os nomes de seus principaes or 
nisadores e os dos membros da commissao executiva. O project 
tao meritorio em si mesmo, concebido com o fim de acercar ma^ 
entre si os povos e industrias do Hemispherio Occidental, parcel 
que esta recebendo toda a attencao que merece, tanto nos Estad 
Unidos como no estrangeiro. A magnitude da obra e a energri 
com que se esta desenvolvendo, tem recommendado o projecto M^ 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 120^ 

noticia e considera9ao do governo nacional. J a trata-se de obter 

do Congresso, uma consigna9ilo que, ao mesmo tempo que de ao 

projecto a sanc9ao do Governo nacional, assentando-o assim sobre 

uma base firme, por meio de seu auxilio material, sirva tambem 

para preparar a maior exhibi9ao dos productos especiaes dos Estados 

U nidos. Os nomes que figuram a frente do projecto sao garantia de 

que o apoio do Governo sera devidamente supplementado, e que a 

cxposi9ao rivalisara em muitos particulares com a Exposi9ao 

universal, e sera superior a esta em alguns respeitos. 

lugar escolhido e muito appropriado, pois e uma ilha no rio 

Niagara, que tem uma area bastante extensa e situada a vista da 

grande cataracta de Niagara, cujas for9as titanicas ate agora nSo 

tem side utilizadas, servindo somente como um grande espectaculo 

de natureza. A epocha e opportuna para illustrar o progress© 

nacional do Novo Mundo no seculo dez e nove. 

Mexico e as principaes republicas da America Central e do 

^^l ja pediram espa9o que foi concedido, para a exhibi9ao de 

^us respect ivos productos. 

^ Sr. R. C. Hill, secretario, fallando da Exposi9ao e seus pro- 

Ntos, diz : 

" O que nos propomos, e mostrar o progresso deste hemispherio 

^^ todos OS seus ramos, e abrir uma grande exposi9ao de industria 

c arte. Nao e uma exposi9ao universal e somente e internacional 

^^ ^uanto nella terao de figurar todos os paizes deste hemispherio. 

'^^rtios que nao somente sera de utilidade para nossas industrias, 

^^ tambem estabelecera relacoes mais amistosas entre os differen- 
ces . . X 
p paizes. Servira como uma educa9ao na doutrina de Monroe. 

^Vara que existe uma America para os americanos e explicara 

^•^^o pela qual os americanos devem permanecer unidos. An- 

Y^^cia-se que o Congresso Pan-Americano sera celebrado em 

^shington em 1900, mas creio que esta data sera alterada e que 

Hvielle Congresso tera lugar aqui em 1899, data de nossa exposi- 

*'*^^- Assim pensavam os delegados do Congresso Pan-Ameri- 

^Ho quando conferenciaram aqui acerca da . exposi9ao o anno 

^^ssado." 

A exposi9ao e sob a administra9ao do presidente, Capitao John 

^'- Brisker de Buffalo, cuja sagacidade descobriu os usos praticos 

^ que a maravilhosa for9a dynamica das cataractas podia ser appli- 

^^da e a cujas energias se deve a construc9ao da estrada de ferro 



1206 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

de Niagara. As pessoas que o assistem siooSr. W. Caryl Ely, 
Director geral; F. C. M. Lautz, Thesoureiro; e Richmond C 
Hill, Secretario. 

O escriptorio geral da companhia occupa um andar inteiro do 
"Coal and Iron Exchange Building" de Buf&lo, N. Y., e se 
propoe estabelecer outros escriptorios em New York, Chicago e 
Washington, D. C. 



COMMERCIO MISCELLANEO. 

REPUBLICA ARGENTINA. 

Uma das primeiras casas commerciaes da Republica 
Folhas do Ferro AxDsricsno. 

Argentina assegura que o commercio em folhas de ferro 

augmentou muito naquelle paiz, devido a que cada dia esta 6 mais empregada 

em construcgoes. Os manufactureiros americanos comegam a reconhecer o 

facto de que os mercados sul-americanos sao muito importantes, e fazem esforgos 

para introduzir seus productos em concurrencia com os de fabrico inglez. Um 

dos obstaculos contra o seu bom exito neste commercio, tem sido at6 agora a 

differenga nos fretes, porque os fretes inglezes custam lo por cento menos do 

que OS americanos. Tomar-se-hao medidas para obviar esta diiiiculdade, e se 

cr6 que a promptidao na remessa de mercadorias dos Estados Unidos favoreceri 

a este paiz na concurrencia que se tem suscitada. 

BRAZIL. 

Diz-se, com autoridade, que grandes remessas de papel 

Embarqnos de Pspel. x o 

dos Estados Unidos se exportam constantemente para 

Londres para ser dalli reembarcadas para o Brazil. Papel para periodicos, para 

tectos e para lojas de papel tem sido pedido por casas exportadoras em quan- 

tidades que sobem a milhares de dollars. Isto 6 devido ao facto de que na 

America Central e do Sul ignoram o que 6 a producgao deste artigo nos Estados 

Unidos, e a que as casas inglezas, em concurrencia com os fabricantes allemaes, 

dominam um mercado a que os americanos tem prestado pouca attengao. 

CHILE. 

Segundo o " Chilian Times", a produccSo de nitrato 

A Induitria de Nitrato. ^ , . 

em 1896 montou a 23,832,434 quintaes, e a exportagao 

attingiu a 24,066,189 quintaes. Os principaes paizes para que se exporta o 

nitrato do Chile sao a Allemanha, os Estados Unidos, Gra Bretanha, Franca e 

Hollanda. De uma publicagao que mostra o consumo de nitrato do mundo 

durante os sete ultimos annos, nota-se que houve um augmento de 4,359,627 

quintaes, ou quasi 200,000 toneladas inglezas no consumo de 1896 sobre o de 

1890. O excesso de exportagocs em 1896 sobre a producgao deste anno, i 

devido ao excesso de producgao em 1895. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 1 207 

A Conpsniiia de Tabaco da ^ companhia dc tabaco da America do Sul, estabele- 
Amenca do Snl. ^.j^^ ^^^ Valparaiso, que cmprega 160 operarios, importa 

para a fabricayao de cigarros, grandes quantidades do tabaco americano em 
rama, da qualidade que se cultiva nos Estados de Virginia e North Carolina. 
A16m do tabaco importado dos Estados Unidos, esta companhia importa tabaco 
dc Cuba, Egypto, Turquia, e do norte do Brazil. Calcula-se que a produc^So 
per dia deste estabelecimento 6 de 900,000 charutos e 10,000 libras de tabaco 
lavrado. Cre-se que, si os exportadores fizerem esforyos adequados, o consumo 
do tabaco americano no Chile seria muito augmentado. 

EQUADOR. 
Conforme um decreto executivo, todas as mercadorias 

Factnras Consnlans. 

com destino i Republica do Equador, deverao ser acom- 
panhadas de uma factura consular, certiHcado pelo consul do Equador no porto 
do embarque ou pela pessoa que seja auctorisada a proceder d'este modo. O 
peso em grosso de cada volume que pesar mais do que 50 kilogrammas 
dcverS ser marcado no seu exterior por algarismos. O peso que for em excesso 
de 10 por cento do mencionado na factura, pagar^ uma taxa addicional de 100 
por cento sobre o direito applicavel ao artigo pela lei de alfandega em vigor. 

HAITI. 

Oabo Bnbmarino para a ^ companhia de cabos e telegraphos dos Estados 
America do Sol. Unidos abriu ultimamente seu cabo submarino que se 

liga com o da America do Sul. O cabo estende-se de Londres SLt6 o cabo de 
Haiti, aonde 6 ligado com o cabo francez das Antilhas que toca em Venezuela, 
Martinica, Guyana Franceza e Hollandeza e Vizeu, no Brazil. Em Vizeu o 
cabo francez liga-se com as linhas de telegraphos do Brazil e depois com as da 
Republica Argentina. Este cabo reduz a distancia que os telegrammas por 
cabo tSm de percorrer entre a Inglaterra e a America do Sul e a diminui9So 
do custo 6 de 25 por cento. 

MEXICO. 

Tiabalhadorw Japoneees ^ ^''' ^^LHAM Laing Malcolmson, que residiu por 
noi Oafetaec. muitos annos em Ceylao, dedicado i cultura de caf6 em 

grande escala, e que por algum tempo tem estado no Mexico investigando as 
possibilidades da cultura de caf6 nesta republica, tem interessado muitos ricos 
cultivadorcs de caf6 na compra de extensas fazendas no isthmo de Tehuantepec. 
Por intermedio do ministro japonez no Mexico, o Sr. Malcolmson concluiu 
alguns arranjos preliminares para a introducgao na republica de uma grande 
colonia de trabalhadores japonezes afim de empregal-os nos cafesaes. Entende 
que 05 terrcnos do sul do Mexico se adaptam melhor para a cultura do caf6 que 
quaesqucr outros que elle tem visto, e que o trabalhador japonez 6 especialmente 
apto para esta cultura. 
-- ^ A procura de machinas no Mexico vai augmentando i 

'""I'ninai Amerlcanaa. . 

proporjao que suas industrias se desenvolvem. Machinas 

de mincragao, taes como caldeiras e machinas a vapor, foram muito procuradas 

no anno passado, e foram fornecidas por umacasa judiciosa e muito emprehende- 



1208 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

dora de Erie, Pennsylvania. A nccessidade de machinas, cntretanto, nao i 
limitada a uma classe especial, mas exigem-se todas as classes de machinas e urn 
campo muito promettedor para suas industrias aguarda a vigilancia dos 
fabricantes dos Estados Unidos. Os fabricantes europeos concorrem activamentc 
neste negocio. 

Exporta^oea Mezicanas em Conforme as estatisticas ulcimamente publicadas pelo 
1896-97. Ministerio da Fazeiida, o Mexico exportou durante o 

exercicio de 1896-97, metaes preciosos no valor de $66,183,097, e outros artigos 
no valor de $45,163,397, formando um total de $111,346,494. O total das 
exporta^oes durante o exercicio anterior foi s6mentc de $105,016,902, o qual 
prova que houve um augmento de $6,329,592. 

NICARAGUA. 
As informacdes recebidas do districto de Mataealpa 

A Ctolheita de Oaftf . ^ ^ 

relativas i colheita de caf6 para o anno de 1897 a 1898, 

indicam que ser& demasiado grande para ser transportada por meio de mulas e. 

carretas de bois. Com este motivo, o Congresso de Nicaragua autorisou a 

Presidente Zelaya que faga construir uma via ferrea que, partindo da cidade d 

Matagalpa, una-se com a estrada de ferro nacional. As fazendas de assucar 

de caf6 tem sido desenvolvidas tanto que os cultivadores necessitam de machin 

mais grandes e melhores, assim como de methodos mais rapidos para preparar 

productos para os mercados. 

PERU. 

Aboii^fto do Direito de Ex- No dia 11 de Setembro ultimo, o Governo peru^m^no 
porta^fto sobre a Prata. publicou um decreto, pelo qual foi abolido* o direito c3c 
exportagao de 3 por cento ad valorem que se cobrava sobre a prata cunh^da, 
em barras e chafalonia. Esta isenyao nao se estende i. moeda de ouro nacional ' 
ou ao ouro em barras ou em p6, que continuari pagando um direito ^c, 
exportayao de 3 por cento. 

ESTADOS UNIDOS. ' 

As Pellet de Vitella afto ^ Junta de Avaliadores geraes dos Estados Unido^ 
Lima de Direito.. decidiu no dia 3 de Dezembro de 1897, que as pelles df 
vitella cruas, que servem para fazer quasi todo o calgado que se usa neste p^^* 
serao no futuro introduzidas livres de direitos. Segundo esta resolugao^ • 
pelles de vitella cruas nao devem ser classificadas, segundo a lei de tarif* t 
Dingley, como couros de rezes crus, que pagam um direito de 15 por ce^^^ 
ad valorem, mas que estao isentas de lodo direito e Hguram na lista de artiiSf 
livres sob o nome de pelles cruas. A Junta decidiu tambem que a pala. '^ 
"couro" se applica technicamente is pelles de animaes grandes, taes cc^^ 
cavallos, bois, vaccas, e touros, emquanto que a palavra "pelle" se empr^ 
fallando de carneiros, vitellas e cabras. A palavra *' couro ", como termo cc3l 
mercial, refere-se aos que pesam 25 libras ou mais; os couros que pcaif 



1 



( 



i 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. IlOQ 

menos sao classificados como " pellcs ". Tratando-se de pellcs e couros seccos, 
am peso de 1 2 libras marca a linha divisoria. 

o Cedro da America N'um relatorio sobre o mcrcado de New York de 

do Sni. Dezembro de 1897, se declara que o cedro procedcnte de 

certa parte das Antilhas, do Mexico, America Central e America do Sul rivalisa 
com o cedro da Hespanha. O cedro destcs paizes 6 muito satisfactorio e menos 
custoso que o cedro hespanhol, de que nao ha abundancia, e, por conseguinte, 6 
provavel que este seja substituido por aquelle no future. 

Uma comparagao das estatisticas do commercio de ve- 

Gonu&arcio de TTelocipedeB. 

locipedcs com a America-latina para os exercicios de 1896 

e 1897, mostra um augmento notaval nas exporta^oes para 1897. Quanto i 

disiribui^ao destas exportagoes, o Mexico as tomou no valor de $73,117, que 

foi um augmento de $48,839 sobre as do anno anterior ; a Republica Argentina 

importou no valor de $42,091 em 1897, contra $4,065 em 1896, e o Brazil, 

que occupa o terceiro lugar na lista, $29,355, em 1897, e $13,592 em 1896. A 

America Central, Santo Domingo, e a Columbia augmentaram suas importances 

nestes dous annos no valor de $6,020, $4,642, e $1,278 respectivamente. Os 

dcmais paizes sul-americanos importaram velocipedes em 1897, no valor de 

$73,507, e em 1896 s6mente no valor de $13,401, que mostra o augmento 

notavel de $60,106. 

URUGUAY. 

Oonmiercio entre o« Estados Segundo informagoes sobre as cxportagScs do porto de 
UnidoseMonteridte. Montevideo durante os primeiros nove mezes do anno 
corrence, foram exportados para os Estados Unidos durante este periodo 
245,605 couros de boi seccos, ou mais que a metade de um total de 466,795. 
Dos couros de boi salgados que o Uruguay exportou, os Estados Unidos 
tomaram a quinta parte, flgurando no quarto lugar entre as nagSes occupadas 
ncstc commercio. Nas importa^oes da la do Uruguay, os Estados Unidos 
occupam o terceiro lugar, tcndo importado 11,738 fardos de um total de 
50,552, e no commercio de pellos, mais que a terga parte de um total de 940 
fardos foi exportada para os Estados Unidos. 

VENEZUELA. 

O Ministro Francis B. Loomis, n'um relatorio remet- 
OomniaTcio de Cl^ado> , . 

tido ao Ministerio de Estado, diz, que o commercio de 

gado cm Venezuela amea^a prejudicar os criadores americanos, e di, como 

prova dcsta declaragSo, o grande augmento que houve no numero de gado 

criado cm Venezuela nos ultimos tres annos. Em 1894, havia 5,000,000 

cabcjas de gado no paiz; no anno corrcnte o numero montou a 10,000,000 

cabc^as, c espera-se que nos proximos quatro annos o numero seja dobrado. 

Os csforgos fcitos por parte da Republica para abrir um mercado no Brazil para 

gado foram de tan to exito que se propSe estendcr o commercio para Cuba 

c as Antilhas. 



1210 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

O RAMI. 

Em consequencia do excesso de produc^So e o conse- 
guinte baixo pre^o do assucar de canna, os agncuhores 
da America do Sul e das Ancilhas senciram-se Tornados a buscar alguma nova 
industria a que podiam dedicar com mais proveito os seus trabalhos e seus terrenos 
Nesta crise parece que a cultura do rami Ihes tem sido apresentada. 

Muitas experiencias tem demonstrado que esta planta cresceri em abundancia 
e a muito pouco custo de cultivo em varjas partes do Mexico, America Central 
e America do Sul. At6 o presente a producjao do rami, n'uma escala propor- 
cional ao seu valor e rendimento provavel, foi impedida pela falta de machinas 
para descortiyar e desgommar a fibra, de modo que podesse fazer concurrencia 
com a fibra preparada i mao, importada da China. 

£xperiencias concludentes levadas a cabo na iiha de Jamaica recentemente, 
mostraram que a machina do Sr. MacDonald realisa aquellas opera^6es de maneira 
satisfactoria. 

Segundo o Gleaner que se publica em Kingston, organisou-se uma companhia 
sob o titulo de "Jamaica Fibre Company, Limited" cujo object© 6 cultivar o 
rami em grande escala e preparar a fibra para o mercado. Os nomes que figuram i 
frente desta associa^ao, segundo o Gleaner, sao garantia da seriedade da empreza. 

ASSOCIA5AO NACIONAL DE FABRICANTES. 

O armazem para a exhibigao de manufacturas ameri- 
Annasem em Oaracaa. it, ^ 

canas estabelecido em Caracas, e a primeira tentativa 

experimental que tem feito neste sentido a Associagao Nacional de Fabricantes. 

A demanda de espa^o pelos exponentes tem sido tao grande que os directores 

se tem visto obrigados a fixar o 4 de Dezembro como limite do prazo para 

receber mercadorias. N'um relatario datado em Puerto Cabelio, e que acaba de 

chegar ao Ministerio de Estado, o Consul Proskanek. se expressa da seguinte 

favoravel maneira acerca da empreza e seus resultados quanto ao commercio de 

Venezuela : 

"Ao principio seus bons efFeitos se limitarao aos grandes e ricos territorios 
que sao tributarios de Caracas e que consumem artigos de primeira qualidade, 
mas sua fama e os beneficios que produziri, nao tardarao em induzir aos com- 
merciantes des regioes central e occidental la Republica a visitar ^ exposi^ao 
A vista mesma das mercadorias, a comrpara^ao d*ellas no lugar mesmo com outros 
objectos semelhantes, o cambio de ideas entre os representantes americanos e os 
commerciantes venezuelanos acerca de pequenos detalhes mercantis, deverao ser 
proveitosos para ambas partes e contribuir a dissipar serios erros que ainda 
existem. 

" O governo estd esforgando-se para fomentar a empreza, e os sentimentos 
amistosos dos filhos do paiz para todo a que 6 americano, farao que desenvol- 
vam a maior energia aHm de que os esfor^os dos iniciadores do projecto se 
vejam coroados de bom exito." 



Bulletin Mensuel 

DU 

Bureau des Ri^publiques Am^ricaines 

Union Internationale des R^publiques Ami^ricaines 

Vol. V. JANVIER 1898. No. 7. 



DELATIONS COMMERCIALES EN AMfiRIQUE— 

VII. 

LE LITTORAL DE L'EST DE L'AMfiRIQUE DU SUD.* 

^^s pays qui doivent etre consideres ensuite dans ces rela- 
tions ^x\t les Republiques de rAmerique du Sud qui longent 
* ^^l^ntique ou qui y trouvent leur debouche naturel. Ces pays, 
seloti les distances qui les separent des Etats-Unis sont, le Bresil, 
^^^^guay, la Republique Argentine, et le Paraguay, ce dernier 
etant le seul pays de la cote de PEst qui n'a pas de littoral 
ro^^itime. Le transport entre les Etats-Unis et cette vaste 
region de rAmerique du Sud, qui renferme non seulement 
d'ininienses ressources naturelles en voie de developpement, mais 
aussi des industries et un commerce d'enormes proportions, qui 
ont deja atteint leur plein developpement, est facile et direct 
ct n'attend pas les facilites additionnelles qui se developperaient 
par suite de la construction du canal a travers le Nicaragua ou 
I'jsthme de Panama, dont les pays du littoral de Touest ont si 
grand besoin. Le developpement des relations actuelles de com- 
'ncrce des Etats-Unis, dans la partie orientale de I'Amerique du 
^^ depend seulement des conditions deja existantes et qui, par 
consequent, n'ont pas besoin d'etre creees. 

^ premier article de cette s6rie a paru dans le Bulletin Mensuel pour le mois de 
i«inei 1897. 

1211 



1212 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Le canal interoceanique serait d'un grand benefice dans 
raccourcissement des distances entre la cote est de rAmeric 
du Sud et la cote .ouest de rhemisphcre entier, tandis que 
construction du canal n'afFecterait qu'indirectement le comme 
entre la cote de PAtlantique de TAmerique du Sud et la c 
de I'Atlantique et les ports du Golfe des Etats-Unis. Les rot 
praticables les plus courtes sont deja trouvees sur les eaux dc 
vaste mer de I'Atlantique, et les necessites pour le developpem 
commercial sont simplement celles qui forment la base de t< 
commerce maritime. Par d'autres mots, nous n'avons qu'a trou 
les moyens pour augmenter I'echange des produits par les vc 
accoutumees, sans aucun empechement naturel a franchir. 
nous pouvons obtenir la quantite d'articles necessaires au comme 
d'cchange, et les vaisseaux pour les transporter, le probleme 
resolu. 

Bien que les ports de la cote orientale de I'Amerique du S 
soient les points terminaux des routes directes et definitives part; 
des Etats-Unis, leur relation geographique envers le dernier p; 
n'est pas de nature a lui donner un avantage fi'appant dans la In 
avec les nations europeennes pour leur commerce. Comme i 
etc indique dans le premier article de cette serie, le continent si 
americain projette dans TAtlintique a une telle distance a V 
d'une ligne tracee au sud de la ville de New-York, que les pc 
europeens les plus au nord ne sont pas plus eloignes que 
grandes villes maritimes des Etats-Unis. Done les conditio 
sont plus egales que dans la concurrence pour le commerce 
Mexique, de TAmerique Centrale, des Indes Occidentales 
de la cote septentrionale de I'Amerique du Sud, qui sont 
pres des Etats-Unis qu'ils leur ofFrent un grand avantage : 
leurs rivaux europeens — avantage qui, comme il ete si souvi 
indique dans ces articles, a Pachevement du Canal de Nicara^ 
ou de Panama, s'etendrait a la cote occidentale de PAmerique 
Sud. Malgre ceci, le volume du commerce de la cote orient 
de I'Amerique du Sud est si grand que, meme sous des conditio 
gcographiques moins favorables, la part des Etats-Unis prese 
des quantites considerables, surtout en comparaison avec celle 
la cote occidentale. Les importations provenant de, et les exp 
tations des Etats-Unis a destination des contrees de la cote ori 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



1213 



tale, pour les exercices termines le 30 juin 1896 et 1897, sont 
ainsi cites dans ks statistiques du Tresor des Etats-Unis : 

CoU orientale de l^Amerique du Sud, 





Importations provenant de. 


Hxportations k destination de. 




1896. 


1897. 


1896. 


T897. 


R^publique Argentine 

Brfesil 


Dollars. 

9. 313. 385 
71, 060, 046 


Dollars. 
10, 772, 627 

69. 039. 389 


Dollars. 
5, 979, 046 
14. 258. 187 


Dollars. 

6, 384, 984 

12,450,061 

740 

1,213.426 


ParaKuav 


Urueuav 


3, 242,428 


3.515,054 


1,481, 200 


0"**/ ••. ... 


Total 


83,615,859 


83, 327, 070 


21.718,433 


20,049, 211 



Le commerce total des Etats-Unis avec TAmerique du Sud 
pendant les memes annees se repartit comme suit: 

AMERIOUE DU SUD. 



Importations provenant de. 


Hxportations k destination de. 


1896. 


1897. 


1896. 


1897. 


Dollars. 
loS. 828. 462 


Dollars. 
107, 389, 009 


Dollars. 
36.297,671 


Dollars. 
33. 768, 493 



Ainsi, des importations totales des Etats-Unis provenant de 
VAmerique du Sud, nous trouvons que plus des trois-quarts 
^lennent de la cote orientale, tandis que pres des deux-tiers du 
total des exportations des Etats-Unis a destination de PAmerique 
du Sud sont pris par ces memes pays. Par contre, le commerce 
flc la cote occidentale avec les Etats-Unis, dans son etat actuel de 
developpement, decrit dans les articles precedents, est insignifiant. 
Ses possibilites seulement arretent Tattention. 

Les chifFres sont : 

CoU occidentale de l^Amerique du Sud. 



Bolivie 

Chili . . ; ; 

E<luateur 
Ptrou 



Total 



Importations provenant de. 



1896. 



Dollars. 

Nulle. 
4,709,017 

763. 643 
712,696 



6,185,356 



1897. 



Dollars. 
Nulle. 

3. 792, 434 
566, 526 

722. 089 



5,081,049 



Exportations k destination de. 



1896. 



Dollars. 

21,907 

3,431,808 

689, 416 

999.381 



5. 142, 512 



1897. 



Dollars. 

7.787 
2,578,911 

734. 868 
1, 108, 436 



4, 430, 002 



Bull. No. 7 10 



1214 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

On ne peut s'attendre qu'a une augmentation peu considerable 
de ces chifFres jusqu'a ce que Pachevement du canal interoceanique 
ouyre une route plus courte et moins couteuse des Etats-Unis au 
littoral du Pacifique de I'Amerique du sud; mais le volume du 
commerce deja existant, aussi bien que la grande richesse agricole 
du Bresil et des contrees de la Plata promettant un developpement 
immense de commerce, semble marquer la cote orientale comme 
celle specialement favorable au developpement plus intime des 
relations avec les Etats-Unis. 

Au point de vue du manufacturier et de Texportateur americains 
les relations existantes avec les contrees de la cote orientale de 
I'Amerique du Sud ne sont pas satisfaisantes, vu que, tandis que 
les Etats-Unis achetent annuellement de leurs produits pour un^ 
valeur superieure a 83,000,000 de dollars, ils ne lui en venderxx 
que pour environ 20,000,000 de dollars, soit un quart de moires 
qu'ilsn'en achetent. A present que le manufacturier fait une ccr^- 
currence si heureuse a ses competiteurs europeens dans les marclk^s 
nationaux de ces derniers, il ne voit aucune raison pourquoi il Tie 
reussirait pas aussi bien dans PAmerique du Sud que partout 
ailleurs. II n'envisage pas les barrieres d'habitude, de relations cic 
commerce longtemps etablies, des prejuges du tarif et du capital 
europeen place dans les banques et qui controlent le cours du 
change. Ces barrieres peuvent, sans doute, etre franchies avec le 
cours du temps, mais seulement par suite d'eiForts intelligents ^t 
patients. 

Peut-etre que le meilleur moyen pour efFectuer lenr eloignemer^^ 
serait une politique de reciprocity soigneusement deliberee, ass«-^' 
rant Techange le plus libre possible, sans perte pour les industri^^ 
etablies. Une telle politique, ayant pour objet Tavantage mutu^*" 
a etre ressenti par les parties contractantes, contribuerait indubit^^ 
blement a la diversion du commerce des voies europeennes et ^ 
I'uniondes Republiques Americaines dans une communaute reelt^'^ 
et non sentimentale, d'interets. Les questions subsidiaires, ma.?^ 
non moins importantes relatives a ^augmentation de facilites d^ 
transports, avec des vaisseaux sur lesquels flotteraient les pavilion^ 
des Republiques Americaines, et des chemins de fer, liant plu^ 
etroitement encore par des chainons d'acier les differentes contrees, 
et de I'adaptation des manufactures et des methodes commerciales 
des Etats-Unis aux besoins particuliers du commerce sud-ameri- 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. I215 

cain, ont etc clairement discutees dans cette serie d'articles, mais 
dies doivent etre toujours dans I'esprit et sans cesse rappelees a 
Tattention de tous ceux qui sont interesses dans le probleme gene- 
ral des conditions commerciales de PAmerique, comme indispensa- 
bles a la croissance necessaire et rapide. 

Parmi les autres pays que nous passons en revue, le Bresil a le 

plus grand commerce avec les Etats-Unis, evalue pendant I'exer- 

cise passe, finissant le 30 juin 1897, a plus de 69,000,000 de dollars 

pour I'exportation aux Etats-Unis, etde 12,450,000 de dollars pour 

Timportation. II y a eu une diminution de 2,000,000 de dollars 

au compte des exportations en comparaison avec I'annee ante- 

rieure, et de 1,800,000 de dollars pour les importations, mais cette 

diminution n'a aucune signification dans un commerce total de 

plus de 81,000,000 de dollars, et trouve sa raison d'etre dans les 

fluctuations des annees prccedcntes. Les achats bresiliens des 

Etats-Unis ne montrent pour ainsi dire, aucun gain permanent 

dans une serie d'annees, tandis que ses ventes aux Etats-Unis ont 

diminue depuis 1893 ^^ 7,000,000 de dollars. 

Cette condition d'affaires est d'autant plus remarquable quand 
on considere que, de tous les pays de TAmerique du Sud, le 
Bresil ne cede le pas a aucun, dans la cordialite de ses sentiments 
envers les Etats-Unis, ni dans I'intimite de ses relations com- 
merciales, datant d'une periode tres reculee. Le caractere de ses 
principaux produits agricoles, tels que cafe, Sucre, caoutchouc, etc., 
etant prcsque exclusivement tropical, on ne peut pas dire qu'il 
6sse concurrence aux principales denrees agricoles des Etats- 
Unis, de sorte que ces derniers peuvent facilement lui accorder 
des concessions douanieres sans risquer de porter prejudice aux 
industries nationales. De I'autre cote, il y a une variete infinie de 
denrees alimentaires et de marchandises manufacturees que le 
Bresil voudrait bicn sans doute importer en plus grande quantite 
des Etats-Unis, sous des conditions plus favorables. II n'y a 
aucun pays de T Hemisphere Occidental qui paraisse offrir de 
benefices plus tentants que ceux qui resulteraient d'un systeme 
soigneusement elabore de reciprocite avec les Etats-Unis. 

Les relations entre la Republique Argentine et les Etats-Unis 
sont moins facilement ajustees a cause de la similitude de quel- 
ques produits principaux des deux pays, tels que le ble et la laine. 
Cepcndant, la Republique Argentine produit des recoltes de la 



12l6 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS, 

zone torride aussi bien que de la zone temperee, et il se peut que 
les articles (tels que le Sucre), qui n'entrent pas en concurrence avec 
les produits des Etats-Unis, sauf en petites quantites, pourraient 
servir de base de concessions mutuelles. II est affirme aussi que 
certaines qualites de laine de TArgentine ne peuvent pas etre pro- 
duites avantageusement aux Etats-Unis et pourraient etre admises 
sous des conditions plus favorables ; mais par contre, il est assure, 
qu'avec la protection douaniere, les Etats-Unis pourraient clever 
en quelques localites le meme genre de moutons. 

Cette question est une que doivent regler ceux qui sont spe- 
cialement qualifies pour la resoudre, mais on peut remarquer de 
passage, que la reciprocity implique necessairement une politique 
de concessions mutuelles, ayant pour objet principal d'obtenir les 
plus grands benefices pour le plus grand nombre. Le trafic de la 
Republique Argentine est de proportions considerables, s'elevant 
a une valeur de plus de 200,000,000 de dollars par an. Actuelle- 
ment la part des Etats-Unis dans ce commerce n'est que de 7 pour 
cent. Evidemment il serait avantageux de considerer serieuse- 
ment les possibilites d'un plus grand volume d'echanges. 

Les p^incipaux produits de P Uruguay sont tres similaires a ceux 
des Etats-Unis, notamment le betail, la laine, le mais, le ble, etc.; 
mais les chifFres du commerce montrent que I'Uruguay vend beau- 
coup plus aux Etats-Unis qu'il n'en achete, et dans le Paraguay 
et I'Uruguay les exportateurs des Etats-Unis pourraient sans 
doute, avec des efforts energiques, augmenter grandement la con- 
sommation de certaines classes de marchandises. Dans I'Uruguay 
par exemple, il y a une demande considerable de petrole et de bois 
de charpente que les Etats-Unis pourraient assurement remplir 
presque entierement, si le droit per9u par I'Uruguay sur ces articles 
etait reduit. 

On remarquera que, a I'exception du Paraguay, avec lequel les 
Etats-Unis n'ont presque pas de commerce, les pays de I'Est de 
I'Amerique du Sud ont a leur compte un profit commercial de 
proportions considerables. Avec I'ajustement propre des droits de 
douane, et TefFort systematique de la part des exportateurs des 
Etats-Unis, il ne peut etre mis en doute qu'en vue des sympathies 
naturelles qu'ont 1' Argentine, le Bresil, et I'Uruguay pour la 
Republique soeur du Nord, ils ne soient portes a acheter en plus 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 12 17 

grandes quantites d'un client aussi avantageux. Ainsi la clef du 
probleme de la croissance commerciale depend de la sage negocia- 
tion de la reciprocite, et de I'efFort plus actif de la part dcs com- 
iner9ants des Etats-Unis a surmonter les efforts industrieux du 
fcibricant et de I'exportateur europeens. 



J^k^^^yC/i ^oZ-eci-J^r 



RfiPUBLIQUE ARGENTINE. 

■ 

COMMERCE EXT^RIEUR PENDANT LE 1*' SEMESTRE DE 1897. 

Les faits suivants relatifs au commerce exterieur de la Repu- 
blique Argentine pendant le i«r semestre de 1897 ^^^^ releves du 
rapport public par le Departement national de la statistique. 

L'ensemble des importations et des exportations, en dehors des 
cspeces metalliques, s'est eleve au chiffre de 1 13,742,314 piastres 
or, centre 121,773,627 piastres, pendant la meme periode de 1896, 
soitune diminution de 8,031,313 piastres, dont 2,068,868 pias- 
tres pour I'importation et 5,968,445 piastres pour Vexportation. 

Les importations ont atteint 49,987,541 piastres or, qui se de- 
composent de la maniere suivante: 

Piastres or. 

Anicles sujets aux droits 43, 045, 658 

Articles exempts de droits 6, 658, 121 

Expeces metalliques 283, 762 

Compares avec ceux du premier semestre de 1896, ces chifFres 
accusent une diminution de 2,143,428 piastres pour les articles 
sujets aux droits, et de 5,387,390 piastres pour les especes metalli- 
ques, tandis que les articles exempts de droits ont augmente de 
74^560 piastres. 

Les diminutions portent principalement sur les produits du regne 
vegetal (1,334,339); sur les bois et leurs derives (591,412 
piastres); sur les tissus et matieres textiles autres que la soie et 
Ic coton (1,170,960 piastres); sur les boissons, vins et alcools 
(355^830 piastres). 

La diminution croissante que Pon constate dans le chifFre des 
entrees de vins communs en futs est particulierement frappante. 



12l8 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



Cet article, dont I'importation, pendant le premier semestre de 
1895, representait une valeur de 3,280,000 piastres or, est succes- 
sivement tombe a 2,820,000 piastres pendant la periode corre- 
spondante de 1896, et a 2,552,668 piastres en 1897. C'est en 
grande partie une consequence de Textension qu'a prise, depuis 
quelques annees la culture de la vigne dans les provinces du 
Nord-Ouest de la Republique Argentine. Les vins de San Juan, 
de Mendoza, etc., mieux feits et plus soignes qu'autrefois, sont 
entres dans la consommation comme vins de table ordinaires, et 
commencent a faire une concurrence serieuse aux vins fran9ais et 
italiens. 

Les articles en augmentation sont: 

Les produits chimiques et pharmaceutiques 200,938 piastres; 
le fer et ses derives, 1^338,300 piastres; les tissus de soie et de 
laine, 169,921 piastres; le vermouth, 109,825. La plus- value que 
presente ce demier chifFre est tout a Tavantage de I'importation 
italienne, dont les vermouths sont presque seuls a figurer dans la 
consommation du pays. 

Le tableau suivant donne la valeur des importations des diffe- 
rents pays dans la Republique Argentine, en 1896 et 1897. 

IMPORTATION. 



Pays. 



Grande-Bretagne 

France 

Allemagne 

Italic 

fistats-Unis. . 

Belgique 

Br6sil 

Espagne 

Paraguay 

Uruguay 

Chile 

Pays-Bas 

Portugal 

Antilles 

Bolivie 



1897. 



Piastres. 
18,947.560 
5. 778, 087 
5, 728, 254 
5, 342, 946 
4, 985, 746 
4,186,946 
I, 826, 803 

I, 755. 175 
578. 481 
295. 386 

96,343 
52, 166 

31. 229 
28,007 

23. 177 



X896. 



Piastres, 
20,424,178 

5. 553. 070 

6, 358, 227 
5, 400, 741 

4, 933. 336 
4,116,154 
2, 479, 301 
1, 410, 244 
502, 184 
335. 163 

11,443 
64, 189 

43.909 
18, III 

23, 677 



Au^nncntation 
(4-) ou dimi- 
nution ( — ). 



Piastres. 
—1,476,618 

4- 225.017 

— 629, 973 

57. 795 

52, 410 

70, 792 

652. 498 

344.931 
76, 297 

39. 777 
84,900 

12, 023 

12,680 

9,896 

500 



j- 



+ 



Les Etats-Unis occupent la cinquieme place comme pays 
importateur et le chiffre de ses importations a augmente de 52,410 
piastres, pendant qu'il etait au contraire en decroissance pour 



BUREAU or AMERICAN REPUBLICS. I219 

I'Angleterre, I'Allemagne, PItalie, le Bresil, PUruguay, les Pays- 
Bas, le Portugal et la Bolivie. 

Pendant cette meme periode, les exportations ont atteint le 
chifFre de 65,118,829 piastres or, qui se decomposent en: 

Piastres or. 

Articles sujets aux droits 39, 771. 228 

Articles exempts de droits 24, 267, 307 

Esp^ces zn^talliques i, 180, 294 

Ces donnees, comparees aux resultats du premier trimestre de 
Tannee precedente, montrent que la sortie des articles sujets aux 
droits a augmente de 555749633 piastres ; celle des especes metal- 
liques de 1,076,132 piastres, et que ^exportation des produits 
exempts de droits a baisse de 1 1»537»078 piastres. Cette diminu- 
tion, qui porte presque uniquement sur les produits de Pagriculture, 
est la consequence des degats causes par les invasions de saute- 
relles qui ont ravage et presque totalement detruit la derniere 

recolte des cereales. 

Les acheteurs de produits argentin se rangent dans Pordre 

suivant : 



Pays. 



France 

^''ernagne 

^'"ande-Bretagne 

&T.: ::.::: 

pats-Unis 

Italic 

Chile 

^'^«uay 

^pagne. ... 

Bolivie 

Antilles 

Paraguay 

Pays-Bas 

Portugal 







Augmentation 


1897. 


X896. 


(+) ou dimi- 
nution (— ). 


Piasttes. 


Piastres. 


Piastres. 


14. 871, 335 


14, 932, 860 


— 61. 525 


9.321.283 


8. 456, 197 


4- 865. 086 


7.651.223 


8, 146, 182 


— 494.959 


6, 303. 584 


7. 665. 597 


—1,363,013 


5.675.423 


4.629,751 


+1,045,672 


5, 227. 765 


3,281,279 


+1, 946, 486 


I. 928, 723 


1, 882, 031 


+ 46, 692 


I 127. 721 


1,354.712 


— 226, 991 


1. 103, 593 


1, 656, 067 


.— 552,474 


512, 285 


457. 934 


+ 54. 351 


270. 491 


265. 478 


+ 5.013 


187. 546 


128, 253 


+ 59. 293 


73r440 


82. 634 


— 9.194 


33. 133 


438, 528 


— 405.395 


10, 142 

1 


14, 088 


— 3,946 



Le chiffre des exportations aux Etats-Unis pendant les pre- 
"^iers semestres de 1897 et de 1896 accuse une augmentation de 
^»946486 piastres. 



1220 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



BR^SIL. 

TRAVAUX D'AM6LI0RATI0N DU PORT DE PERNAMBUCO. 

Le Gouvemement des Etats-Unis du Bresil a decide ouvrir 
concurrence pour Texecution des travaux d'amelioration du port 
de Recife, Etat de Pernambuco, la troiseme ville du pays par rap- 
port a I'importance commerciale. Le Recife possede un port 
naturel dont le mole est forme par les recifs qui s'etendent a une 
certaine distance de terre le long d'une partie de la cote nord du 
Bresil. II feut cependant ameliorer les conditions actuelles, d'ac- 
cord avec le plan general fait par Tingenieur bresilien, Alfredo 
LisBOA, que le concessionnaire doit suivre avec les modifications 
qui, pendant Texecution, seront jugees necessaires par le Gouveme- 
ment. Les travaux en question sont les suivants: Construction 
d'un mole sur le recif submerge; exhaussement des recifs; con- 
struction de quais definitifs auxquels puissent amarrer les bateaux 
de grand tirant; dragag^ de tout le port; placement de bouees et 
poteaux d'amarrage aux lieux d'ancrage ; construction des maga- 
sins necessaires a la reception, emmagasinage et conservation des 
marchandises, lesquels jouiront des avantages et des feveurs con- 
cedes par la loi aux magasins de douanes; etablissement, le long 
des quais, de chemins de fer en communication avec leurs maga- 
sins et avec les chemins de fer et tramways existants; etablissement 
d'un jeu complet de grues hydrauliques ou electriques, et construc- 
tion de chantiers destines a I'inspection et reparation des bateaux. 

Le concessionnaire soumettra a I'approbation du Gouvemement 
les plans definitifs six mois apres I'approbation du contrat par le 
Congrcs, et les travaux commenceront dans les douze mois 
suivants, pour etre finis dans une periode de cinq et dix ans. 

Pour la remuneration et Vamortissement du capital employe, le 
concessionnaire recouvrira, jusqu'au temps de la reversion des tra- 
vaux au Gouvemement, quatre sortes d'impots: d'amarrage, de 
quayage, de charge et decharge des marchandises, et d'emmagasi- 
nage, et de plus les impots relatifs au transport des marchandises 
et au delai des bateaux dans les chantiers. Quand les revenus 
nets depasseront 1 2 pour cent, les impots soufFriront une reduction 
generale. Si les travaux sont faits par une compagnie etrangere. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 1221 

celle-ci sera consideree nationale pour tous les effets du contraL 
Les propositions devront etre presentees, en lettres fermees, jusqu'a 
3 heures de Papres-midi du 28 fevrier 1898, a la Legation du Bresil, 
a Washington, et seront ouvertes au jour et heure indiques. A la 
Legation du Bresil, a Washington, et au Consulat General, a New 
York, on foumira toutes les autres informations que desireront les 
personnes qui songent a concourir a Padjudication. 



COLOMBIE. 

LES MANUFACTURES AM^RICAINES. 

Le Consul Bidlake, a Barranquilla, Colombie, fait dans son 
rapport annuel au Gouvernement des Etats-Unis quelques sugges- 
tions de valeur relatives aux manufactures americaines dans cette 
Republique. Un des principaux sujets de plainte des marchands 
est que les marchandises americaines ne sont pas aussi bien 
emballees que celles venant de I'Europe; et aussi que la necessite 
de faire le commerce par I'intermediaire d'une maison de commis- 
sion, au lieu de le faire directement avec les manufacturiers, 
necessite le remballage de la marchandise, et par consequent une 
augmentation de poids du paquet. Un droit est per9u aux ports 
colombiens sur le poids brut du paquet ou de la caisse, selon la 
classe; done il ne devrait pas avoir plus de poids qu'il n'est 
al^solument necessaire pour Temballage ou la couverture. 

Les outils americains de toutes sortes sont preferes a ceux de 
I'Europe, etant mieiix faits, plus legers et plus commodes, mais ils 
sont aussi plus chers. Les manufacturiers allemands font une 
reproduction exacte du coutelas de Collins, qui est la fabrique 
ravorite a ?Amerique du Sud, et ils le garantissent comme etant 
aussi bon que Particle americain, et s'engagent a le remplacer 
s'll se casse. 

Les meubles sont tous importes, les Etats-Unis foumissant les 
classes de chaises jaunes ordinaires de canne a bon marche. ' Les 
^Ppareils pour Peclairage electrique se paient plus chers que 
I'article europeep, notamment les lampes incandescentes, qui se 
Pendent a 18 cents chacune, tandis que les lampes ordinaires, venant 
^^I'ltalie, se vendent a 10.6 cents. Le fil de fer americain se vend 
* 10 eta 15 pour cent en plus du prix du fil de fer allemand. 



1222 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Les chaussures pour femmes et enfants sont toutes impottees etant 
principalement de la mode fran9aise, mais celles pour hommes 
sont fabriquees dans le pays, les empeignes seulement etant 
importees. 



COSTA RICA. 

Le General J. S. Casement, qui a recemment obtenu du gou- 
vemement de Costa Rica une concession pour la construction du 
chemin de fer du Pacifique qui, traversant la Republique reliera 
TAtlantique au Pacifique, vient de retoumer de Costa Rica, et il 
a public des informations tres importantes relatives aux conditions 
politiques et commerciales qui existent dans le pays. 

Le General Casement seconde le desir du President Iglesias 
pour cultiver d'avantage les relations existantes entre les Etats- 
Unis et son pays. Actuellement le commerce predominant de 
Costa Rica se fait avec les Etats-Unis, dont les deux-cinquiemes 
se font avec la Nouvelle-Orleans, et avec des efforts bien diriges, 
il n'existe aucune raison pour que les quatre-cinquiemes du com- 
merce ne se fassent pas avec les Etats-Unis. Les habitants de 
Costa Rica ont besoin de machines, et Topportunite est offerte aux 
manufacturiers des Etats-Unis de s'emparer de ce commerce. 

Le President Iglesias a en projet des ameliorations etendues a 
rinterieur, des chemins de fer sont en voie de construction, et le 
dcveloppement de la navigation des rivieres qui penetrent a I'in- 
terieur re9oit son attention serieuse. Dans ce but le capital etranger 
est sollicite pour I'exploitation des vastes ressources naturelles du 
pays. Presque tous les produits tropicaux peuvent etre cultives, 
les ressources minerales sont varices et le climat est excellent 



HAITI. 

NOUVEAU MINISTfeRE. 

Le Ministere d'Haiti, qui vient d'etre reorganise, est constitue 
comme suit : 

Ministre de Tlnterieur, M. Auguste Tancrede. 
Ministre du Commerce et des Finances, M. Plaisance. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 1223 

Ministre des Relations Exterieures et des Affaires Ecclesias- 
tiques, M. Brutus St. Victor'. 

Ministre de la Guerre et de la Marine, M. Guillaume Velbrun. 

Ministre des Travaux Publics et de 1' Agriculture, M. Cincin- 
natus Leconte. 

Ministre de la Justice et de Tlnstruction Publique» M. Antoine 
Carmeleau. 

Les messieurs qui composent le Ministere ont deja occupe des 
des positions ofRcielles importantes et leur nomination a ete 
approuvee unanimement par Topinion publique. 

MODIFICATIONS PROPOSfiES DANS LES FINANCES. 

L'Honorable William F. Powell, ministre des Etats-Unis a 

Haiti, annonce que la Chambre des Deputes a sous consideration 

une proposition pour consolider les differentes dettes de la Repu- 

Wique en une seule dette nationale. A cet efFet, des bons seront 

^mis. En vue de ce projet, on se propose d'obtenir aux Etats- 

L'nis, un emprunt de $6,000,000 au taux d'interet de 6 pour cent 

par an et de racheter avec cette s6mme, toutes les dettes actuelles 

du pays dont le montant s'eleve a $26,875,784 (monnaie haiti- 

^riiie) ; detruire le papier-monnaie en circulation et le substituer 

par une monnaie d'or, prenant comme unite monetaire le dollar 

des Etats-Unis. 

L'emprunt propose sera garahti par une partie des droits d'ex- 

Portation sur la recolte du cafe, qui est estimee a $2,000,000 

CTiviron par an; en plus une partie des droits d'importation y sera 

^ppliquee, quand il sera necessaire. L'argent ainsi obtenu formera 

'^n fonds d'amortissement au service de la dette et de son rachat. 

U est propose en plus, dans le cas ou l'emprunt s'efFectuerait, de 

feire remonnayer aux Etats-Unis, toutes les pieces fractionnaires 

d'argent d'apres I'unite monetaire de ce pays. 

Le Ministre Powell croit que cet arrangement financier pro- 
pose contribuera au resserrement des relations avec les Etats- 
^^is, et par consequent a la diminution de I'influence fran9aise et 
^emande qui domine actuellement dans llle. 



1224 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



MEXIQUE. 

LA CULTURE DU CAOUTCHOUC. 

Le Bureau a re9u dernierement de nombreuses demandes rela- 
tives au caoutchouc du Mexique. En reponse a ces questions, 
rinformation suivante, recueillie par M. George D. Coleman dans 
ses investigations pour le journal " Les Deux Republiques," est 
publiee. 

Jusqu'ici le Bresil a ete le grand pays producteur du caoutchouc; 
ses exportations annuelles ont atteint le chifFre de $100,000,000. 
Cependant, il y a au Mexique et dans les Etats de PAmerique 
Centrale des terres egalement convenables a sa culture, ayant en 
plus I'avantage d'un climat excellent. Autrefois on comptait 
seulement sur la recolte du produit des arbres a Tetat sauvage, mais 
avec I'augmentation de Pemploi du caoutchouc, et la consequente 
hausse du prix, le capital commence a s'interesser dans cette 
Industrie et on s'engage grandement dans sa culture. 

Les arbres a caoutchouc ne poussent pas au-dessus d'une eleva- 
tion de .500 pieds au-dessus du niveau de la mer, et les terres 
basses et humides, mais pas marecageuses, sont les meilleures. II 
y a quelque temps on pouvait obtenir des terres convenables a 
cette culture au prix de 25 cents I'acre, en achetant une grande 
etendue, mais avec la croissance de Pindustrie les terres se sont 
avancces en prix et se vendent de $2 a $5, monnaie mexicaine. 
On doit toutefois se souvenir que les terres pour la culture du 
caoutchouc peuvent servir a la production d'autres recoltes, telles 
que le mais, les haricots, etc., qui peuvent etre vendues avec un 
benefice sufRsant pour couvrir les depenses preliminaires de la 
plantation a caoutchouc. 

La plus grande depense apres I'achat du terrain, est pour le 
defi-ichement et la preparation du sol. Si les facilites de transport 
sont bonnes, le defi-ichement pent devenir une entreprise lucrative, 
car les bois de teintures, de sandal, de satin, d'ebene et de noyer, 
s41s sont expedies, commandent des prix qui plus que dedom- 
magent les fi-ais encourrus. On doit choisir les terres s'etendant le 
long des cours d'eau, ou le sol est riche, profond etglaiseux; une 
preuve certaine de bonnes terres a caoutchouc, se trouve dans la 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 122C 

presence d'arbres sauvage. Dans le defrichement, ces arbres 
loivent etre laisses debout, de meme que les jeunes plantes, pour 
tre transplantes et places aux distances voulues. La saison con- 
enable au plantage des jeunes arbres est pendant la saison plu- 
ieuse; ils doivent etre disposes en rangees, a une distance de 15 
)ieds, alternant les arbres de sorte qu'ils ne se trouvent pas en 
ace I'un de I'autre dans les rangees subsequentes. Cette distribu- 
ion permettrait environ 193 arbres a Tacre, qui est le plus grand 
lombre admissible de bons resultats. Une fois plantes, les arbres 
le demandent aucune attention ou culture autre qu'empecher 
ies broussailles de s'elever, et en vue de cet objet une recolte secon- 
daire de mais ou de haricots est le meilleur moyen. L'arbre a 
caoutchouc se reproduit des graines ou noix qui tombent de 
Varbre aux mois de mai ou juin. Ces noix peuvent etre semees en 
couches ou en pepinieres, et ainsi une abondance de plantes est 
produite, ou les jeunes plantes sauvages peuvent etre transportees 
des forets. 

Apres la sixieme ou septieme annee, le bosquet commencera a 
produire, et a partir de la septieme annee doit rendre trois ou cinq 
livres par arbre. Comptant sur 600 livres pour la recolte de 1 93 
arbres, et sur 50 cents par livre comme benefice net, nous avons 
^n profit de $300 en or par acre. De plusieurs varietes d'arbres a 
Caoutchouc qui fournissent le caoutchouc au commerce, le meilleur 
^t le plus important se designe sous le nom de " Pastillo a elastica." 
Les arbres sauvages abondent dans les forets des Etats de Vera 
Cruz, Oaxaca, Chiapas, Tobasco et Campeche. 

GINGEMBRE. . 

Le gingembre est compris parmi les productions tropicales du 
Mexique. On considerait que cette plante etait originaire des 
pays tropicaux de TAsie et de PAfrique, ou elle a ete cultivee 
^^puis une periode tre$ reculee. Cependant, elle est trouvee a 
I'^tat sauvage dans les Etats de Pueblo, de Guerrero et de Chiapas 
au Mexique, ou Ton pense qu'elle a ete introduite par Fran9ois 

Mendoza vers le milieu du i6eme siecle. 

En dehors de son emploi comme comestible, on trouve que le 
P^gembre a une valeur inestimable comme medicament pour la 
Suerison des frissons, des fievres et des autres maux qui existent 



1226 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

dans les districts ou il est cultive. Cette plante exige pour sa 
production un sol riche et elle ne poussera pas dans le sable, I'argile 
ou dans un terrain marecageux, puisque celui-ci detruit les racines 
de la plante. Elle demande aussi une abondance de pluie et la 
temperature ne doit pas etre au-dessous de 40° F. 

Le temps le plus propice pour le plantage au Mexique ou a 
TAmerique Centrale est le mois de mars ou d'avril, les boutures 
etant plantees a une distance de 12 pouces sur 18. Les procedes 
de sa culture sont a peu pres pareils a ceux de la culture de la 
pomme de terre. La plante fleurit en septembre ou octobre, et au 
mois de Janvier on pent faire la recolte par un procede des plus 
simples, qui consiste tout simplement a arracher les tubercules du 
sol; le procede de la preparation est aussi tres simple et peu 
couteux. 

Par un rapport ofRciel sur le sujet, on apprend que sous des 
conditions fevorables la production par acre doit etre de 4,000 
livres ou plus ; le cout de la culture est de 1 cent et demi a deux 
cents par livre ; le fret de Pendroit ou le gingembre est cultive, a 
Vera Cruz, ne depasse pas $1 par 100 livres, y compris le prix des 
sacs. Le prix a New York varie entre 12 et 20 cents par livre, 
ainsi on constate qu'une plantation de 10 acres rapportera un 
benefice net de $5,000 a $7,000 par an. 

LA CULTURE DU TABAC. 

Les connaisseurs de la culture et de la manufacture du tabac con- 
siderent le moment present tres favorable pour mettre sur le marche 
les qualites excellentes du tabac mexicain pour enveloppes exte- 
ricures de cigares, en concurrence au produit de Cuba, qui, de tout 
temps a domine le marche. En consequence du desordre agricole, 
provenant de I'insurrection cubaine, les vastes plantations de tabac 
dans Hie n'ont rien produit, et les planteurs ont, en grande mesure, 
transporte leurs interets au midi du Mexique. Ces planteurs 
cubains sont tres enthousiastes sur la richesse du sol, sur Tabon- 
dance de Peau, le climat, etc. De meme que beaucoup de voya- 
geurs, lis disent que les bons terrains convenables a la culture du 
tabac a Cuba sont epuises, que les prix des engrais necessaires a 
la preparation du sol pour le rendre en condition parfaite pour le 
plantage, sont si eleves qu'il serait impossible, meme si la guerre 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 1227 

temiinait maintenant, de regagner des acheteurs, puisque le produit 
mexicain devient chaque jour mieux connu et peut se vendre avec 
grand profit au-dessus du cout de la production a Cuba. 

Le sol de I'Etat d'Oaxaca surtout est specialment favorable a la 

culture d'une variete de cette plante qui, a cause de son poids 

leger, de sa fine qualite et de sa couleur, aussi bien que de son 

parfum, est inestimable pour febriquer des enveloppes exterieures 

de cigares qui, a present, sont evaluees a des prix tres eleves dans 

Ics marches du monde. On dit avec confiance que le tabac fin 

pour enveloppe exterieure de cigares, qui se vend a $4 en or par 

livre, peut etre cultive dans ces regions favorables, surtout dans 

les terres moyennes, voisines de Ozumacin, situe entre deux 

grands cours d'eau, avec un sol compose de 80 a 85 pour cent de 

sable, de J a 6 pour cent de matiere vegetale decomposee, et le 

teste d'argilc blanche. La derniere recolte du tabac d'Ozumacin 

et de El Valle Nacional a ete en moyenne de 3 a 4 arrobas (100 

livres) par 1,000 plantes, et s'est vendu a 80 cents /Ct a $1 par 

livre. Les depenses des pepinieres, du plantage, de la recolte, du 

nettoyage, etc., y compris Pinteret de Targent, est au-dessous de 1 5 

cents par livre, ainsi un profit tres satisfaisant est realise. Cette 

annce, du aux conditions plus favorables de temperature, la qualite 

de la production est plus fine, et comme il n'y a pas eu de neces- 

site de replanter les recoltes, le cout de la preparation pour la 

vente est estime a environ 1 2 cents par livre. Quand les plantes 

etaient tres jeunes, les acheteurs payaient 80 cents par livre, mais 

les planteurs estiment que $1.20 est un prix equitable a payer 

pour le tabac sans choix qui sera pret a etre livre a Texportation 

vers la fin de fevrier ou au commencement de mars. 

Les cigares faits de ces tabacs fins sont connus et apprecies 
depuis longtemps a I'etranger. Neanmoins le prejuge en faveur 
de la feuille cubaine, comme enveloppe exterieure de cigares, a ete 
si grand que le tabac en feuilles, pour trouver une vente facile, a 
du etre mis en ballots semblables a ceux expedies de Cuba. 
L'habitude de I'envoi en ballots, en imitation de ceux de Cuba, 
est heureusement sur le declin, et on espere qu'avec Paccroissement 
dc la renommee et de la bonne reputation du tabac Mexicain en 
teuilles pour enveloppe de cigares, la recolte prochaine sera expe- 
diee tout simplement par les exportateurs, comme tabac mexicain. 
Les enveloppes mexicaines de " petate " ont aussi Tavantage de la 



1228 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

securite sur la mode havanaise-des ballots de " manta." Les facili- 
tes du transport du produit de ces districts sont excellentes, et avec 
rachevement du chemin de fer de Playa Vicente et d'Ozumacin, 
le transit rapide a Tiacotalpan, un port sitae sur le Golfe du 
Mexique, environ 25 milles a Pinterieur du pays, ayant 25 pieds 
d'eau pres des quais meme, sera assure. 

Dans TEtat de Chiapas une qualite excellente de tabac pour 
enveloppes a ete produit I'annee passee, au meme taux propor- 
tionne de cout et de profit que celui ci-dessus decrit pour Oaxaca. 

On estime la recolte du tabac dans le district de San Andres 
Tuxtla pour cette annee a 300,000 arrobas. Bien que ce tabac ne 
soit pa3 d'une qualite aussi fine que le tabac d'Ozumacin et de la 
Valle Nacional, il est cependant excellent. 

II a ete constate que sur une plantation de 75 acres, ayant une 
capacite de un million de plantes de tabac, le profit net d'une seule 
recolte serait de $62,500 environ. Deduisant $12,500 pour les 
depenses, sur la base de $3 par arroba, ou de 12 cents par livre, il 
reste encore un profit de $50,000 sur la recolte du tabac seul, 
tandis qu'il y a des produits secondaires, tels que le mais, les hari- 
cos, etc., qui ajouteront considerablement au profit de la culture 
des plantations de tabac. 

L'INDUSTRIE DE LA TANNERIE: OCCASION POUR FAIRE DE 

BONS PLACEMENTS. 

Parmi les nombreuses occasions tentantes pour le placement de 
capitaux dans de tiouvelles entreprises au Mexique, est celle 
qu'offre Petablissement d'une tannerie pres de la ville de Mexico, 
en conjonction d'une fabrique pour convertir les peaux tannees en 
cuirs pour courroies, et chaussures diverses. 

Les forets des plateaux eleves du Mexique abondent en ecorces 
de chene et autres ecorces propres a la tannerie. La culture du 
canaigre, une plante contenant un tant pour cent d'acide tannique 
s'adaptant particulierement a la tannerie de cuir de qualite supe- 
rieure, est beaucoup recherchee depuis quelques annees, et des 
quantites considerables de cette matiere s'exporte aux Etats-Unis 
et en Europe. Un arbre (Cascalote^ Rhus Canaria) qui croit 
abondamment dans une certaine region des Etats de TOuest, 
depuis Oaxaca a Sonora, fournit une ecorce qu'on exporte en 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 1229 

quantites considerables, pour etre employee dans les tanneries. 
En 1895, la production de cet article s'eleva a 2,176,810 kilo- 
grammes, d^une valeur de $243,070. En dehors de ces ecorces, 
dans la meme annee, la production d'autres ecorces utiles a la 
tannerie a atteint le chiffre de 15,000,000 kilos, d'une valeur de 
$457,167. 

1/elevage du betail est la principale industrie rurale du Me- 

xique; de grands troupeaux sur pied sont exportes annuellement 

aux Etats-Unis en plus de ceux necessaires a la consommation 

domestique. Rien que dans les abattoirs de la Cite de Mexico, 

I'abatage des boeufs en 1895* est officiellement rapporte d'avoir ete 

de 85,870 tetes. Ces peaux sont toutes expedites a Petranger et 

renvoyees au Mexique sous forme de peaux tannees ou d'articles 

fabriques. Vu la grande demande du cuir manufacture dans ses 

diverses formes au marche domestique et avec tout le materiel sous 

main necessaire a cette manufacture, il n'y a pas de raison pourquoi 

la tannerie des peaux et leur conversion en articles vendables ne 

soit pas conduite sur une grande echelle et a grand profit. 



PfiROU. 

LE DISTRICT AURIFfeRE DE CARABAYA. 

Un rapport relatif au district aurifere de Carabaya au Perou, 
vient d'etre envoye au Departement d'Etat, sous date du 8 novem- 
^Te 1897, par le Ministre Dudley, qui le mentionne comme etant 
la description la plus authentique et la plus correcte faite sur cette 
^^gion. Les details du rapport ont. ete fournis par E. J. Frew, 
^^genieur-civil, qui examina en personne les mines d'or de 
Carabaya. 

M. Frew croit que le pays n'a, pour ainsi dire, pas ete exploite, 
^^s veines et des agglomerations d'une grande richesse se trou- 
^ant partout. Le pays, qui est couvert d'une epaisse foret ne se 
P'^te pas facilement a Texploitation. Generalement les mines 
^nt revelees par les agglomerations emportees par les rivieres et 
*^s cours d'eau; en les remontant on decouvre Texistence de la 
^ine originale. La mine la plus importante actuellement en ex- 
ploitation est celle de Santo Domingo, qui fut recemment achetee 
Bull. No. 7 ^11 



1230 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

par une compagnie americaine pour la somme de ;^57,ooo, argent 
comptant. Cette compagnie a en route, une machine pour broyer 
et melanger le minerai d'une force de vingt marteaux. Le filon 
d'or de la mine de Santo Domingo varie en largeur de 1 pied 6 
pouces a 8 pieds, et renferme de Tor dans toutes ses parties, variant 
la proportion de 8 a 806 onces par tonne, et en quelques lieux des 
filons d'or presque pur ont ete trouves. Les mineurs employes 
sont principalement des Indiens qu'on paie 40 cents par jour, 
monnaie bolivienne. 

Les autres riches riiines de ce district sont celles de San Juan, 
de Raquel et de Maria, dont les rendements pour les 18 mois 
passes, en plus de celui de la mine Santo Domingo, se sont elevcs 
a 2,500 livres de metal precieux. 

Les acquereurs de mines sont accordes trois mois apres la 
requete est faite, afin de s'assurer du titre ; un delai additionel de 
quatre-vingt-dix jours est generalement permis, a Texpiration du- 
quel, si on ne prend pas possession de la propriete, on la considere 
libre pour etre requise par d'autres parties. A partir de la con- 
cession du titre, le Gouvemement peruvien re9oit annuellement 15 
soles par pertencia. 

Le grand empechement a Texploitation heureuse de cette region 
se trouve dans le manque de moyens de communications. Les ^ 
marchandises sont transportees a dos d' Indiens et les voyageur^s 
font les trajets pour la plupart a dos de mulcts. En traversant les^ 
rivieres trop profondes pour passer a gu^ et ou il n'existe pas d — . 
radeau, un cable en fer est jete a Tautre cote, et le voyageu ^^ 
suspendu dans un leger wagon ou panier, est transporte pari^x 
systeme de poulies, a Tautre cote de la riviere. Le cout du trarm.^ 
port des machines est excessif, etant de £^0 par tonne de la gai*^ 
la plus proche de Tembranchement de Juliaca-Sicuani. 

CONSTRUCTION DE CHEMINS DE FER. 

Dans le Bulletin Mensuel pour le mois de decembre 1895^ 
les points principaux de la concession accordee a M. Cuthbert B^ 
Jones et a ses associes, sujets des Etats-Unis, ont ete donnes. En 
vue de Pexecution de leur contrat, ces messieurs viennent d'or- 
ganiser aux Etats-Unis, une compagnie sous le nom de Paafic Com- 
pany^ et des ingenieurs sont actuellement sur le terrain, engages dans 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. I23I 

les travaux de construction des chemins de fer, designes dans leur 
concession. La ligne principale aura son point de depart au Port 
de Cherrepe, de la elle s'etendra a Pest dans la province de Hual- 
gayoc, soit un parcours d'environ 230 kilometres; ce chemin de 
fcrouvrira a Sexploitation une region de vastes richesses en mines 
de houille, argent, et petrole, et un district agricole riche en possi- 
bilites de culture du Sucre, du mais, du riz, des cereales, du cafe, 
du cocoa et du tabac. On dit que quand la ligne allant aux 
mines de houille de Hualgayoc sera terminee, la houille, une 
anthracite bitumeuse qui egale celle de la Pensylvanie, se vendra, 
livree au port de Cherrepe, a $2 la tonne, en concurrence avec les 
charbons anglais ou autres, dont le prix actuel varie de sept a vingt 
dollars la tonne. A cause de cette grande difference de prix, on 
croit que ces mines pourront tournir les marches de la cote du 
Pacifique, depuis le Chili jusqu'a San Francisco, penetrant meme 
dans les marches du Japon et de la Chine. 

Le Ministere du Perou, tel qu'il a etc recemment organise, se 
compose comme suit : 

Prentier et Ministre de I'lnterieur, Senor Romana. 
Ministre des Affaires* Etrangeres, Senor Riva-Aguero. 
Ministre des Finances, Senor Rey. 
Ministre des Travaux Publics, Senor Flores. 
Ministre de la Justice, Senor Lavalle y Pardo. 
Ministre de la Guerre et de la Marine, Senor Rosa Gil. 



ETATS-UNIS. 

EXTRAITS DU MESSAGE PRfiSIDENTIEL. 

Dans son message transmis lundi, le 6 decembre, au Congres, a 
I'ouverture de cette assemblee, le President McKinley fait refe- 
rence au sujet de la reciprocite commerciale avec les pays etrangers, 
dans les termes suivants: 

Afin dc mettrc cr. ex6cution Ic plus tot possible les provisions des sections 
trois ct quatre de I'actc pour cr6er des revcnus, approuv6 le 24 juillet 1897, j*ai 

nomm£ I'Honorable John A. Kasson, de TEtat d'lowa, commissaire pl6nipoten- 
twirc special, pour en tamer, avec les pays qui d6sireront profiler de ces 



1232 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

provisions, les n^gociations n6cessaires. Les n6gociations se poursuivcnt actuellc- 
mcnt avec plusicurs gouvernemcnts europ^ens ct am6ricains. II est permis dc 
croire qu'avcc I'emploi judicieux des pouvoirs accord6s par cct actc, les griefs dc 
notre pays et des autres pays, en ce qui concerne nos relations commcrcialcs 
r6ciproques, pourront etre sinon 61oign6s, du moins largement all6g6s, et quelc 
volume de nos ^changes commerciaux pourra &tre augment6 a I'avantage des 
parties contractantes. 

Reference est faite a I'importance et a I'utilite pour le commerce 
du continent americain, de rachevement du Canal de Nicaragua. 
A propos de ce sujet, le President dit : 

Un sujet d'une grande importance pour notre pays et qui 6veille de plus en 
plus rint6ret du peuple, est I'ach^vement de cette grande route maritime de 
commerce entre I'Atlantique et le Pacifique, connue sous le nom de Canal dc 
Nicaragua. Son utilit6 et sa valeur pour le commerce am6ricain sont univer- 
sellement admises. La commission nomm6e le 24 juillet dernier, "pour pour- 
suivre les arpentages et examens autoris6s par I'acte de Congr^s, approuv6 le z, 
mars 1895," pour determiner "la route exacte, la praticabilit6 et le coOt de 1^ 
construction du Canal de Nicaragua, en vue de faire les plans complets pour l^= 
travail entier de la construction de ce canal,'* est actuellement engag6e dans le^^ 
travaux. Je profiterai a Pavenir de Toccasion de transmettre au Congr^s I ^^ 
rapport de cette commission, y ajoutant en mdme temps les suggestions qi^*- 
sembleront m6riter consideration, 

L'IMPORTATION DES CUIRS AUX ETATS-UNIS. 

Pour alimenter leurs tanneries de matieres premieres, les Etatn^ 
Unis sont obliges, outre les immenses stocks fournis par L ^ 
abattoirs de Chicago et des autres grandes villes, d'avoir recour^ - 
rimportation. La valeur des peaux brutes importees annuel le 
ment atteint une somme d'environ vingt millions de dollars; T.ei 
peaux arrivent soit completement seches, soit vertes et salees. 

Dans cette quantite, les differentes especes sont tres inegalement 
reparties, les peaux de chevre forment a peu pres la moitie cJe 
^importation, soit annuellement une dizaine de millions de dollars, 
PEspagne est dans cet article le principal importateur, apres viennetit 
les peaux de boeuf et de vache provenant principalement de 1^ 
Republique Argentine et de T Uruguay. 

L'importation des cuirs travailles, qui etait autrefois tres con3f 
derable, a diminue dans la derniere decade dans des proportio: 
tres importantes. Le maroquin tient aujourd'hvii la tete avec ui 
entree annuelle de trois millions et demi de dollars; lecuirc>^ 
veau vient ensuite, pour une valeur de six cent cinquante mil J^ 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



1233 



dollars environ; la France est dans cette ligne de beaucoup le plus 
gros fournisseur; enfin viennent le cuir a semelles pour cent soi- 
xante mille dollars, le cuir de tiges pour vingt mille dollars, et les 
autres produits en quantites insignifiantes. 

Les Etats-Unis n'exportent point ou peu de cuirs a Tetat brut; 

Us en envoient une certaine quantite transformee en divers produits, 

chaussures plus specialement. 



VENEZUELA. 

LE COMMERCE SUR LA FRONTlfcRE AVEC LA COLOMBIE. 

Le Congres des Etats-Unis du Venezuela, pendant sa derniere 
session, a approuve un code de lois regissant le commerce en 
transit entre ce pays et la Colombie. Ces lois reglent le transit 
^^^ marchandises etrangeres a destination de la Republique de la 
Colombie par le port de Maracaibo et de Cuccuta; et recipro- 
9"cment, celui des marchandises de la Colombie a destination au 
^^^ezuela, pour etre exportees par voie de Maracaibo. 
^'article 2 du code dit: 

^cntirec des marchandises 6trang6res par )e port de Maracaibo, en transit 

pour 1^ Colombie, sera soumisc a toutes les formalit^s, conditions, et p6nalit6s 

^"'i^s par les lois douani^res pour les marchandises 6trang6res import6es au 

^^^ marchandises seront expediees avec des factures consulaires 
separ^es, indiquant que les articles sont pour un ou plusieurs 
point:^ de la Colombie. II sera permis aux marchandises ainsi 
^^^^^^ees, a rester en depot a la douane de Maracaibo pendant 
trent^ jours. Avant d'etre retirees pour etre envoyees dans Tin- , 
^cnevar, le proprietaire 'sera requis de remettre au prepose de la 
^ou^ne un certificat pro forma pour lequel des formes en blanc 
serori^ foumies. 

^xitre les droits d'importation reguliers, les importateurs auront 
^ P^yer un pour cent de la valeur de la facture pour frais d'en- 
"^gasinage. 

Le meme decret legislatif autorise I'admission des produits 
^^urels et des manufactures de la Colombie dans le Venezuela, 
P^f la douane de San Antonio del Tachira. 



1234 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

L'article 32 dit: 

Les fruits et les produits naturels de la Colombie seront admis en franchise 
de droits par les douanes dc Maracaibo ct de Tachira, aussi longtemps que ccux 
du Venezuela jouiront du memc privilege dans la Colombie. 

Conformement a Tarticle 33, les marchandises du pays fabriquees 
dans la Colombie sont soumises a payer les droits etablis dans le 
tarif du Venezuela, selon leurs classes respectives. Ces lois ont 
ete mises en vigueur le i^'^octobre de Pannee actuelle, et abrogent 
tous les reglements anterieurs relatives au commerce de transit 
entre les deux pays. 



COMMERCE DES MACHINES ET DES OUTILS 
DANS L'AMERIQUE ESPAGNOLE. 

La Revue du Commerce du 4 decembre 1897, P^^li^. ^^ *irti- 
cle de beaucoup de valeur et tres a propos relatif aux machines et 
outils agricoles qui conviennent a I'importation dans TAmerique 
Latine et les autres pays tropicaux. La demande de ces manu- 
factures augmente de jour en jour; le principal empechement a 
un developpement plus rapide de ce commerce est du a Pigno- 
rance des manufacturiers et des expediteurs des usages industriels 
et des conditions qui existent dans ces contrees. 

En considerant cette question, on ne doit pas oublier que les 
machines, une fois re9ues par les importateurs, doivent ctre montees, 
une operation qui est souvent impossible sans I'aide d'ingenieurs et 
d'ouvriers experimentes. Dans les colonies anglaises plus avan- 
cees et dans les ports de mer, on peut rencontrer les capacites 
necessaires, mais a I'intcrieur, meme dans les grandes villes, telles 
que Rio de Janeiro, Buenos Aires, et Valparaiso, on n'est pas sur 
d'y trouver de grands ateliers et un personnel susceptibles de four- 
nir un concours utile, et dans Tarriere-pays il n'en est plus question. 
Le fabricant qui y livre des machines ne saurait compter que sur 
ringeniosite de ses employes. 

Dans les pays chauds, la civilisation est principalement con- 
centree dans les villes de la cote et dans les ports de mer. A i'in- 
terieur, la population a developpe une mediocre civilisation 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. ^ ^35 

indigene, presque entierement libre des influences etrangeres. La 
s'est formce une population adaptee, pour ainsi dire, aux condi- 
tions du pays, et qui peut se composer de descendants d'Euro- 
pcens, de Creoles, ou de metis. C'est le cas, par exemple, de la 
Colombie, de TEquateur, du Venezuela, du Perou, de la Bolivie, 
du Mexique et de diverses contrees de TAfrique du Sud. On y 
trouve de vastes espaces que n'ouvrent ni la navigation fluviale, ni 
les chemins de fer, et ou les transports se font encore au moyen de 
betes de somme ou de vehicules primitifs. Souvent aussi, il feut 
utiliser des civieres ou des porteurs. II est clair que dans de telles 
conditions, le transport et le montage des machines presentent de 
grandes difficultes. 

Toutes les machines destinees a Tinterieur des pays susmen- 

tionnes doivent etre, en principe, construites en vue du chaufFage 

au bois. II est rare, en efFet, de trouver du charbon loin des cotes. 

Tres exceptionnellement aussi les moteurs a gaz peuvent etre 

employes, tandis que ceux a petrole seront au contraire indiques, 

car le petrole est devenu un article de commerce universel, qu'on 

peut obtenir partout pour le chaufFage des machines. L'cclairage 

electrique et la production de force electrique ofFrent certainement 

de Tavenir, car les sources d'energie hydraulique se trouvent en 

abondance dans ces contrees et rendent possible Tinstallation de 

petites machines electriques et de telephones. Des appareils 

electriques plus importants peuvent meme etre transportes avec 

avantage, parce qu'ils sont d'un volume moindre que les machines 

a vapeur et sont par suite susceptibles de circuler a I'aide de 

plusieurs mulcts qui, marchant a la file et lies entre eux par de 

longues perches, sont en mesure de transporter des fardeaux assez 

lourds, mais d'un petit volume, meme dans la montagne, si les 

courbes ne sont pas trop accentuees. 

Du reste, les pieces detachees a transporter a dos de mulcts ne 
doivent pas peser plus d'un quintal et demi a deux quintaux (au 
maximum), et il faut repartir exactement le poids des deux cotes 
de la bete. 

C'est seulement avec les progres de la civilization que ces con- 
ditions de transports se modifieront et s'amelioreront; apres les 
scntiers, viendront les chemins et les routes, et des territoires diffi- 
cilement accessibles s'ouvriront plus largement a des objets plus 
lourds. 



1236 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Or, ces contrees sont precisement celles dont la conforma- 
tion physique nous oblige a bien nous^ souvenir de ce qui vient 
d'etre dit. 

Elles sont riches en produits naturels de toutes sortes, si riches 
que nombre d*entre elles, la Republique Argentine, par exemple, 
preparent une concurrence non negligeable a notre agriculture. 
Plus la production agricole se dcveloppera dans ces contrees, et 
plus il sera difficile d'y faire des envois; on cherchera dans ces 
territoires a transformer sur place les produits du sol, afin d'econo- 
miser les frais de transport. On y employera les appareils a dis- 
tiller pour le ma'is, les cereales, les pommes de terre, etc.; les 
presses pour les fruits oleagineux. 

Les appareils centrifuges pour Thuile et le beurre, les pompes a 
main ou a manege, parfois les appareils a petrole et a gaz, les 
petites machines a glace pour la conservation des produits facile- 
ment putrescibles, les machines a travailler le fer-blanc pour la fa- 
brication des boites de conserves, les petites presses pour le ciment 
et maticres analogues pour Petablissement de carrelages, les che- 
mins de fer portatifs, joueront un role important dans I'exploitation 
des territoires dont il s'agit. La temperature tres elevee favorisera 
aussi rimportation des appareils a produire Teau gazeuse. On 
trouvera encore Poccasion de placer dans les villes importantes de 
petits cylindres pour la fabrication du chocolat. 

Les cours d*eau nombreux dans ces pays permettront Pinstalla- 
tion de petits moulins destines a la mouture des produits locaux, 
et favoriseront Tetablissement de petites scieries mecaniques. La 
satisfaction de ces besoins sera relativement lente, et les indigenes 
hesiteront souvent, a tres juste titre, a introduire des articles 
nouveaux. 

lis ne savent pas les reparer sans conseils et ils ont fait a cet 
egard des experiences delicates et couteuses. 

L'importation des outils se presente d'ailleurs sous un jour beau- 
coup plus favorable que celle des machines et appareils mecaniques. 
Bien que les habitants de nombreux pays d'outre-mer aient montre 
un certain conservatisme a Tegard des outils modemes et perfec- 
tionnes de TAmerique du Nord et de P Europe, ce conservatisme 
a bientot disparu devant la valeur si pratique de ces outils. L'in- 
fiuence des difficultcs resultant des moyens de transport s'exerce 
infiniment moins sur importation des outils que sur celle des 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. ^^37 

machines. Aussitot que I'indigene a reconnu la valeur des outils 
ameliores, il ne trouve aucun prix trop eleve et il paie ce qu'il faut 
pource qu'il a trouve bon une fois. Un certain modele de cou- 
teaux allemands aete foumi par millions de pieces dans PAmerique 
centrale et TAmerique du Sud; d'autres couteaux, ainsi que des 
haches, des marteaux, etc., y ont ete expedies pour le travail a 
h main, Texploitation des forets et des mines, la culture des champs. 
Certains couteaux conviennent a un pays et seraient sans emploi 
dans un autre. Celui qui a ete utilise parfaitement a Pernambuco 
etdans Tarriere-pays de Bahia, ne vaut rien pour la Havane. La, 
les Espagnols recherchent un long et large couteau, ressemblant 
a un sabre, qui leur sert d'arme et,de couteau d*abattage dans les 
plantations de Cannes a Sucre. 

On comprend aisement que la forme des couteaux doit resulter 

du caractere de la foret, des champs, des cultures principales oii ils 

seront utilises, et que d'autres ameliorations scientifiques ne servi- 

raicnt de rien. Les gens ne changent pas volontiers Pinstrument 

qu'ils ont toujours connu, et ils ont raison de vouloir eprouver tout 

dabord la superiorite d'une nouveaute qu'on leur propose. Tel 

est le cas pour les outils qui servent a remuer la terre, a Regard 

des charrues que les Europeens s'efForcent d'introduire a grands 

trais. II est bien certain qu'on obtiendrait de meilleures rccoltes 

par remploi de la charrue qu'en usant de la houe a la main. Mais 

qu'importe a I'indigene ? II n'a pas de capital a debourser pour 

Tachat d'une charrue et, d'autre part, le produit de la culture a la 

houe suffit pleinement aux simples be soins de sa famille. II 

arrive a vivre et c'est tout ce qu'il demande. On ne peut encore 

pcnser, a cause des grandes distances a parcourir, du mauvais ctat 

des chemins et des frais de transport eleves, a expedier un exce- 

dent de recolte. Pourquoi appliquer la culture intensive qui serait 

sans profit? Tout cela changera avec le developpement de la 

civilisation et notamment avec I'accroissement de la population 

des pays en question. 

Les pionniers europeens du commerce et de Tindustrie ne tarde- 
ront pas a eveiller les besoins des habitants de ces pays; s'il n'en 
etait pas ainsi, et si ces derniers n'entraient pas dans une civilisation 
plus avancee, leurs demandes de produits etrangers n'augmente- 
raient pas. Creer des besoins, c'est la tache des premiers pionniers 
du commerce, dans ces pays plus que partout ailleurs. Mais on 



1238 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLJCS. 

ne peut y arriver que par degres, et c'est dans les pays ou de nou- 
velles voies seront ouvertes au trafic, que naitront bientot de nou- 
veaux besoins, et que la population pourra s'adonner a une culture 
plus intensive. 

Par contre, la ou n'existe pas de circulation, les gens se contente- 
ront longtemps encore de perles de couleur, comme de tissus bario- 
les, et auront aussi peu de gout que d'argent pour les produits du 
luxe et de la civilisation. Creer des moyens de transport et ouvrir 
le chemin au trafic est I'objectif principal de la politique economioue 
des Europeens dans les pays d'outre-mer. 

Ce que nous avons dit des machines et des outils s'applique 
aussi a beaucoup d'autres objets. Les petits etablis a raboter ou 
a toumer, d'une construction legere et aussi simple que possible, 
les machines a forer, les forges de campagne, les tuyaux cylin- 
driques pour conduites d'eau, les toles etamees ou non et les toles 
ondulees, qui s'emploient dans la construction des habitations et 
des magasins, les presses pour fruits et fleurs destinees a la produc- 
tion d'extraits et d'essences, les machines a nettoyer et a decorti- 
quer le cafe, les broyeuses de tous genres, pour pierres, sable, chaux, 
ciment, les petits appareils a cylindrer, etc., sont a signaler comme 
interessant les pays dont il s'agit. 

Tous ces pays font usage de poudre, de dynamite, de cartouches, 
pour Tamelioration des chemins, la taille des roches, Texploitation 
des carrieres, etc. ; de fil de fer et d'appareils peu compliques d'ex- 
traction, ainsi que de cables pour les mines, enfin de materiel 
leger pour la construction des ponts, d'instruments pour la ferrure, 
de clous et de vis a bois, etc., etc. 



MISCELLANEES COMMERCIALES. 

RfiPUBLIQUE ARGENTINE. 

Une maison importante de la R6publique Argentine 
Tdlei en Fer Amtfricalnes. 1 • / 1 

affirme qu'on montre beaucoup d'interet dans le commerce 

des toles en fer dans cette R6pubUque, a cause de Taugmentation de leur emploi 

dans la construction. Les manufacturiers des Etats-Unis commencent a r6aliser 

que le march6 sud-am6ricain est trfes important et font des efforts pour placer 

leur produit en concurrence avec le produit anglais Jusqu'ici le grand empeche- 

mcnt a leur succ^s a 6t6 du a la difference existante dans le cout du fret, Ics frais 

anglais cotes 6tant d'environ 10 pour cent moins 61ev6s que le taux am^ricain Ic 

plus bas. Des mesures seront prises pour Eloigner cet obstacle, et on croit que 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. ^^39 

livraison plus prompte des produits provenant de ce c6t6 de TAtlantique sera 
antageuse dans la concurrence commerciale qui commence a se faire sentir. 

II est affirm^ positivement que des quantit^s consid^ra- 

EzpMitions de Papier. ,, , . /,./ , 

Dies de papier sont expediees sans cesse des Etats-Unis a 
ondres pour dtrc ensuite r6exep6di^es au Br6sil. Des commandes s'61evant a 
ss milliers de dollars sont revues par les maisons d 'exportation pour le papier 
our journaux, pour toitures et a 6crire. Ceci est dO a ce que les Am^ricains 
c I'Am^rique du Sud et du Centre ignorent les m^rites du produit des Etats- 
Jnis, et que les maisons anglaises en concurrence avec les manufacturiers alle- 
nands controlent v6ritablement un march^ auquel les Am^ricains ont donn6 peu 
i'aitcntion. 

CHILI. 

D'aprfes le "Chilian Times" la production du salpetre 
L'indutrie do Salpdtre. 

en 1896 s'est 6\cv6c a 23,832,434 quintaux, et Texporta- 

tion a atteint 24,066,189 quintaux. Les principales contr6es qui importent le 
salpetre du Chili sont: I'Allemagne, les Etats-Unis, la Grande- Bretagne, la France 
ct la HoUande. Suivant une publication sur la consommation du salpetre dans 
Ic monde entier pendant les sept derniferes ann^es, on constate qu'il y a eu en 
1896 une augmentation de 4,359,627 quintaux, ou d'environ 200,000 tonnes 
anglaises en plus de la consommation en 1890. L'excfes constat^ dans les 
exportations en 1896, sur la production estim^e pour cette ann6e, est dQ a I'excfes 
dc la production en 1895. 

Compagnie de Tabac Sod- ^^ Compagnie de Tabac Sud-Am6ricaine 6tablie a 
AxD^ricaine. Valparaiso et employant 160 ouvriers, importe pour la 

rabrication des cigarettes de grandes quantit^s de tabac am^ricain en feuilles, 
S^'on cukive dans la Virginie et dans la Caroline du Nord. En plus, la com- 
pagnie importe du tabac de la Havane, de TEgypte, de la Turquie et du nord du 
oresil. On constate que la production journali^re de cet 6tablissement est a 
900,000 cigarettes et a 10,000 livres de tabac manufacture. On croit qu'avec 
d« efforts de la part des exportateurs, la consommation du tabac am6ricain au 
Chili s'augmentcrait facilement. 

EQUATEUR. 

r^^ En vertu d'un d6cret ex^cutif, toute marchandise a 

destination de TEquateur doit 6tre accompagn^e d'une 
^fure consulaire vis6e, soit par le consul du pays, soit par une personne auto- 
^seeaagir dans ce caract^re au port de Penvoi. Chaque colis pesant plus de 
cinquantc kilogrammes doit avoir clairement indiqu6 sur Text^rieur, le poids 
D^ut. Tout poids en excfes de 10 pour cent de celui d6rlar6 dans lafacture sera 
^ax6 d*unc surcharge de 100 pour cent du droit impost sur Tarticle, par la loi 
w douane actuellement en vigueur. 

HAITI. 

^^ <ie o&bie aiiant i ^^ Compagnie des cables et du t616graphe des Etats- 

AntCriqne do Sod. Unis a Haiti a r^cemmcnt ouvert sen r^seau reli6 avec 

^ciuidc I'Am^rique du Sud. Le cable part de Londres et aboutit a Cap Haitien, 



( 



1240 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

oil il se relie au cable fran<;ais des Antilles, qui se dirige sur le Venezuela, la 
Martinique, les Guyanes hollandaise et fran^aise et le Par4 (Br6sil). A Par4, Ic 
cable frangais s'amorce avec les lignes terrestres br^siliennes, puis argentines. Cc 
cable raccourcit la distance a parcourir par les cablegrammes cntre I'Angleterrc 
et TAm^rique du Sud et r^duit le cout de 25 pour cent environ. 

MEXIgUE. 
Travail Japonais Empiovtf M. WiLLiAM Laing Malcolmson, qui s'est eneae6 dans 

snr les Plantations de ^ ^ . . 

O^<0. la culture du caf6 a Ceylon, ou il a r6sid6 pendant quel- 

ques ann6es, et qui a 6t6 pendant quelque temps au Mexique, en vue d'y faire 
des investigations a propos de la culture du caft dans cettc R^publique, a int6- 
ress6 plusieurs riches planteurs de caf6 dans I'achat de vastes plantations a 
I'isthme de Tehuantepec. M. Malcolmson a conclu les arrangements prelimi- 
naires, par Tinterm^diaire du Ministre japonais pour Tintroduction dans la 
R6publique d'une colonie d*artisans japonais pour le travail sur les planta> 
tions caf^i^res. II considfere que les terres au midi du Mexique sont les mieux 
adapt6es a la production du caiK d'entrc toutes celles qu'il a vues, et que Ic 
travail japonais est sp6cialement convenable a leur culture. 
Rapport de Seftor Don En- ^^ Bureau doit a ramabilit6 de Senor Don Enrique 
rique Sanchez. Sanchez une copie du rapport qu'il a transmis au Gouver- 

neur Prosper© Cahuantzi de I'Etat de Tlaxcala, Mexico, au sujet de sa mission 
comme del6ga6 officiel de cet Etat au Congr^s Mercantile qui s'est r6uni au mois 
de juin dernier, a Philadelphie, Etats-Unis d'Am^rique, sous les auspices du 
Mus6e de Philadelphie. 

Le rapport, qui est detaill6 et int^ressant, expose la grandeur des projets du 
Mus^e pour augmenter le commerce des Etats-Unis avec le Mexique et les 
autres contr^cs de TAm^rique Latine. Senor Sanchez recommande que des 
6chantillons des productions agricoles, min^rales et industrielles de TEtat de 
Tlaxcala soient exposes dans le Mus6e, afin qu'ils puissent etre vus par les per- 
sonnes int6ress6es dans le d6veloppement commercial du Mexique. 
Les Exportations Men- D'apr^s une statistique r^cemment publi^e par le Minis- 
caines en 1896-1897. ^^^^ j^^ Finances, le Mexique a export6, pendant Texer- 

cice 1896-1897, $66,183,097 de m6taux pr^cieux et $45,163,397 d'articles 

divers, soit un total de $1 1 1,346,494. Les exportations totales pendant I'ann^e 

fiscale ant6rieure n'avaient 6t6 que de §105,016,902, soit une augmentation de 

$6,329,592. 

Par suite de I'essor qu'a pris le d^veloppement indus- 
Machines Am«ricaines. i,,. 1, j, i/-- 

triel au Mexique, la demande de machines amencames a 

a beaucoup augment6. Pendant Tann^e passee les commandes de machines 

pour Texploitation minifere, surtout de chaudi^res et de machines a vapeur, ont 

6t6 trfes grandes. Une maison entreprenante et active d*Erie, Pensylvanie, en 

a fourni la plus grande partie. Ce besoin n'est pas born6 a une seule classe de 

machines, mais toutes sortes^sont n6cessaires et les manufacturiers alertes dca 

Etats-Unis trouveront au Mexique un vaste champ pour ce commerce. Le 

manufacturiers de TAngleterre et du Continent font un€ concurrence active 

pour ce commerce. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. I24I 

NICARAGUA. 

Les rapports re9us du Depart ement de Matagalpa, 
relatifs a la r^coltc du caf6 pour I'ann^e 1897—98, indi- 
quent qu'elle d^passera de beaucoup les moyens de transport i dos de mulcts et 
a charrettes de bceufs En vue de ceci, le Congr^s du Nicaragua a autorisd le 
Prescient Zelaya a construire ou a signer un contrat pour la construction d'une 
vol feri6e partant de la ville de Matagalpa et se joignant au Chemin de Fer 
National. L'augmentation de la production des plantations de c&f6 et de sucre 
est telle, que les planteurs se trouvent dans la n6cessit6 de se procurer des 
machines am^Iior^es et plus grandes, et des proc6d6s plus rapides pour la prepa- 
ration des produits pour la vente. L'attention des personnes engag^es dans la 
construction de chemins de fer et des fabricants de machines agricoles est attir^e 
aux opportunit^s di-dessus indiqu6es. 

Abolition dn Droit d'Bxporta. Le Gouvcmcment p^ruvien a promulg6 un d^cret le 1 1 
tion «or i'Arg«m. scptembre dernier abolissant le droit de 3 pour cent ad 
valorem impost sur les exportations d'argent monnay6, d'argent en barres, 
ei de chafaionia (aigent travaill6 qui ne sert plus qu'a 6trc fondu). Cette 
exemption ne s'applique pas a Tor national monnay^, ni a I'or en barres ou en 
poudre, qui continueront a payer un droit d'exportation de trois pour cent. 

ETATS-UNIS. 

Eaixte dm Peawr de Vera ^^ Comit6 des Etats-Unis qui fixe les droits a pcrce- 
enFianehiMde Droit, ^^j^ g^^ 1^3 articles d'lmportation a d6cid6, le 3 d6cembrc 

1897, que les peaux de veau brutes qui servent a la fabrication de presque toutes 
ks chaussures port^es dans ce pays, seront d^sormais admises en franchise de 
droit. Selon cette d6cision, les peaux de veau brutes import^es sous la loi de 
tarif DiNGLEY, ne doivent pas fttre d^sign^es comme cuirs de b6tail non pr6par6s, 
qui sont sujcts a un droit de 15 pour cent ad valorem^ mais elles doivent 6trc 
classccs comme peaux brutes, comprises dans la liste des articles admis en fran- 
chise. Lc Comit^.trouve aussi que le tcrme '*cuir " s'applique techniquement 
aux peaux des animaux de forte taille, lels que chevaux, boeufs, vaches et tau- 
rcaux, tandis que lc terme *' pcau '* est employ^ pour designer les peaux de mou- 
tons, dc vcaux er de chfevres. On a trouv6 que dans le commerce le terme "cuir '* 
comprcnait les peaux pesant vingt-cinq livres ou plus, tous les cuirs au-dessous 
dcce poids 6tani d6sign6s sous le nom de '* peau " On considfere qu'un poids de 
douzc livres marque la distinction cntrc peaux s^ch^es et cuirs s^ch6s. 

- ^,, Un rappoit du marchd dc New York du mois de 

d^cembre 1897 dit qu'un rival du cfedrc espagnol est 
trouv6 dans les cMres de plusicurs endroits aux Indes Occidentales. au Mexique 
« dans TAm^rique du Centre et du Sud. Ce remplagant donne de la satisfaction 
g^D6ralc, n'est pas aussi 61ev^ en piix et en touie probability afFcctera le march6 
d'uDc mani^re pcrmancntc par* rapport au c^dre espagnol, dont le stock a present 
est tr^ petit. 

rt Une comparaison des statistiques du commerce v61oci- 

p6dique des Etais-Unis avec TAm^rique Latine pour les 
excrcices 1896 et 1897 pi^sente une augmentation remarquable dans les valeurs 



1242 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

pour 1897. Ces exportations se r^partissent ainsi: le Mexique en 1897 en a 
pris pour une valeur de $73,117, soit une augmentation de $48,839 sur Tannic 
ant^rieure; T Argentine pour $42,091 en 1897 contre $4,065 en 1896, tandiJ 
que le Br^sil vient en troisifeme lieu avec $29,355 po^r 1897 et $13,529 pour 
1896. L'Am^rique Centrale, Santo Domingo et la Colombie ont augment^ 
leurs importations pour les deux ann^es de $6,020, $4,642 et de $1,278 rcspec- 
tivement. Les autres Etats sud-am6ricains importferent des bicyclettes s'^levani 
en valeur a $73,507 en 1897 contre $13,401 en 1896, accusant 1 'augmentation 
remarquable de $60, 107. 

URUGUAY. 

Oommerce entra les Etats- D'aprfes des informations relatives aux exportations du 
XJnis et Mont«vid«o. ^^^^ ^^ Mont6vid6o pour les neuf premiers mois de 

I'ann^e courante, on constate que les Etats-Unis occupent la premiere place, 
comme pays importateur des cuirs /de bceuf a6ch6s provenant de TUruguay, 
ayant import^ pendant les neuf mois 245,605 cuirs, ou plus de la moiti6 des 
466,795 cuirs export6s. 

Des cuirs de boeuf sal^s, les Etats-Unis ont pris presque un cinquifeme de 
Texportation uruguayenne, venant en quatri^me lieu parmi les nations engag6es 
dans ce commerce. Le rapport montre que les Etats-Unis sont places en troi- 
si^me lieu par rapport aux injportations de laine de I'Uruguay^ ayant pris 
11*738 ballots d'un total de 50,552 ballots, tandis que, par rapport au com- 
merce de poll, lis ont pris plus du tiers des expeditions totales de Montdvid^o, 
qui se sont 61ev6es a 940 ballots. 

Le Ministre Francis B. Loomis rapporte que le 

Oommerce de B^taiL . 

commerce de b6tail du Venezuela deviendra apparemment 
une menace aux 61eveurs de b^tail aux Etats-Unis, et il cite, en appui de son 
rapport, 1 'augmentation remarquable du nombie de b6tail €\ev6 au Venezuela 
pendant les trois derni^res ann6es. En 1894 il y avait au pays 5,000,000 de 
tetes de b^tail; ce nombre s'est augment^ a 10,000,000 pour cette ann6e, et on 
s'attend a ce que ce nombre soit plus que doubl6 dans les quatre ann^es a venir. 
Les tentatives de la Rdpublique pour cr^er un d6bouch6 au Br6sil pour son 
b^tail ont eu tant de succ^s, qu'il est propos6 d'6tendre le commerce a Cuba et 
aux iles de la Mer des Caralbes. 

VENEZUELA. 

RtfffionsAiiriAresde D'aprfes le Courrier de Venezuela, les nouvelles revues 

^narioo. ^jy district de Guarico, relatives a Texploitation des mines 

d*or dans cette region, deviennent de jour en jour plus encourageantes« II y a 
a present huit compagnies 6trangdres d*exploitation; trente-quatre reclamations 
ont d6ja €t6 agre6es et des desseins de plusieurs autres declarations ont 6t6 faites 
aux autorit^s. On dit qu'une compagnie a command^ de I'Angleterre douze 
moulins mus par la pression hydraulique. La veine dans cette mine a dix pieds 
de largeur, et contient un quartz si riche que le m^tal pr^cieux y est clairement 
visible. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. ^^43 

LaCoopagntodai'Ortf. La compagnic de rOr6noquc fait des pr^paratifs pour 
noqw. jg d^veloppement imm^diat des d6pdts de fer d^couverts 

au moment de leur concession. Pendant les derni^res semaines, une veine de 
mineral de fer a 6t6 d^fimtivement d6termin6e qui varie de loo a 200 pieds en 
largeur, avec une longueur de cinq milles, et se trouve a deux milles de distance 
de Santa Catalina. D'autres d6p6ts encore plus grands ont €t€ d^couverts a une 
distance de cinq milles de la ville ci-dessus mentionnde; en eftet, le rendement est 
prononc6 in^puisable, et on dit que la qualit6 est sup^rieure aux minerals de fer 
espagnols et africains. D'autres entreprises, que rend possible cette riche region, 
seront bientdt d6velopp^es par la grande compagnie qui a reyu par concession 
cette partie du Venezuela. 

ASSOCIATION NATIONALE DES MANUFACTURIERS. 

Le Bureau est inform^ que plusieurs exportateurs et 
Aiiant aox Ports Snd* manufacturiers importants des villes principales des Etats- 



Unis prennent des mesures pour satisfaire la demande, 
d'une si longue dur6e, de communication directe par vapeurs avec les ports du 
nord et de Test de l'Am6rique du Sud. A la r6union de T Association Nationale 
des Manufacturiers, qui aura lieu dans la Cit6 de New York, au mois de Janvier, ce 
sujct sera discut6 et des mesures pr61iminaires seront prises en vue de Paccomplis- 
scmcnt du projet. 

^ L'entrep6t 6tabli pour I'exposition des manufactures 

Botrapot 4 Caracas. . . ^ ^ . ^ 

am^ricaines est le premier essai exp6rimental de 1* Asso- 
ciation Nationale des Manufacturiers. La demande de terrain par les expo- 
sants a M si grande que les directeurs se sont trouv6s dans la n^cessit^ de 
linuicr Ic temps dans lequel les marchandises peuvent dtre regues, au 14 d^cem- 
brc 1897. Dans un rapport r^cemment regu au D6partement d'Etat, le Consul 
PaosKAUEK, ^crivant de Puerto Cabello s'exprime dans ces termes favorables, dg 
rcntrcprisc et de ses effets sur le commerce v6n6zu61ien. "Son utility sera 
d'abord limit6e aux immenses et riches territoires contigus a Caracas, qui se 
scTvcnt des meill cures classes de marchandises, mais sa renomm^e et ses avantagcs 
detcrmineront les commergants des regions du centre et de Touest de la R6pu- 
bliquc, a I'cxaminer. La vue actuelle des marchandises ou manufactures, leur 
comparaison sur place avec des articles similaires, l'6change d'id^es entre les 
rcpr^scntants am6ricains et les commer^ants du Venezuela relatives aux menus 
details des achats, ne peuvent manqtier de prouver d'un grand avantage 
i chacun d'eux et de leur d6sabuser de notions fausses. Le Gouvernement 
lait dc son mieux pour encourager I'entreprise, tandis que le sentiment amical 
des habitants pour tout ce qui est am6ricain leur poussera a exercer toute leur 
influence pour couronner de succ^s les efforts des entrepreneurs." 

MUSfiE COMMERCIAL DE PHILADELPHIE. 

f*^ da Oongr^s Oom- ^^ Mus6e Commercial de Philadelphie qui a 6t6 6tabli 

tsmatumal. ^^ ^^^ d'augmenter le commerce des Etats-Unis avec le 

Mcxique et les difF6rentes contrdes de rAm6rique du Centre et du Sud et les 



1244 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Indes Occidentales, d^veloppc rapidement ses plans pour un congrfes interna 
tional qui se composera des rcpr^sentants du monde entier de commerce. Ui 
recent num^ro du " Manufacturier " dit, '* que Ics chambres de commerce ci 
Ics autres organisations commercials de I'Asie, du Sud-Afrique et de TAustra- 
lasie sont invitees a nommer des membres au comit6 de Conseil." Commeoc 
le sait, ce comit6 a d^ja des repr^sentants dans beaucoup de centres commer- 
ciaux aux Etats-Unis et possMe aussi des amis z^l6s et int6ress6s dans d'autres 
parties du continent, — au Mexique, aux Etats-Unis de I'Am^rique Centralc,.au 
Br6sil, a la Republique Argentine, au Chili, et aux difF6rentes contr6es de 
TAm^rique du Sud. Comme Ic commerce des Etats-Unis augmente constam- 
ment dans I'Afrique, la Chine, le Japon et I'Australic, il est trfts n^cessaire qm 
le Mus6e y ait aussi ses repr6sentants. Jugeant des r6ponses favorables qui son 
revues, il y a tout lieu de croire que les plans ambitieux de radministratioi 
r6ussirdnt. 

Contrairement aux plans premiferement con^us, il est maintenant propose d'ob 
tenir, si possible, comme membres du comit6 de conseil, des repr^sentants d€ 
organisations commerciales de I'Europe. Ceci ouvrira un champs de possibility 
presque sans limites, qui ne peut manquer de produire des r6sultats inestimable^ 
si le plan est d6velopp6 entiferement. C'est vrai que les Etats-Unis sont d^ 
comp6titeurs de I'Angleterre, de la France, de I'Allemagne, et de la Bel^q^*:* 
dans les marches des nouveaux pays agricoles qui, a present, produisent 1 
mati^res premieres du monde, plutot que les marchandises fabriqu6es sur 1< 
quelles sont d6pens6s plus de travail et d'habilet^, mais ses projets et huts 
sont assur6ment d'une si grande hostilit6 qu'il ne peut r6sulter du bon des c^^ 
sulfations et des d6bats. On doit se rappeler que I'Europe est encore Ic p^ 
grand acheteur des marchandises am6ricaines et qu'elle est de beaucoup le ^ 
important des clients. On ne s'attend pas a un changement sensible dans c^ 
condition d'affaires. 

• L'Europe a recours aux Etats-Unis pour beaucoup de classes de produits ^ 
lesqucls sa situation economique serait bien diffSrente de ce qu'elle n'est aujourd' ^ 
Les Am^ricains n'ont sOrement pas Tintention de limiter leur commerce ^ 
I'Europe au coton, au bl6 et aux produits bruts et aux denr^es. D^ja ils cr^ * 
mencent a exp6dier a I'autre cdt6 de I'Atlantiquedes marchandises manufactu "^ 
et si les Etats-Unis sont permis de jouir de I'avenir que tous les Am6ricain& 
souhaitent, cette tendence s'augmenterait a des proportions encore plus consi^ 
bles, longtemps avant de diminuer. 



Monthly Bulletin 



OF THE 



Bureau of American Republics. 

International Union op American Republics. 

V0L.V. FEBRUARY, 1898. No. 8. 



TRADE RELATIONS IN AMERICA.— VIII * 

INTERNAL RESOURCES OF MEXICO. 

In previous articles of this series, the foreign commerce of 
^^xico, Central America, the West Indies, and South America 
^^Ve been chiefly considered. We will now proceed to examine 
^^ internal resources of these great divisions, in the order named, 
^d the degree of their development as the basis for future expan- 
^^^n of their foreign trade. 

In Mexico, the progress made during the past decade in manu- 
^^tures, as well as in agriculture and in the increase of transpor- 
^tion fecilities, which is the great prerequisite to the effective 
^^ilization of the natural wealth of any country, has been at once 
'^pid and substantial. It is attributable, mainly, to the stably, 
^^cierly, and at the same time progressive administration of the 
Country's affairs which, throughout, has marked the successive 
^^rms of President Diaz. There can be no doubt that Mexico 
^^Wes a great debt of gratitude to the able statesman and wise 
Executive who, with the zealous cooperation of the best intelli- 
gence of the country, has secured to her a long period of peace 
^nd tranquil development. Fortunately for Mexico, he has been 

The first article of this series was printed in the Monthly Bulletin for July, 1897. 

1245 



1246 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

aided by economic conditions created, in part, by legislation, 
which have tended to build up industries peculiar to the country 
and to stimulate enterprise and thrift. 

It so happens that Mexico is rich in a variety of products which 
the world most desires and of which the production, as yet, is not 
so great as to " glut " the market. Mexico does not depend, in her 
export trade, upon those great staples, such as wheat, cotton, wool, 
sugar, and meats, which are produced so enormously in temperate 
zones that large profits, except in times of accidental scarcity, are 
no longer to be realized from them. A stream of wealth is flow- 
ing in upon her from her output of precious metals and other 
minerals in constant demand ; from coffee, fibers, tobacco, vanilla 
and fruits which still bring relatively high prices in the markets of 
the world. During 1897, Mexico exported $42,000,000 worth 
of minerals. . In the first nine months of 1897, she sold abroad 
$4,574,252 worth of coffee against $3,333,385 during the same 
period of 1896. Her exports of henequen fiber to -the United 
States alone during the nine months increased by considerabl ;y 
over half a million dollars, and the total exports amount to abo«J»^ 
$8,000,000 annually. The exportation of oranges develope:^^ 
largely in consequence of the discovery that Mexican orang^^ 
could be used to supply a shortage in the crop of the Uniti 
States. Even in years of plenty in the latter country, the prodi 
tion of Mexico does not seriously interfere with the crops ^^* 
California and Florida, owing to the difference in the time ^ 
the ripening and marketing of the fruit. Vanilla brings ir^m^^ 
Mexico a million dollars or more per annum. The exportatL ^^'^ 
of tobacco approximates $2,000,000, and the quality is so nea^^*"*/ 
equal to the best Cuban leaf that the development of this brarx^^" 
of' agricultural industry seems to be fully assured. Live stocr^** 
hides, and skins are exported annually to the amount of abouf 
$3,000,000. The forest wealth of Mexico in timber, dyewocxi^ 
medicinal and other useful plants is very great The export c:^^ 
cabinet and dye woods amounts to between $2,000,000 an-^^ 
$3,000,000 annually, and the abundance of the product is suc^^ 
that the industry is capable of indefinite development. 

For a distance of about 1 ,200 miles, extending from the Sta'^^ 
of Sonora to the State of Oaxaca, northwest to southeast, a met^-1' 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. ^^47 

iferous belt of extraordinary richness offers a vast field for profit- 
ible mining. Gold, silver, mercury, iron, coal, the soft: lead ores, 
asphalt, asbestos, petroleum, salt, copper, precious stones, onyx, 
and marbles of great variety and beauty are found in greater or 
less abundance throughout this region. In a report printed in 
August, 1897, the British Consul-General at Mexico says many 
new gold-mining properties are being opened up in the States of 
Sonera, Oaxaca, and Mexico, and a large increase of the output 
may be looked for. The State of Chihuahua is believed to be 
one of the greatest mineral regions in the world. Railroads now 
being built will soon provide the needed facilities of transporta- 
tion, and a vast development of the mining industry will doubt- 
less follow. United States capital has already invested largely in 
Mexican mines, and a demand for United States machinery and 
labor-saving appliances has been created, which will increase with 
tfie number of workings and the general enlargement of mining 
operations. 

A similar opening for United States machinery and tools will 
^^ effected by the extension of agricultural operations and the 
^provement of farming methods which the profitable sale abroad 
* So many of Mexico's products must inevitably bring about. 
lost of the great central plateau of Mexico is fertile land, of 
^^h productiveness that, with the most primitive methods of cul- 
^ation, it continues, after centuries of use, to yield abundant 
^ops. When the people are informed of the economies of time 
^d labor to be effected by the agricultural machines and imple- 
^^nts for which the United States is so justly famed, and are 
^vight their various uses, the productiveness of this great region 
^'ill be increased enormously, and a vast market created for one 
^^ the most important lines of United States manufactures. 

In the meantime, Mexico herself is rapidly building up home 
industries, and in course of time, will no doubt be able to utilize 
^ great part of her raw material in certain lines of manufac- 
ture. " Manufacturing in Mexico," says United States Minister 
Ransom in a report dated September 26, 1896, which was printed 
in Special Consular Reports, " Money and Prices in Foreign Coun- 
tnes," *'has been developed to a considerable extent, especially 
in the manufacture of the coarser grades of cotton and woolen 



1248 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

goods, ordinary bleachings, goods for shawls, prints, and calicoes and 
woolen cloth ; also in the manufacture of the products of sugar 
cane, alcohol, paper, cigars and cigarettes. Many well-informed 
persons believe that the depreciation in the price of silver has 
been the main cause of the development of these industries. To 
some extent, this is doubtless true; the large discount on silver 
has had its influence in depressing foreign importation and stim- 
ulating domestic production. But other powerful causes have 
had their effect in this direction — an able, wise, and just admin- 
istration of the Government during the presidency of Genera.\ 
Diaz, the confidence of the Mexican people and foreigners i-n. 
the stability of the Government, the building of railroads (a'Ll 
but the one from Vera Cruz to the City of Mexico having beer: x^ 
completed since 1883), the improvement of coast harbors, d 
enlargement of commerce, the liberal action of the Govemme 
toward new industries; in fact, the general influences of la 
peace, and commerce have all contributed to this result. 

"It is not extravagant to state that, in the last ten years, citizer 
of the United States have invested in Mexico in mines, railroa« 
lands, and other undertakings sums much larger in the aggreg: 
than the whole amount of money in circulation in the Repub' 
Also, in this consideration, we must not overlook the fact — 3. v« 
significant one — that the tariff duties upon the manufactured a. 
cles of cotton, wool, paper, tobacco, and alcoholic products are v 
high, the duties upon the goods manufactured from cotton hav 
been imposed as early as in 1 830, and continually increasing u 
1887. Since then, they have remained nearly stationary. Up< 
many classes of cotton and woolen goods, these duties have be^s/^ 
prohibitory, and it is safe to state that upon the coarser grades ^^^ 
them, the duties in the last ten to fifteen years have averaged tror"^ 
40 to 75 to 85 per cent. In this connection, I append a statemen 
made by an eminent writer in a work entitled ' Les Finances de 
Etats-Unis Mexicains' d'apres Documents Officiels,' by Prospei 
Gloner, published in 1895. He says: 'The cotton industry ii^ 
Mexico owes its development especially to the customs duties^ 
which, by the imposition of high duties, prohibit the importation 
of ordinary cottonades. Five per cent of these were first imposed 
in 1830, and there was a continual increase in them until 1887.'" 

United States Consul-General Crittenden, in a report from the 




BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. ^^^9 

ity of Mexico, September 7, 1896, which was printed in Com- 
ercial Relations of the United States, 1895-96, Volume I, says: 
5ince the exchanges have been so variable and unfavorable 
*tween Mexico and foreign governments, and high protective 
iriffs on almost all articles entering into consumption in Mexico 
ave been imposed, many of the articles heretofore imported, such 
5 blankets, carpets, cloths of all kinds for men's wear, prints, 
mderwear of all kinds, hats, shoes, and other articles are neces- 
iarily manufactured in the Republic of Mexico. These people 
lave been bright and active enough to take advantage of these 
idverse currents, and have built up with astonishing rapidity for 
Hexico a series of larger or smaller manufactories of almost all 
lasses of goods, utilizing modern machinery that will compare 
ivorably with much of the machinery used by other peoples. 
ome of the goods so manufactured in Mexico are excellent in 
arp, woofi and finish, and much more of it is seen in daily use 
ian heretofore. One great advantage is had by the manufactur e 
' Mexico — the cheapness of labor and the free use of excellent 
ater power, which is found in many parts of Mexico, and this 
^^er is often located quite near the railroads penetrating into 
^rious parts of the Republic. The unskilled labor is placed under 
'^ management of foreign experts, who quite easily teach and 
^in that labor in the intricacies of the work. I am informed 
at these mills are paying from 20 to 40 per cent annual divi- 
^nds. * * * 

'* With the stimulating causes heretofore mentioned, it will not 

- long before Mexico will have its manufacturing industries in 

1 accessible and eligible States, with improved and improving 

^oducts and selling at such rates as will largely exclude the 

^rnmoner articles from its markets. And even to-day, shoes are 

^ing shipped from some of the northern States of Mexico to our 

-ountry. I have seen some handsomely finished goods here for 

^en's suitings, costing, when made at the best shops, from $20 

^0 $^0 per suit, Mexican currency. An abundance of wool is 

W in Mexico. Cotton is also grown in some parts of the 

Republic, but not enough to supply the demand. The balance, 

averaging from 75,000 to 100,000 bales per annum, is imported 

from Texas, costing, laid down at the mills, from 21 to 22 cents 

P^T pound, Mexican currency." 



1250 BUREAU OF AxMERlCAN REPUBLICS. 

The British Consul-General at the City of Mexico, Mr. Garden, 
concurs with the United States representatives there as to the 
rapid development of industrial enterprise throughout the country. 
The great activity in the cotton-manufacturing industry, he says 
in his report of August, 1897, "may be gauged by the fact that, 
although there was an unusually good cotton crop in Mexico in 
1896, the imports of the raw material exceeded those of the pre- 
vious year by upward of 30,000 hundredweights, or over 10 per 
cent, and this in spite of the price of cotton having risen consid- 
erably." The falling off in imports of woolen goods, nearly 12 
per cent, he attributes "to the great improvement in the quality 
of the local manufactures."^ The increase in imports of iron and 
steel, nearly 70 per cent, is explained by the "unusual activity in 
the construction and improvement of works of permanent utility 
to the country." 

The industrial growth of Mexico has been accompanied by a 
remarkable development of her transportation facilities. On the 
1st of July, 1897, the Republic had in operation 7,365 miles of 
railroad, and it is reasonable to expect, from the progress of recent 
years and the vast resources awaiting an outlet to the markets of 
the world, that railroad building will be greatly expanded in the 
near future. "To-day," said Consul-General Crittenden in his 
report of September 7, 1896, "one is able to traverse by rail 
nearly all parts of the Republic, and reach Mexico from the 
United States by any one of three all-rail routes, or via New York 
by magnificent steamers to Tampico or Vera Cruz, and thence by 
rail to the City of Mexico. These roads, however, have been 
constructed almost entirely on the- Atlantic side; therefore, the 
Pacific Ocean is mostly inaccessible, or reached by a most round- 
about way. This feature, however, is being rapidly changed, and 
to-day, there are three roads in course of construction and rap- 
idly heading for ports on the Pacific Ocean. Very soon, it may 
be truly said that Mexico is entirely traversed by the steam horse. 
These new roads are also being materially aided and assisted by 
the Government." 

Since the date of Mr. Crittenden's report, the railroad across 
the Isthmus of Tehuan tepee, connecting the Atlantic and Pacific, 
has been completed, and promises to become a factor of interna- 
tional trade, besides supplying the means of easy communication 



BURE4U OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. ll^l 

between the east and west coasts of the Republic and connecting 
with the great railway systems of the central plateau. 

The ocean commerce of Mexico on the Atlantic side is largely 
in the hands of the New York and Cuba Mail Steamship Com-^ 
pany, also known as the " Ward Line," which has a fleet of fine 
steamers plying between New York and the principal ports of the 
Gulf coast of Mexico, including Progreso, Vera Cruz, Tampico, 
Campeche, etc., via Havana. On the Pacific side, the Pacific 
Mail Company's steamers from San Francisco touch at various 
ports, among them Salina Cruz, Acapulco, Manzanillo, and 
Mazatlan. 

The improvement of the principal harbors of Mexico has, for 
some years, been an object of special solicitude and effort on the 
part of the Mexican Government, and at the two important Gulf 
ports of Tampico and Vera Cruz, works of great magnitude have 
been constructed for the purpose of securing safe anchorage for 
vessels. At Salina Cruz and Coatzacoalcos, the Pacific and Gulf 
ports respectively of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, similar works 
are in progress, and with the development of Mexican industries 
and commerce, the important points along the whole seaboard of 
both the east and west coasts will doubtless be provided gradually 
with all the modern facilities for conducting sea traffic. 

In addition to railroads, Mexico has facilities of river and lake 
transportation which are capable of considerable development, 
though the topographical and climatic conditions of the country 
are such that uninterrupted navigation of the rivers throughout 
the year is impracticable for long distances. Upon this point. 
United States Consul-General Crittenden, in a report which was 
printed in Special Consular Reports, "Highways of Commerce," 
in 1895, says: "The configuration of the country and the char- 
acter of the seasons make great navigable rivers impossible. It is 
only on the level of the coast that some few rivers admit of traffic 
by small craft, and that not exceeding 125 miles from the Gulf 
and 62 miles from the Pacific Coast. The numerous peaks, whose 
altitudes are between 10,000 and 17,000 feet above the level of 
the sea, are sparingly snow-clad, and the quantity of snow fall- 
ing on them is insufficient for causing large volumes of water or 
large streams. On the central table-lands, there are a few lakes the 
waters of which are utilized to a limited extent by the Indians for 



1252 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

traffic in their small, crude canoes. Canals are impracticable, on 
account of the topography, excepting on the Gulf Coast and the 
plains of the central States and of the northern frontier; but the 
greatest obstacle to interior navigation is the fact that in certain 
periods of the year, principally in the dry season, either by natural 
evaporation or by the careless use of the waters for irrigation, the 
springs decrease to such an extent as to render the streams insuf- 
ficient to float the smallest ,boats. Sooner or later, this waste of 
water will be remedied, as the authorities ar2 vigilant in protecting 
and guarding every element that contributes to the advancement 
of Mexico. This lack of means for navigation might, to a certain 
extent, be remedied by canalization and drawing off the waters 
existing in natural basins in various parts of the Republic and 
diverting them at intervals in certain seasons of the year to the 
rivers or canals which are navigable to maintain constantly the 
required depth." 

The Government of Mexico has already testified its appreciation 
of the value of such undertakings by contracting for several impor- 
tant canal enterprises, including the Chijol Canal, 250 miles long, 
between Tampico and Tuxpan, and the canalization of the Tem — 
poal River, which empties into the Panuco near Tampico. Ther^ 
are many other rivers and streams which can be utilized by mean^ 
of improvements of greater or less magnitude, and when Mexico 
shall have been provided with an efficient system of waterways, 
the conditions of internal commerce will be vastly improved 
" The exertions of President Diaz and his liberality toward railroad 
enterprises and steamship lines," says Consul-General Crittenden, 
"have been the chief factors in establishing means of communi- 
cation throughout the Republic, accomplishing what none of his 
predecessors could do — that is, making this one of the most pros- 
perous of the Spanish- American countries." It may be assumed 
that the same general policy will be followed in the improvement 
of rivers and roads, with correspondingly beneficial results. 

The internal development of Mexico and the building up of 
her industries and domestic trade have a peculiar importance and 
interest for the people of the United States, not only as contrib- 
uting to the general enlargement of commerce, but as helping to 
create the best conditions for the employment of United States 
capital, enterprise, and skilled labor, and the sale of United States 



BUREAU or AMERICAN REPUBLICS. ^^53 

machinery, implements, hardware, and a great variety of other 
manufactures in which they excel. United States capital is already 
largely enlisted in Mexican railroads and mining operations, and 
it may be expected that agricultural and manufacturing enterprises 
will also attract the unemployed wealth and the skill of the great 
northern Republic. Fortunately, the articles offered for exchange 
by each country are, with but few exceptions, such as do not com- 
pete with the home industries of the other, and as the intemal 
resources of Mexico are developed, the bonds of commercial inter- 
course must constantly be multiplied and strengthened, to the 
mutual benefit of the two Republics. 



j^h^L^C^ uoZ^r^-J^T 



ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 

REPORT OF IMMIGRATION. 

The following data relative to immigration to the Argentine 
Republic is summarized from a recent official report : 

The exact area of the Republic is not known, but it is estimated 
at about 1,172,000 square miles. The total population, according 
to the census of 1895, is approximately 4,000,000 inhabitants, 
which would represent 1.33 to the kilometer (341 square miles). 
On the basis of the population existing in France, viz, 73 people 
to the square kilometer, the country is capable of supporting more 
than 200,000,000 inhabitants. Notwithstanding the rapid and 
great climatic changes, the country is eminently a healthy one 
and is well adapted to people from the temperate zones. The 
mortality is confined largely to infants, due to the lack of knowl- 
edge on the part of the parents of the principles of hygiene. 

The inviting climate, the fertility oi the soil, the facility for 
railroad construction, on account of the topography of the coun- 
try* the numerous inland rivers and extended seaboard, should 
attract large and desirable immigration. There is room in the 
legitimate spheres of labor for an increased population of 90,000 
to 100,000 per annum. The great desideratum is the immigrant 
*'ith some knowledge and some capital, whose purpose on arriv- 



1254 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



ing in the country is to purchase a tract of land, build a comfort- 
able home, till the soil, and advance his fortunes; for this class 
there is room for unlimited numbers. Throughout the republic 
lands may be bought at a very low figure, requiring but little 
preparation for farming, cattle raising, etc. 

It has been characteristic of the immigrant who has hitherto 
arrived to stop in the larger cities, instead of casting his fortune 
where it would be most advanced by taking up land and developing 
it. The most numerous and best type of immigration thus far 
reaching the shores of the Argentine Republic are the Italians. 
They are the only people who have spread through the whole 
country and have profited by their opportunities. 

The following tables show the immigration for the last four 
and one-half years, and the nationality and professions of the immi- 
grants in the years 1894-1896: 



Year. 



1893 

1894.-.' 

1895 

1896 

1897 (first halO 



Number of 
arrivals. 



52.067 

54. 720 
61,266 

102, 673 
135.734 



Nationality. 



North Americans 

Arabs 

Argentines 

Armenians 

Austrians 

Bclprians 

Bolivians 

Brazilians 

British 

Chileans 

Danes 

Dutch 

Egyptians 

French .*.... 

Germans 

Gieeks 

Italians 

Moors 

Paraguayans . . . . 

Peruvians. . . 

Portuguese 

Roumanians . . . . 

Russians 

Spaniards 



First half 
of 1897. 



37 

5 

143 



1,003 
96 



553 
264 

17 

47 

4 



1,652 

436 

13 

23. 303 

25 

2 
I 

76 

18 

301 

7,198 



Number. 



1896. 



79 
12 

290 

53 

963 

318 



58 
429 

3 
126 

61 

8 
3.486 

1.039 

3 
75.204 

212 



212 
20 

575 
18,051 



1895. 



46 

II 

316 



549 
211 

I 

91 
329 

2 

"5 
36 



41 



2,448 

1,067 

12 

203 

27 
5 
I 

178 
6 

2,336 

11.288 



1894. 



^^9 
i«9 

-%40 

^ • * 

:i28 
385 

^ • • 

99 
Id 



2, XO-J 

^7r 
7 

37.^^ 
1x7 



200 

2 

3.132 
8,122 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



1255 



Nationality. 



Swedes . . . . , 

Swiss 

Turks 

Uniguavans. 



Total 

Yearly increase. 



Number. 



First half 
of 1897. 



22 
162 
251 
105 



35.734 



X896. 



52 

679 

724 

13 



102, 673 
41.447 



1895. 



62 

465 

369 

52 



61, 226 
6,506 



1894. 



42 
516 

122' 
17 

54. 720 
2,653 



Professions. 



Agriculturists 

Apothecaries . . . . 

Architects 

Bakers 

Barbers 

Blacksmiths 

Bookbinders 

Bricklayers 

Brickmakers. . . . 
Cabinetmakers. . . 

Calkers 

Carpenters 

Clerks 

Coachmen 

Cooks 

Coopers 

Countermen 

Daily laborers 

Designers 

Doctors 

Dyers 

Engineers 

Engine drivers.. . 

Engravers 

^"'sherroen 

'umiture makers 

hardeners 

Gilders 

Glove makers . . . 

Haiiers 

Joiners 

J-"hographers 

*'echanics 

^iillers 

^'iners 

J'isicians 



ainters. 



^[jarmaceutists 
{[noiographers . 

Printers 

Saddlers 

Wers 

^men 

^^stresses . . . 
School-teachers 
^oemakers . . . 
Jhopkeepers . . . 

Singers 

Jokers 



1896. 



58, 388 
II 

3 

74 
92 

527 

26 

2.243 

158 

59 
23 

886 

1.572 

49 
461 

87 

581 

15.983 
22 

21 

27 

9 

87 
16 

59 

34 

246 

44 

38 

64 

28 

16 
80 

85 
418 

226 

42 

19 
32 

18 

53 

67 

165 

2,983 



687 
2, 128 

86 

307 



1895. 



32.941 

16 

6 

66 

54 
322 

19 

917 

46 

43 

19 

634 

839 

46 

308 

74 
204 

8,988 

II 

9 
19 

5 

75 
8 

34 

17 

102 

36 

17 
31 
19 
4 
64 
52 

309 

81 

29 
10 

16 

II 

47 
32 
96 

1,498 



276 

1,123 
96 

2X1 



1894. 



30, 



I 



915 

9 
3 

58 

41 
231 

32- 

802 

58 

14 

12 

533 
722 

54 
222 

32 

"3 

6,982 

8 
II 
16 

3 

28 

10 

19 

41 

91 

19 
21 

40 

34 
17 
97 
38 
218 

74 
18 

15 

17 

9 

33 
28 

158 

I. 391 
12 

198 

895 

73 
147 



1256 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



Stonecutters. .. . 
Stone masons. . . 

Surveyors 

Tailors 

Tanners 

Tinkers 

Tinsmiths 

Turners 

Typesetters 

Vine cultivators. 
Watchmakers. . . 

Weavers 

Of no profession 



Professions. 



Total. 



X896. 



496 

9 

582 

161 



62 

42 



150 



105 
11,717 



1895- 



141 

15 

5 
2i8 

147 
17 

87 
38 



124 



87 
10, 467 



102,673 I 61,226 



1894. 



187 



2 
192 

139 
!«; 

79 
22 

17 
47 
14 
71 
9.314 



54. 720 



BOLIVIA. 

EXTENSION OF TRADE WITH THE UNITED STATES. 

In a communication addressed to the Director of the Bureau 
on the subject of the general extension of trade between Bolivia 
and the United States, and the efforts being made by the Bureau 
to that end, Sefior Don Luis Paz, Minister of the former country 
to the United States, says: 



" Many efforts have been made to create a trade in Bolivia for 
the manufactures of North America, and the stumbling blocks 
encountered have been lack of direct communication and bank- 
ing relations. The greater part of the cotton goods consumed in 
Bolivia come originally from North America, though purchased 
in Europe, ovi^ing to the advantages offered by direct transporta- 
tion to Buenos Ayres or the Pacific ports and to the facilities for 
placing funds. It would be wise to call the attention of the Gov- 
ernment and of the American industrial ranks to these essential 
points in commercial relations. 

I have endeavored to interest my Government and my country 
to the end that they may open up industrial and commercial cur- 
rents with North America, which can advantageously compete with 
Europe in many articles. With this end in view, I have made 
extended reports respecting the means of making known our 
sources of production and wealth through the Bureau of American 
Republics, and the Philadelphia Commercial Museums." 



* 



* 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. ^^57 



BRAZIL. 

IMMIGRATION IN 1896. 

The last report of the consul-general of the Netherlands in 
Rio de Janeiro states, that, during 1896, 99,379 immigrants arrived 
at the port of Rio de Janeiro and 58,579 at the port of Santos, 
making a total of 157,948 immigrants for the year. The nation- 
alities were as below : 

Italians 96,324 

Spaniards 24, 153 

Ponuguese 22, 299 

Austrians 8, 365 

Gennans i, 070 

Russians 562 

North Americans 471 

French 328 

Swiss .. 153 

English 63 

Danish 55 

Belgians 22 

Dutch 7 

Other nationalities i, 046 

This report refers only to the ports of Rio de Janeiro and San- 
tos, and does not include the arrivals at the other ports of Brazil, 
especially those on the Amazon where recently a regular immi- 
gration service has been established. 

RAILROADS IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL. 

The following item relative to the extension of the railway 
system in the southern part of Brazil appeared in Le Bresil, 
of Paris, of the 26th of December, 1897: 

'•On the 15th of November the station of Carasinho on the 
railroad from Santa Maria to Uruguay, belonging to the Brazilian 
Southwestern Railroad Company, was inaugurated, and forms a 
part of the concession of Itarare to Santa Maria da Bocca do 
Monte and its branches, and is divided between two companies — 
one Brazilian, from SSo Paulo to Rio Grande, which constructs 
the railroads of the State of Parana, and the other Belgian, 
known as the Brazilian Southwestern Railroad Company, which 
constructs the Rio Grande do Sul railroads. Of the lines of the 



1258 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

latter company, 299 kilometers are already in operation, of which 
160 kilometers extend from Santa Maria to Cruz Alta, and 
139 from Cruz Alta to the new station of Carasinho. Before the 
end of the year (1897) the station of Passo Fundo will be 
inaugurated within 54^ kilometers of the Carasinho station ; this 
will increase the length of the lines in operation to ^S3% kilometers. 
On the other side, the lines of the SSo Paulo and the Rio Grande 
Company are very far advanced. The roadbed is almost finished 
on an extension of 96 kilometers to the north of Ponta Grossa, 
and very well advanced for a distance of 150 kilometers to the 
south of that point. The work of laying the rails is progressing 
rapidly. 

The concession of Itarare is one which has given the best 
practical results. The work was begun in 1890, and up to tKc 
present time nearly 560 kilometers have been constructed, bein.g 
about 80 kilometers a year." 

NEW CAPITAL OF MINAS GERAES. 

Bello Horizonte was inaugurated as the capital of the State of 
Minas Geraes on the I2th of December last, with the formal- 
ities due the occasion. The ceremony was attended by all the 
officials and leading citizens of the State. The governor formally 
signed the decree removing the capital from Ouro Preto. 

The following brief description of the new capital is taken 
from the Jornal do Commercio of Rio: "The city of Bello 
Horizonte is situated in a large and beautiful plain, bounded by 
four low hills, and partly inclosed by the chain of Curral d'El-Rei 
mountains and divided by a small stream called Arrudas, and its 
tributaries. The city contains thirty-eight public buildings, th^ 
most conspicuous being the Capitol, yet unfinished, the foa^ 
departments of the Interior, Treasury, Agriculture, and Police » 
the Government Printing Office, the Hall of the Circuit Cour^ 
the Gymnasium, and the electric powerhouse; the Church of tt^^ 
Rosary, residences of the several Secretaries and Chiefs of Bureaus- ^ 
the railway station and a large number of houses of modc^ 
design. The total population at present is about 1 2,000. 

One of the most prominent features of the city is a central pa^^^ 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. ^^59 

which contains 178 acres. The streets, which are straight and 

have a width of 65 feet, are intersected by avenues 114 feet wide. 

The principal avenue is that of AfFonso Penna, 162 feet wide and 

347 yards long. The city has abundant water supply and is 

lighted by electricity, which was inaugurated on the nth of 

December. 

The expense to the State involved in the removal of the capi- 
tal from its old location to the present one, and the cost of the new 
buildings in connection with the construction of the branch rail- 
road, called Bello Horizonte, have up to the present time amounted 
to $11,000,000." 



BRITISH HONDURAS. 

TRADE OPPORTUNITIES. 

In a report to the Department of State, which is published in 
^11 in the United States Consular Reports for February, Consul 
Albert E. Morlan states that the municipality of Belize, British 
Honduras, is considering the question of supplying that city with 
^complete outfit for extinguishing fires. In substance the report 
^ys that the requisition may include at least two steam fire 
<^ngines, with necessary hose, trucks, ladders, etc., also a water 
tower, with mains and hydrants through the principal streets. 
Parties desiring to look into the malfter may communicate with 
Ae United States Consul, who will present their bids, etc., to the 
proper authorities. 

In speaking of the trade of the United States with British Hon- 
duras, Consul Morlan says that the United States leads or has a 
"Monopoly in most lines, but that owing to the active efforts made 
">' the Anglo-Swiss and Nestle's milk companies, the United States 
^>lt, though considered superior, has been almost crowded out of 
*c market He suggests that business men desiring to extend 
tncir operations in that country should combine in establishing a 
"vc agency at Belize. There is room for developing a business 
^n milk, aerated waters, clothing, cotton goods, drugs, earthenware 
^^ glassware, hardware and cutlery, hats, paints, provisions, bis- 



126o BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

cuits in tins, rope and twine, saddlery and harness, shot and ammu- 
nition, silks, woolen goods, beer and porter, candles, gunpowder, 
oils (other than mineral), soap, spirits and wines, bricks, rice, and 
salt. 



CHILE. 

COMMERCIAL STATISTICS FOR 1896. 

The Estadistica Comercial, giving in official form the foreign 
and coastwise trade of Chile in the year 1896, has just been 
received by the Bureau. From this valuable and comprehensive 
report the following summary is made. In the computations the 
dollar is reckoned at 38 pence (76 cents gold). The imports sub- 
ject to duty are based on the valuation established by the customs 
tariff, while those free of duty are rated at their invoice values. 
The value of the exports is calculated on the current market 
prices. 

The statistics are divided into two general heads, " Coraercio 
General " and " Comercio Especial." Under the former head is 
included all goods brought into the country, whether for domestic 
consumption or for reshipment, and all articles exported, including 
those in transit. Under the second head is classed all importa- 
tions intended for home consumption and all exportations of home 
manufacture, and such manufactures of foreign origin as are taken 
out of bond for reshipment. 

The first table given below, that of the " Comercio General," 
shows the total value of the imports and exports of the republic 
for 1896 compared with 1895 and the increase and decrease cor- 
responding thereto. It will be seen from this table that there is a 
net decrease in the foreign trade amounting to $13,278,CX)0. 

The second table gives the figures of the " Comercio Especial," 
and shows a gain of $6,315,785 for 1896,* the greatest increase 
recorded in the statistical annals of the republic. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



1261 





1895. 


1896. 


1896. 




Increase. 


Decrease. 


Comercio General: 

Imports 


$83, 856, 789 
76, 244. 441 


$68,464,717 
78,358.612 




$15,592, 172 


Exports 


$2,114,171 




Total 


160, loi, 230 


146,823,229 2. 114, 171 


15.392,172 




Comercio Especial: 

• Imports 

Exports 


69, 206, 552 
72, 919, 882 


j 
74.082,805 4,876,253 
74.359.414 1 1.439.532 










Total 


142.126,434 


X48, 442, 219 


6,315.785 









The "Comercio de Transitu," or reexportation trade, shows a 
gain of $514,639 for 1896; the coastwise trade, on the other hand, 
shows a gross falling off of $36,219,204 as compared with 1895. 

In the table below is shown the value of importations by coun- 
tries, by which it will be seen that the imports from the United 
States increased $2,227,551 : 



Conntries. 



1895. 



Great Britain '$32, 

Germany ! 17, 

United States I 4, 

Peru ' 4. 



Argentina. .... 

France 

Australia 

Uruguay 

Italy 

India 

Spain 

Belgium 

China 

Ecuador 

Brazil 

Paraguay 

PolTnesia . 

Colombia 

Costa Rica 

Sweden 

Guatemala . . . . 

Holland 

Bolivia 

Portugal 

Switzerland — 
Whale Fishery 



Total 



Increase in 1S96, $4,816,253. 

Bull. No. 8 2 



5. 
I. 



086, 959 
299, 039 

579. 614 
456, 388 

141. 351 
644, 059 

680, 479 
498, 443 
539. 790 
593, 575 
361,438 
208, 283 

157. 538 
172, 685 
301,006 

230. 141 
3. 108 

99.307 
80,064 



1896. 



3.854 

48 

18 

250 

4,610 

64. 405 



$30, 249, 002 
20, 080, 943 
6, 807, 165 

4. 397. 230 

4, 105, 244 

2,834,216 

I, 522, 293 

711,641 

692, 534 

557. 530 

469. 753 

330. 925 

284, 668 

197. 388 
186, 622 
182,450 
168, 024 
130, 092 

97,213 
20, 360 

10, 391 
570 
250 

130 



1896. 



Increase. 



69, 206, 552 





........ 

$2,781, 


904 


2, 227, 


551 




1,190. 


157 


841. 


814 


213, 


198 


152, 


744 


loS, 


316 


122, 


542 


127. 


130 


24, 


703 





46, 171 



74, 082, 805 



164, 916 

30. 785 

17. 149 
20, 360 

6,537 
522 

232 



8. 030, 559 



Decrease. 



$1,837,957 



59. 158 
1,036,107 



36. 045 



114, 384 
47.691 



120 

4, 610 

18, 234 



3, 154,306 



1262 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

The per cent of imports from the leading countries figures as 
follows : 

Great Britain 40. 83 

Germany 27. 10 

United States 9. 18 

Peru , 5. 93 

Argentina 5. 54 

France 3. 82 

Australia 2. 05 

As shown above the total value of exports, exclusive of the 
in transitu trade, amounted to $74,359,414, divided under the fol- 
lowing general heads : 

Mining products $6i, 322, 833 

Agricultural products 11, 124^ 379 

Manufactured articles 54, 922 

Miscellaneous 105, 409 

Specie 768, 012 

Total 73, 385, 645 

Foreign duty-paid articles 412^ 827 

Foreign specie 560, 942 

Total 74, 359, 424 

As compared with the preceding year there is a gain of 
$1,439,532. An analysis of the items shows an increase of 
mining products to the amount of $1,146,342, in agricultural 
products $1,769,226, and in manufactured articles $1,964. The 
following items show a falling off in 1896 as compared with 
1895: Miscellaneous, $105,188; specie, $703,478; foreign articles 
paying duty, $147,790; and foreign specie, $521,544. Nitrate 
exhibits a decrease of $1,596,843, coal $126,667, and gold 
$98,758. 

The volume of Commercial Statistics under review contains, 
in addition to the general trade of 1896, a synopsis of the trade 
of the republic for the first half of the year 1897 as compared 
with the corresponding period of 1896. The total value of the 
trade of the first half of 1897 amounted to $59,003,284, com- 
pared with $77,099,201 in the first six months of 1896. The. 
imports of 1897 figure for $32,032,677, a decrease of $5,997,883 
as compared with 1896. The value of exports in 1897 was 
$26,970,607, a falling off of $12,098,034 as compared with the 
corresponding period of 1896. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. I263 



COSTA RICA. 

FINANCIAL AND COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT. 

The Bureau has received from Sefior Manuel Arag6n, Di- 
rector General of Statistics, several official documents containing 
interesting data relative to the commercial interests of Costa Rica. 
From these the following facts are obtained : 

The population has been steadily increasing during the last 
fourteen years. The general census of 1882-83 gave the number 
of inhabitants as 182,528; that of 1895-96 as 285,003. The 
estimate of the population, made March 31, 1897, gives the 
population as 294,941. These figures show an increase in the last 
fourteen years of 112,413. During the fiscal year 1895-96 the 
circulation of national paper money was reduced to $2,764, and 
that of the war certificates to $98,669. This has been further 
reduced, so that on March 31, 1897, there was no national paper 
monev in circulation, and the war certificates had decreased to 
$79,155.75. The internal 4^bt on the same date amounted 
to $1,1 17,000. 

The circulating medium of the country at the end of the fiscal 
year 189 5-96 amounted to $20.08 per capita of the population. 
The monetary unit is now the "colon," a gold coin of 778 milli- 
grammes, having a fineness of 900 millesimals, and is equivalent 
in United States gold to ^6% cents. Since the decree of October 
24, 1896, which established the gold standard, silver coin has been 
used merely as subsidiary currency. 

The production and exportation of coffee is the principal busi- 
ness of the republic. The reports fi-om the Department of National 
Statistics show that in the first six months of 1897, the total 
exportation of this commodity amounted to $4,666,160, gold. 
For the same period, bananas were exported to the amount of 
$225,267.50 ; woods, $262,862.64, and other articles to the value 
of $47,676.19. Of these total exports Great Britain took 
$2,770,1916, the United States $1,359,470, Germany $924,300, 
and other countries $148,000. The total imports for this period 
amounted to $2,252,970. 



126^^ 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



The importations as to countries were divided as below: 



Countries. 



United States . . . 

Germany 

England 

France 

Italy 

Spain 

Belgium 

South America . . 

St. Thomas 

Cuba 

Nicaragua 

Guatemala 

Salvador 

Parcels post 

Personal luggage 



Total 



Value in gold. 


Percent 


$871, 646. 91 


38.69 


357. 652. 02 


15-57 


518,833.37 


23.02 


167. 303- 77 


7.43 


83. 070. 50 


3.63 


55.154.48 


2.45 


4, 893. 50 


.22 


94.571.90 


4.20 


445.00 


.02 


20. 543. 78 


.91 


10, 739. 90 


.48 


288.06 


.01 


21. 334. 50 


.95 


44» 999. 30 


2.00 


1,493.40 


.07 


2. 252, 970. 39 


roo.oo 



The distribution of the coffee exported was as follows : 

Sacks. 

To London 133, 676 

To Hamburg 24, 833 

To New York 33, 8S7 

To California 19. 946 

To Bremen 12, 373 

To Bordeaux 5.827 

To other countries i, 36a 



GUATEMALA. 



FINANCIAL MEASURES. 



The Department of State has received from the Legation i"^ 
Guatemala, copies of two decrees relating to the financial conditio!^ 
existing in that republic. The first decree is, in effect, as follo>V"^' 
Dating from January i of the current year, all debts recogniz^^ 
by the Government shall be unified, and as security for the credito^ 
internal-debt bonds shall be issued exchangeable for the pres^^^ 
floating-debt bonds, three-million bonds, the Exposition boa^^ 
the loan by the banks in May, the loan of September, and tH^ 
documents guaranteed by the Central American Exposition. 

The internal-debt bonds shall be issued in denominations ^^* 
$100, $500, and $1,000, and shall bear interest at 12 per centp^^ 
annum. These bonds shall be canceled by trimonthly drawing^^ 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 1 26^ 

mmencmg March, 1899, in amounts regulated by the budget; 
e interest will be paid by the Bank of Guatemala at the end of 
ch month from January, 1898. The floating-debt bonds shall 
". exchanged for the internal-debt bonds with a discount of half 
: the interest accumulated to date. Fractions less than $100 
lall bear no interest and the Director-General of Accounts shall 
isue certificates of the same. The bonds of the internal debt 
fitended for the redemption of the war loan of September shall 
►e held by the Director-General of Accounts and on the presenta- 
ion of the canceled documents by the holders thereof, shall be 
elivered to them. 

For the payment of this debt 1 5 per cent of the tax on each 
ottle of spirits sold in the national depositories fi^om January I 
September 30, 1898, and after that date 25 per cent of the tax 
nd 5 per cent of the import on foreign merchandise shall be set 
ipart. The Bank of Guatemala is intrusted with the manage- 
i^ent of the internal debt. 

The second decree provides for the gradual redemption in 
silver of all outstanding notes issued by the several banks of the 
republic, and states in substance that considering that the permis- 
sion granted the banks to suspend payment in coin ceases gn 
January 1, 1898, the President has decided as follows: 

In the months of January and February, 1898, notes of the 
denominations of $1 and $5 shall be exchanged; in March, those 
^^ $1, $5, $10, and $50 ; in April, those of $1, $5, $10, $20, $25, 
^nd $100; on May 1, the general exchange of silver will be 
reestablished. 

Deposits received by the banks after January 1 shall be paid in 
"^e class of money in which the deposits are made, whether notes 
or coin. The decree of May 2 1 is amended, it being understood 
™ notes not included in the foregoing gradual change shall con- 
tinue to be legal tender up to April 30, 1898. 



1266 BUREAU or AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



MEXICO. 

THE MINING LAW. 

The following is a translation of the mining law now in force 
in the Republic of Mexico : 

Title I. — On mines and mining property. 

Article i. Mining property shall be governed in the United Mexican States 
by the following provisions, for the execution of which the President, in use of 
the powers vested in him by the constitution, shall make such rules and regula- 
tions as may be deemed necessary. 

Art. 2. The present law relates both to mineral substances which can not t>c 
worked, or taken advantage of, without a previous concession, and to those others 
of the same nature which can not be extracted without doing some work capa- 
ble of endangering either the lives of the laborers, or the safety and stability of the 
mines themselves, or of the soil. 

Art 3. The mineral substances which can not be worked, or taken advantage 
of, without a special concession in each individual case having been previously 
made — no matter how they are found, or what is the nature, form, and situation 
of their respective criaderos or deposits — are the following: 

A. Gold; platinum: silver; quicksilver; iron, except the varieties called ^<f 
pantano and de acarreo and the ochres used as paints ; lead ; copper ; tin, except 
thiB variety known as de acarreo; zinc; antimony; nickel; cobalt; manganese; 
bismuth, and arsenic, either native or in ores. 

B. Precious stones, rock salt, sulphur. 

Art. 4. The owner of the soil shall have the power to work freely, without 
first obtaining any special concession, the following-named substances : 

Mineral fuel, mineral oils and waters ; rocks and stones to be used either i** 
their original form or after being in some way manufactured, for building pt»^* 
poses or for purposes of architectural ornamentation ; the components of cn^ 
soil, as earth, sand, and clay of all kinds; mineral substances which under tnc 
provisions of article 3 of the present law have been exempted from conccssi^^^ 
and generally all other substances not mentioned in the same article. 

The excavations, whether superficial or subterraneous, which may be requires 
for the proper working or taking advantage of the substances to which the pr^' 
ent article refers, shall be subject, however, to such rules and regulations as sh*** 
be enacted for the purposes of police and for the safety of the mines themselv^^- 

Art. 5. The title of all mining property already legally acquired, or whi<^^ 
may be acquired under the provisions of the present law, shall be perpetual an^ 
irrevocable, provided that the federal tax, presently to be established by lav*''^ 
on the property of this kind is duly paid. 

Art. 6. The direct title or evidence of ownership of a mine which ma.^ 
hereafter be acquired shall be the patent issued by the Department of Prom(^^ 
tion in pursuance of the provisions of this law. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. I267 

Ait. 7. The ownership of a mine, except in the case of placers and superficial 
deposits, affects only the subsoil and not the soil or surface. The latter continues 
under the control of its owner, except in such portions thereof as, in the cases 
and under the conditions of article 1 1 of the present law, are liable to be occupied 
bv the miner. 

AnT. 8. The working of a mine and the enjoyment of the products thereof 
shall cease at its boundary lines. No miner shall be allowed to go beyond these 
limits, except in such cases as shall be mentioned by the rules, and provided that 
the ground is free and an application has been previously made for the extension 
of the concession. 

The consent of the owner shall be absolutely required whenever private prop- 
erty is to be entered, except in cases of legal easements. 

Art. 9. The water which by virtue of underground works at the mines shall 
be carried to the surface shall belong to the miner ; but he shall have to abide in 
all cases by the general provbions of law as far as the rights of the owners of the 
soil through which it may be caused to flow are concerned. 

Art. 10. All works required to put placers and mines in proper operation 
shall be deemed of public utility, and as such they shall entitle the miner to secure 
possession, by condemnation proceedings, of all the private ground which may 
be needed. 

Art. 11. It shall be lawful for the parties in whose favor a mine has been 
granted to enter into arrangements with the owner or owners of the soil, or sur- 
face, for the occupation and use of such part of the same as may be needed either 
for the proper working of the placers or superficial deposits, or for the construc- 
tion of buildings or other dependencies of the mines. But if no agreement can 
be reached, cither as to the extent of the ground to be used or to the price to be 
paid for it, proceedings of condemnation shall then be instituted before the court 
of first instance of the locality. The course of these proceedings shall be, until 
otherwise provided by the rules now in course of study and preparation for the 
proper enforcement of Article 27 of the constitution, the following: 

I. Each party shall appoint an appraiser, and both appraisers shall submit to 
the court within eight days, to be counted from the day in which they accepted 
the appointment, the result of their work. If their valuations disagree, the 
court shall refer the matter to an umpire, who shall give his opinion also within 
eight days subsequent to his appointment. Upon the opinion of the appraisers 
or the umpire, and the evidence submitted by each party before the opinion is 
given, the court shall fix both the area or extent to be occupied and the amcfunt 
of the indemnification. This decision shall be rendered within eight days, and 
BO remedy shall be given against it, except through impeachment. 

n. If the owner of the land docs not appoint an appraiser within eight days 
subsequent to the notice given him to that effect by the ?ourt, the court itself 
shall make the appointment, and the appraiser thus named shall represent the 
interests of the owner. 

III. If the owner of the land to be condemned is not known, or if the title 
to the same is not clear, the indemnification shall be fixed upon the appraise- 
ments made by an expert appointed by the miner and another expert appointed 



i 



1268 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

by the court, and the amount thus awarded shall be deposited to the order of 
whomsoever may result to be the lawful owner. 

IV. The appraisers or experts shall take as a basis for their appraisement the 
value of the ground; the injury directly done to the property, and the easements 
which exist upon it. 

Art. 12. Mining properties, as well as all other properties bordering upon 
them, shall respectively either enjoy or suffer the easements of way, aqueduct, 
drainage, and ventilation, and the said easements shall be subject, as far as the 
declaration of their existence and the indemnification to be paid for them is 
concerned, to the laws of the State, or of the Federal District, or Territories in 
which the property is situated, if not inconsistent with the following rules : 

I. The legal easement of drainage consists not only in the duty on the part 
of the owner of a piece of land, as provided by Article 21 of the present law, 
to indemnify the owner of another piece of land for the damages he may sustain 
out of the action of the former in keeping the underground works undrained, or 
insufficiently drained, thus causing the water to go from one place to another, 
but also in the duty of all owners of mining properties to allow socavones, or 
countermines or galleries, to be made for the exclusive purpose of securing the 
drainage of one or more mines. 

II. Galleries for draining purposes, unless made under the agreements author- 
ized by Article 23 of the present law, shall be made or undertaken only by the 
owner or owners of properti6s for the preservation of which the said galleries 
are of absolute necessity. 

III. In the case provided for by the preceding clause it shall be the duty of 
the owners of all the properties benefited by the socavon, or gallery, to pay the 
proper indemnification, the amount thereof to be fixed in proportion to the ben- 
efit received and to the nature and state or condition of the mine. 

IV. The perforation of the socavones, or galleries, shall not be undertaken 
until after a permit to that effect has been given by the Secretary of Promotion, 
and the Secretary of Promotion shall not issue it except upon a report of the min- 
ing agent of the district, and upon the proper examination and approval of the 
plans of the work, showing especially the course and inclination of the gallery. 

V. The metal available which may be found in making the socavon, or gallery, 
shall be, if found in a mining property already legally granted, the exclusive 
property of the grantee ; but if found in free ground it shall be divided among 
the owners of the mines which have been benefited by the work, this division 
to be made in such a relative proportion as established in Clause III of this Article. 

VI. If, upon excavating a draining gallery, or socavon, through free ground 
one or more veins are found, and application is made in due form to obtain the 
concession thereof, then and in that case the provisions of article 14 and the 
following up to 17 of* the present law shall be complied with, and the makers 
of the excavation or gallery shall be deemed for the purposes and effects of the 
last part of article 13 to be explorers. 

VII. As soon as the permit referred to in Clause IV of this article is issued 
by the Secretary of Promotion, no other person than those who according to its 
text are benefited by the work shall be considered as makers of the excavation, 
unless otherwise provided by special agreement. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 1 269 

^III. The owners of the mining properties through which the gallery, 01 
won, is to be excavated shall be entitled, as long as the work is in process 
construction, to watch by means of inspectors, or inter ventores appointed 
thesi, that the excavations are properly made, and to report to the mining 
nt of the district, or to the court, as the case may be, any violation of the 
f if committed. 

IX. In all the places in which a gallery, or socavon, which has been excavated 
: draining purposes meets another gallery intended for regular mining work, the 
mmunication between the two shall be obstructed and prevented by means of 
ilings. 

X. No gallery, or socavon, intended for draining purposes shall ever be used 
r other purposes, except upon unanimous consent of the interested parties, 
itncssed by public deed, which, under penalty of nullity, shall contain a state- 
ent of all the agreements made relating to the transit or passage from one min- 
g property to another, as referred to in Clause IX of this Article. 

XL All new mines worked in places where a general gallery or socavon has 
«n excavated for draining purposes to the benefit of all, shall be subject in this 
spcct to the provisions of clauses III, VII, VIII, IX, and X of the present 
riicle. 

XII. The legal easement of ventilation consists in the duty incumbent upon 
1 owners of mining property to allow their neighbors to have such communica- 
on with the open air as is necessary, and can not be obtained otherwise, except 
t great cost. 

XIII. The communication between adjoining properties for all other purposes 
iffercnt from ventilation shall be prevented by means of railings, except when 
•thcrwisc provided by special agreement, witnessed by public deed. 

XIV. If actual ventilation is secured by some other work different from the 
>nc referred to in Clause XII of this Article, the service thereby rendered shall 
'0^ give the miner who made it any right to claim indemnification from the 
>*'ncrs of the other properties ventilated, nor shall said owners be entitled in 
"Cir turn to claim that an easement against the mining property from which the 
'cntilation proceeds has been created. 

^^' If while making an excavation in order to secure the accomplishment 
'' Clause XII of this Article some available metal is found, the disposition 
"Crcof shall be made as directed in Clauses V, VI, and VII of the same. 

^ ^'^I. Clause IV of this Article shall also be complied with as far as applicable 
^° ^He case. 

'^*'II. The whole expense, both of constructing the ventilating gallery and 
^ "keeping it in good repair, shall be to the exclusive charge of the applicant 

^ claims to have easemen t. 

*^^III. For the creation, in the future, of an easement, whether in favor of 

"fining property or against it, the acquiescence of the owner of the property 

^^^^ has to suffer it shall be absolutely required, said acquiescence to be wit- 

^^^cd by public deed, and if not by a formal declaration in writing signed by 

"'^ owner and ratified by him before the judicial authority of the locality or the 

^c^eiary of Promotion, or by an executive decree declaring said easement to be 

"'^^istcnce and assented to by the interested parties, or by judicial sentence. 



1270 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

XIX. If the owner of the mining property in whose favor the easement is to 
be created can not reach an agreement with the other parties, and secure thereby 
the acquiescence referred to in the foregoing clause, he shall have the right to 
apply to the Secretary of Promotion and ask him for the decree to which reference 
has also been made. The Secretary of Promotion shall decide within the time and 
upon the fulfillment of all the requisites and formalities provided for by the rules 

, which may be in force on the subject what he may deem proper ; but his decision 
shall not be rendered without first hearing the opponent. If either the appli- 
cant or the opponent refuses to assent to the decree then issued, the rights of 
both parties to apply for a remedy to the respective local courts within the 
period allowed by the rules shall be always reserved. The judicial decision shall 
be communicated by the court which rendered it to the Secretary of Promotion. 

XX. No executive decree rendered in favor of the applicant and against the 
opponent shall be executed immediately unless the applicant gives bond, to 
the Satisfaction of the Secretary of Promotion, to indemnify for damages should the 
opponent secure, through judicial action, the setting aside of the decree. 

XXI. The provisions of the three immediately preceding clauses shall be 
applicable to all the emergencies in which judicial action may be invoked to 
antagonize executive orders. 

Title II. — On explorations and mining properties and concessions. 

Art. 13. Every inhabitant of the Republic is free to make, in lands bclong- 
* ing to the nation, all such explorations as may be conducive to the discovery o^ 
mines. But if instead of soundings he makes excavations, the latter shall not 
exceed 10 meters in extent, whether in length or in depth. No permission 
shall be required to make explorations, but previous notice thereof shall bcgiv^n 
the respective authority, in the manner provided by the rules. 

No explorations can be made in land belonging to private individuals witJi- 
out first obtaining permission from the owner, or his lawful represcntati'*''^ 
Should this permission be refused, application can be made for it to the proj^^^ 
executive authority of the locality, but it shall not be given except upon ctytR- 
pliance with the formalities of the rules, and the filing of such a bond as may ^ 
deemed sufficient to indemnify for the damages which the exploration may cause 
Said bond shall be fixed to the satisfaction of the said authority, after having 
heard the owner of the land or his lawful representative. 

No explorations shall be permitted within private buildings or dependencies 
thereof without the permission of their owners. Nor shall any be allow^cd 
under any circumstances within the incorporated limits of a town or city, or ii» 
the interior or the neighborhood of public buildings and fortifications. The rules 
shall fix, in all these cases, the distances at which the works of exploration may 
be allowed. 

Within the three months immediately following the date of the notice, or o» 
the owner*s permission, or of the executive degree granting it, none but tK^ 
explorer shall be entitled to the concession of mining properties at the plac^ 
explored. 

Art. 14. The unit of concession, or mining property shall be in the future i^ 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



1271 



tEc shape of a prismatic body, of indefinite depth or height, having for its exter- 
nal base, on the surface of the ground, a horizontal square figure of 100 meters 
on each side, bounded laterally by the four corresponding vertical planes. 

In all matters of contract affecting the ownership of a mine the unit of prop- 
erty, such as above established, shall be deemed indivisible. 

Art. 15. Except in the case provided for in the latter part of article 13, 
concessions shall always be made in favor of the first applicant, and shall 
embrace, if ground in sufficient quantity is found free, as many units or mining 
properties as the said applicant may have asked for. In all cases the applicant 
must specify with perfect clearness, and in conformity with the provisions of 
the rules on the subject, the actual location to be given to the mining properties 
of his concession. 

If it should happen that between the new concessions and others already made 
some space of lesser extent than one unit has been left vacant, that space shall 
be also granted to the first applicant. 

Title III. — On the manner of acquiring mining property, 

Akt. 16. The Department of Promotion shall appoint in the States, Territories, 
and Federal District a number of special agents, who shall be subject to its control 
and authority, before whom the applications for mining concessions must be filed. 
These agents shall be authorized to charge such fees as may be fixed in a sched- 
ule prepared for that purpose by the department. 

Art. 17. Upon the receipt of the application the agents shall enter on their 
respective registry the day and hour in which it was filed. Immediately after- 
wards they shall cause the application to be published and the mining proper lies 
referred to in it to be surveyed by an engineer or expert appointed by them ; 
and if no contention arises, a copy of the whole record, together with the plan 
or map of the mining property, shall be forwarded by them to the Secretary of 
Promotion, who shall approve the proceedings and issue the proper patent. The 
rules shall fix the periods of time in which all these things must be done and the 
course of proceedings to be followed as long as the case is conducted before 
the agents. 

Art. 18. As soon as the record is approved and the patent, or title, is issued 
the grantee shall enter in full actual possession of the mining property granted 
10 him without further formalities. 

Art. 19. The agents of the Department of Promotion shall have no authority 
to suspend any case presented to them, except when opposition is made to the 
concession, and they shall be bound, at the expiration of the time marked by the 
rules, to forward to the Secretary of Promotion a complete copy of the record, 
in whatever stage or condition it may be found. Upon examination of this copy 
the Secretary of Promotion shall either dismiss the application for want of action 
on the part of the applicant, if such is the case, or hold the agent to be respon- 
sible, if the delay has been depending upon him. Such applicants as have proved 
under the above provision to be negligent shall not be allowed to ask a second 
twnc for the same concession. 

Art. 20. When the owner of the soil opposes either the concession of the 



1272 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

mining property or the making of the survey, the opposition resting on the 
ground that no deposit of metal is found in the place, the agent of the Depart- 
ment of Promotion shall see whether any indication of the existence of such 
deposit can be discovered on the surface of the ground, or in any gallery, or 
pit of exploration which may have been excavated therein, and if discovered, 
he shall at once dismiss the opposition. 

If no indication at all can be discovered, a course of proceedings analogous 
to the one provided for in article 1 1 of this law shall be pursued by the parties, 
and the respective court shall decide whether the concession is to be refused or 
granted. And appeal shall be allowed against that decision, and the result 
thereof shall be communicated to the Secretary of Promotion. 

Art. 21. The agents of the Department of Promotion will suspend proceed- 
ings in case an objection is filed, and forward the record to the local judge of 
the first instance for the proper judicial inquiry. The judicial authority must 
notify the Department of Promotion of its decision. 

Title IV. — General provisions. 

Art. 22. The working of the mines, whether of the class which under the 
provisions of the present law require government concessions, or of the class 
which belong to the owner of the soil, shall always be made in accordance 
with the rules of police and other rules enacted for the preservation and safety 
. of the mining properties. In all other respects the owners of said proper- 
ties shall enjoy complete liberty of industrial action and shall be allowed to 
work their mines in the manner which may be more suitable to them, or to 
hasten, delay, or suspend the labors, employ the number of laborers which th^' 
may deem best, or concentrate their efforts in one place with preference to oth^^- 
They shall also be free to adopt such methods for the extraction of the ores i'*^" 
the drainage and ventilation of the mines as they may deem most suitable tc 
their own interests and purposes. But the owners shall be in all cases respc^"' 
sible for such accidents occurring in their mines as may result from impcrf*^^^ 
work, and shall be bound to indemnify such damages as may be caused to ot h»^' 
properties for lack of proper draining or for other reasons. 

Art. 23. When socavons, or draining galleries, are to be undertaken in sotn^ 
locality in order to give impulse to the mining industry, the construction of the 
same shall be a matter of contract among the interested parties. 

Art. 24. All mining companies shall be organized under the provisions of the 
code of commerce, which shall be their law in every respect. 

Art. 25. The contract thus far known by the name of avio (loan of money 
to work a mine) shall in the future have the character either of a partnership* 
in which case the provisions of the preceding article shall be complied with, o' 
of a mortgage. Mortgages in mining matters can be given and constituted freely* 
with no other formalities than those set forth in the civil code of the Fcder^* 
District, but the indivisibility of the unit of mining property, fixed by article 
14 of the present law, shall be always taken into account. As to the recordiriS 
of these mortgages, the provisions of the code of commerce shall also be compli^^ 
with, and for that purpose a special book or registry shall be open for the minii^^ 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. ^^73 

transactions. The mortgagee shall always have the right to pay the tax to 
which article 5 of the present law refers, and by so doing he will acquire pref- 
erence against the owner of the mine, and even against his own mortgage for 
the reimbursement of the said tax. 

AiT. 26. The amount represented by the mortgage can be divided in bonds, 
payable either to bearer or to order. This can be done either by the same 
original deed of mortgage or by a subsequent document. In all cases proper 
provisions shall be made in order to give the bondholders a common representa- 
tive; and these provisions, as well as a statement of the whole amount of the 
debt due, the terms of payment, and the guarantees or securities, shall be printed 
in the bonds. 

No action shall ever be taken by a bondholder against the debtor, or the 
mortgaged property, except through the common representative of all of them. 
The acts of said representative, in so far as the rights of the creditors are con- 
cerned, shall be binding on all. 

Art. 27. All questions of law which may occur in mining matters shall be 
determined in the Federal District and Territories, and in each State, by the 
courts which are of competent jurisdiction, according to the code of commerce; 
and in the determination of said cases said courts shall be guided by the pro- 
visions of chapter 9, title 1, chapter 4 of said code, taking the ground that 
the first expense referred to in clause 2, article 1030 of the same is the payment 
of the tax. 

Art. 28. The new tax to be levied on mining property, except in such cases 
as under the concession the said property is exempted from taxation, shall be 
federal in its character and therefore it shall be regulated by federal law. The 
provisions of the law of June 6, 1887, shall be enforced in regard to all other 
dues and charges to which mining property is now subject. 

Art. 29. The failure to pay the federal tax above referred to subsequent to 
the promulgation of the present law, shall be subject, however, to the provisions 
and rules of proceedings of the new law which creates said tax, the only cause 

of forfeiture of the mining concessions, and shall therefore render the mines and 
mining property subject to be granted anew by the government, under the pro- 
visions of this law, to the first applicant. 

Art. 30. The cognizance of everything connected with the mining business 
shall belong to the Department of Promotion, Colonization, and Industry, whose 
head shall have authority to take all the steps deemed to be advisable to promote 
the raining industry and secure the enforcement of this law. The same depart- 
ment shall appoint as many mining engineer inspectors of mines as may be 
necessary, who shall visit the mines and mining establishments, make studies 
and surveys and do whatever professional service may be required from them. 

Art. 31. The Executive Department of the Government shall fix, subject to 
article 21 of the federal constitution, the penalties to be incurred by the viola- 
lion of the present law or of the rules made for its execution. 

The cognizance of all official offenses committed in this respect by agents of 
the Department of Promotion lall belong to the district courts of the respective 
localities. 



1274 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

The cognizance of all common offenses committed in the mines shall belong 
to the ordinary courts of the respective localities; but the federal executive 
authorities shall retain in all cases the right to impose such fines and other pen- 
alties as may be established by law. 

Art. 32. Everything relative to the smelting and reducing works and to other 
similar establishments shall be governed by the provisions made on the subject 
by the general legislation, and as far as taxation is concerned, by the law of June 
6, 1887. 

Art. 33. Such portions of the galleries or socavons, made purely for ventila- 
tion purposes or for the drainage of the mines or for facilitating the extraction 
of such ores as may have been excavated beyond the limits of the mine, shall 
be exempted from the federal tax. 

Title V. — Transitory provisions. 

Article 1. The cases of denouncement of mines and other cases, which may 
not be terminated at the time in which the present law shall go into effect, shall 
be continued and decided according to its provisions. 

Art. 2. All vacant spaces left between mines bordering upon each other, or 
between mines near to each other, not denounced at the time in which the pres- 
ent law goes into operation, shall be granted to the first applicant. 

Art. 3. All contracts made and entered into by the Department of Promotion, 
colonization, and industry, which may be in existence at the time when the 
present law goes into operation, and whose stipulations are being actually 
carried on, shall remain in force until the end of the concession, if so desired 
by the grantees, but it will be optional for the latter, within one year subsequent 
to the date in which the present law goes into operation, to subject them- 
selves to the new legislation, by making a declaration to that effect before the 
Secretary of Promotion, and from that moment they shall be exempted from all 
the obligations of the said contracts, and all the sums of money they may have 
deposited shall be returned to them. No other law than the present one, or the 
rules and regulations relating thereto, shall be applicable to them or their prop- 
erty, and their rights of ownership shall be acquired and preserved forever upon 
the payment of the federal tax above mentioned. 

Art. 4. Mining property which under the provisions of the present law can 
not be classified or considered as such, but is found to be in existence under 
former legislation, and is actually worked, shall retain its mining character, as 
well as its own dimensions, even if different from the ones now established. But 
for the purposes of taxation, they shall be subject to the unit provided for by 
article 16 of this law. 

The owners of these mines shall have the right, however, to ask for the resur- 
vey of their property, and for a new patent or title. 

Art. 5. Contracts of avio, and all others relative to mining business which 
may be in existence at the time the present law goes into effect, shall be gov- 
erned by their own stipulations and by the provisions of the mining law in 
force at the time in which they were made an^ entered into. But it shall be 
indispensable for the said contracts, in order to s ure validity for any future act 
depending upon them, to be registered, as prov Vd by articles 24 and 25 of 



CI, unless upon consenc or cne lawiui owner. 

Final provision. 

irtic(e. The present law shall go into effect in the whole territory of the 
c on the ist day of July, 1892, and on and after that date the mining 
November 22, 1884, and all subsequent circulars and provisions on the 
shall be repealed, 
le 10 of the law of June 6, 1887, is also repealed. 

June 6, JSp2, establishing the federal mining tax referred to in the 

mining law, 

CLE 1. In pursuance of the provisions of the new mining law, a federal 
1 be levied on all mining property, to be collected as follows : A portion 
to be paid only once, in official stamps to be affixed to all patents or 
r ownership of the mining property, and another portion to be paid 
y \n 2i certain amount of money for each piece of mining property. For, 
poses of this law each one of the said pieces of property shall be under- 

be the unit of concession established by Article 14 of the new mining 
d all mines existing in the republic, whether of ancient or modern con- 
whatever their size or extent may be, shall be measured and assessed 

ng to this standard. Such fractions of mining property as under the 
ay appear, if consisting of half a unit or more, shall pay the full rate 
tion, but if they are lesser in extent than half an unit they shall pay 

• 

2. All persons who are at present, under whatever title, the owners or 
>rs of a mine or mines shall be bound to file their title papers at any time 

1 this date and the 31st of October of the present year — a period of time 
>hall not be extended — before such officer of the treasury department 
be appointed for that purpose, in order that the said officer may affix to 
[ papers the stamps named in the foregoing article and enter on his books 
iber of units constituting each mine, so as to determine the amount to be 
f collected. 



1276 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

The cancellation of the stamps shall be made by the officer of the treasury 
who may be in charge of this matter, if they are affixed to patents or title papers 
issued on or before the 30th of June of the present year, but the stamps affixed 
to patents or title papers issued in pursuance of the new mining law shall be 
cancelled by the Department of Promotion. 

Art. 4. On and after the 1st of July of the present year every owner or pos- 
sessor of a mine will be required to pay $10 a year for each one of the mines 
which constitute his concession. The tax shall be the same for all mines, inde- 
pendently of the metal or substance of which they consist, if acquired previous 
to the date when the new mining law goes into effect by means of a denounce- 
ment or by special concession, or if subsequently to the said date by means of a 
concession or title under the new law. 

Such mines as have been granted by means of contracts between the exec- 
utive power, under authority of the legislative power, or with its approval, 
and were under the express terms of the said contracts exempted from taxation, 
shall be relieved from the obligation of paying the federal tax herein estab- 
lished, both in the form of stamps attached to the title papers and of annual 
payments; but this exemption shall last no longer than the time of the con- 
tract, and said time shall not be extended. 

Art. 5. The federal tax herein provided for shall be paid in three equal parts, 
and m advance, every fiscal year. The payment shall be made without any 
previous notice or information to the taxpayers at such offices as may be here- 
after designated. 

Art. 6. The failure on the part of the owners or possessors of mines to file 
within the time specified in article 2 of this law the patents or title papcn of 
their property shall be punished with a fine equal in amount to the value of the 
stamps to be attached to the said patent or papers. This fine shall be collected 
even if the filing of the titles takes place within two months subsequent to the 
expiration of the time; but if it takes place at any other subsequent period, then 
the penalty shall be twice as much for each new period of two months. All 
concealments in regard to the number of mining properties shall be punished by 
a fine equal to double the value of the stamps which should have been affixed to 
the title papers of the property not declared, or concealed, and also to double 
the annual tax due by the same during the whole time of the concealment. This 
penalty shall be understood to be independent of all other responsibilities, whether 
civil or criminal, incurred by the delinquent owner or possessor. 

If the annual tax herein provided for is not paid by thirds, as directed, or 
IS not paid during the first month of each period, a penalty shall be added 
theteto equivalent to 50 per cent on the whole amount if it is paid during the 
second month; but if it is paid during the third month, then the penalty shall 
be equal to the whole amount of the tax. If the tax and penalties thereon 
remain unpaid after the expiration of the third month, then and there the 
ownership of the mine shall be irretrievably forfeited, and the fact of the for- 
feiture shall be published officially by the department of the treasury, through 
the Diario OJicial, so as to enable any applicant to ask for the concession of 
the mine. 

Art. 7. Whenever the owner of a mine shall dispose of it and convey hi* 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 1^77 

iny other person, proper notice thereof shall be given by him to the 
'fficers, so as to enable them to enter the transfer on the registry. The 
sale shall have as many stamps attached to it as provided by the law on 
ret, or Lty del Timbre, 

8. If the person or company in whose possession the mining property 
to be found, should wish to discontinue the working of the same, due 
lereof must be given in writing to the proper revenue office, so as to 
: liquidation of the tax due up to that date to be made, and to enable 
registry officers to make such entries in their books as may be proper. 

PRICE OF PUBLIC LANDS, FISCAL YEAR 1898-99. 

3mpliance with the provisions of the law on the subject, the 
in Government has announced the prices at which the 
lands in the various States, the Federal District, and the 

al Territories may be bought during the fiscal year 1 898-99. 

Price per 
hectare. 

Vguascalientes $2. 00 

!^ampeche i. 75 

!^hiapas 2. 50 

[Chihuahua i. 00 

>oahuiIa i. 00 

^olima /. I. 00 

3urango i .00 

Guanajuato 2. 00 

fuerrero 1. 10 

iidalgo 2. 25 

alisco 2.00 

dexico 2. 50 

liichoacan 2. 75 

viorelos 4. 00 

<}uevo Leon i. 00 

)axaca i. 10 

'uebla . . . . : 3. 00 

>uer6taro 2. 00 

»an Luis Potosi 2. 25 

)inaloa i. 00 

>onora i. 00 

Tabasco 3. 00 

famaulipas i. 00 

riaxacala 2. 00 

/eracruz 2. 50 

ifucatan 2. 00 

^acatecas 2. 00 

deral District 5. 60 

rritory of Tepic 2. 25 

srritoiy of Lower California 50 

—The Mexican fiscal year 1898-99 begins July i, 1898, and ends June 30, 1899. 
ctare is equivalent to 2.471 1 acres. 

JulL No. 8—3 



1278 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



NICARAGUA. 

NEW RUBBER LAW. 

Below is a translation of the decree regulating the exportation 
of rubber firom the State of Zelaya : 

The President of the State, by virtue of his legal faculties, 
decrees : 

1 . From the date of the promulgation of this decree, the exportation of rub- 
ber grown by private individuals on their own plantations is permitted, whether 
the trees are planted on regular farms or not, in accordance with the laws of 
17th of March, 1883, and of the 23d of the same month, 1887. 

« 

2. The export duty on the aforesaid article is reduced to 10 cents per pound 
(4 cents United States currency.) 

3. The prohibition to extract rubber from trees on national lands for a period 
of ten years remains in full force and effect ; and all violators of the law shall 
be prosecuted and punished as smugglers. 

4. All other laws in contravention of the present are hereby repealed. 
Given at Managua on the 2d of December, 1897. 

J. S. Zelaya. 

Enrique C. Lopez, 

Minister of Finance, 

Mr. M. J. Clancy, United States consular agent at Bluef^elds, 
furnishes the Bureau with the following translation of an Execu- 
tive decree dated December 7, 1897. Mr. Clancy observes that 
this decree is applicable only to the port of Bluefields; that no. 
export charge is made for shipments of rubber from Greytown : 

To the Governor and Intendant : 

The President of the State decrees : 

That the decree of September the 22nd, 1896, allowing the exportation of 
india rubber extracted from the national forests previously paying ten cents per 
pound, shall apply in the Department of Zelaya exclusively. 

The Ministeh of Finance, Lopez. 

Managua, yth of December^ ^^97- 

DECREE AFFECTING COFFEE PLANTATIONS. 

Under date of November 29, 1897, Mr. Weisike, United States 
Consul at Managua, advises the Department of State that the 
Nicaraguan Government has promulgated a decree giving prefer- 
ential rights to persons advancing money to enable coffee planters 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. l^JQ 

move tneir crops. Following are the main points of the 
cree: 

The planter can not dispose of his product upon which money 
s been advanced without having first reimbursed the lender, or 
thout his express consent to do so. All contracts for money 
vanced to move the crops must be matters of record and pub- 
hed in the Diario Oficial. The rate of interest on these moneys 
all not exceed 2 per cent per month. 

AMMUNITION MONOPOLY. 

Consul Weisike transmits to the Department of State the fol- 
)wing decree of the Nicaraguan Government, dated December 
, 1897, establishing a monopoly of the sale of lead, caps, and 
artridges : 

The President of the State, for reasons of public order and in 
consideration of the fact that it is necessary to increase the reve- 
nues, in order to attend duly to the increased expenditures which 
the public service demands, issues, by the powers vested in him, 
the following decree : 

Section 1 . Lead in bulk and bars, or manufactured, and also caps and cartridges 
^or hunting guns and revolvers, shall be monopolized. In consequence, the said 
articles can be sold only at such places as are authorized by the Government 
to sell them. 

Sec. 2. Merchants who have in stock lead, caps, and cartridges must make an 
^^ventory, stating the character of the article, its weight, and quantity. This in- 
ventory must be presented to the respective prefect within eight days after the 
publication of the present decree, and this official shall arrange that the articles 
^ turned over immediately, and in his presence, to the collector of internal 
'avenues of the province. 

Skc. 3. The prefect shall execute a document of the delivery made in accordance 
*'th the previous paragraph. This document, which shall be signed also by the 
'Merchant and the collector of internal revenues, shall serve him (the merchant) as 
* voucher of his deposit in the account which will be opened to that effect ; 
^'^thenticated copies of it shall be sent to the Ministry of Finance, to the auditors' 
^®ce, and to the comptroller's office. 

S«c. 4. In the future, the collector of internal revenues will be provided with 
toe said articles of merchandise by means of supplies which the warehouse 
*^pcr of the Government will make in^ the form and- under the requisites cus- 
tomary for the provision of powder. 

Skc 5. No private party can retain more than 2 pounds of powder, 5 
P^iU)ds of lead, 500 caps, and 200 cartridges, even if he should keep these 
Ejects in different places; but the proprietors of two or more plantations or 
^icrprises may keep in each of them the quantities of each of the said articles 
''^cd in this paragraph. 



] 28o BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Sec. 6. Those who infringe upon the above paragraph and the merchants who 
do not comply with the orders given in section 2 of this law shall be prosecuted 
and punished as smugglers. 

Sec 7. The miners or other industrials who have to retain for their work 
more powder than is permitted by paragraph 6 must obtain special authorization 
from the Ministry of Finance, and this will be given or denied according to the 
merits of the information upon the case. 

Sec 8. The Government will pay the merchants for the lead and caps which 
they surrender at the price of the invoice and expenses, with 5 per cent added, 
and, the Minister of Finance, acting in concert with two respectable merchants, 
will make a corresponding liquidation in order to ^x the price, which will be 
published in the Diario OHcial. 

Given in Managua, December 4, 1897. 

J. S. ZelXya. 

Eniuqub Lopez, 

Minister of Finance. 

THE BLUEFIELDS STEAMSHIP COMPANY. 

The Bureau is advised that the Weinberger Steamship Com- 
pany, the Caribbean Fruit Company of New Orleans, and the Orr 
and Laubenheimer Steamship Company of Mobile, have entered 
into an arrangement by which a new company, known as the 
Bluefields Steamship Company, has been incorporated under the 
laws of Louisiana, with a capital of $150,000. The main office 
will be in New Orleans under the direction of Jacob Weinberger 
as general manager, with H. W. Brown as manager at Bluefields, 
N icaragua. 

The new company will operate four vessels, the names of which 
are as follows : Hiram^ Suldal^ Sunniva^ and Alabama — all Norwe- 
gian bottoms. The rate of fare between New Orleans and Blue- 
fields or Rama will be $30 cabin and $20 steerage, except on the 
Alabama^ which will charge $40 cabin and $25 for steerage pas- 
sage. The reason given for the increased fare by the Alabama is that 
the vessel is new and more commodious than the others and pos- 
sesses all modern comforts and conveniences for passenger traffic; 
she will cover the distance (1,210 miles) between New Orleans 
and Bluefields in four days, while the other three steamers require 
fi-om five and a half to six days. The direct service between 
Nicaraguan ports and Mobile will, under the new arrangement, be 
discontinued. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



1281 



This company, like its predecessors, will continue the purchase 
and shipment of bananas along the Escondido River and its 

tributaries. 

BANANA CROP OF BLUEFIBLDS. 

The following data relative to the movement of the banana 
crop of Bluefields in November, 1897, is obtained from an official 
report to the Department of State. 

The number of bananas exported in November, 1897, and 
November, 1896, was: 



Year. 


Bunches. 


Price. 


1S07 - 


Number. 

32.000 

45,000 

8,500 

11.500 


Ptio.Ctro.^ 

0.50 

.40 

. 20 

. 10 

.35 
.30 

.15 


Cents. 
20:6 

16.5 

8.4 


**vyi • ...«».... ..•.•••••.■•■■«...••• 


4.1 


k 


97,000 




1806 H 


II, 000 

29,000 

4,000 


16.05 

13.75 
6.88 


« w^^w^ •••.•.•••••»•••••••••••■•■•••••«••««•«•••■•■«■ 




h 


44,000 





* Nicaragua!! currency. 

The amount paid to planters in November, 1 897, was 36,8^0 
pesos ($15,227.27), and the amount paid for freight, etc., was 
30487.59 pesos ($ 1 2,598. 1 7). In the same month of the previous 
year 13,150 pesos ($6,032.12) was paid to the planters, and 
14,936.60 pesos ($6,851.65) in freight. Total for the month of 
November, 1897, 67,337.59 pesos ($27,825.44), against 28,086.60 
pesos ($12,883.77) for November, 1896. 

In November, 1897, there ^^^^ ^^^ shipments to New Orleans, 
consistingof 45,000 wholes, 8,500 halves, and 11,500 quarters; and 
two shipments to Mobile of 32,000 wholes. In November, 1896, 
there were two shipments to New Orleans (17,000 wholes and 
4,ocx) halves) and two to Mobile (23,000). In November, 1896, 
there were only two lines of steamers ; now there are three, and 
one company has two steamers. The increase of price, says the 
consular agent, is caused by rivalry among exporters. 



1282 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



PARAGUAY. 

PARAGUAY AT THE BRUSSELS EXPOSITION. 

The Bureau has received from the Hon. John Stewart, 
Consul-General of Paraguay in the United States, the following 
mention, prepared by Senor Don Josfe Decoud, Minister of For- 
eign Relations, of the part taken by that Republic at the interna- 
tional exposition held in Brussels in 1895: 

"The part taken by Paraguay in the great international exhibi- 
tion lately held in Brussels, despite the fact that she had to make 
hurried preparations owing to the limited time at her disposal, 
ha's demonstrated in a convincing manner the great advances 
made by that country in the last few years. 

Paraguay, whose past contributed so largely to her disparage- 
ment in foreign eyes, is no longer the mysterious region of sinister 
dictatorships, but rather a virile and enterprising community, 
responsive to modem impulses, where the honest immigrant and 
rich capitalist will find a wide field for their energies, pro- 
tected by the most advantageous laws and one of the most liberal 
governments of South America. 

After the war with the triple alliance, composed of the Argen- 
tine Republic, Brazil, and Uruguay, which consumed nearly all 
of her energies, Paraguay has raised herself by her own unaided 
efforts, and in twenty-five years of constant labor, under the benefi- 
cent aegis of an almost uninterrupted peace, has succeeded in 
attaining an honorable and enviable place among her sisters of the 
South. The proof of this is seen in the success she obtained at 
the late Brussels Exposition. 

The national arts and industries, agriculture and bibliography, 
were worthily represented, as evidenced by the premiums received, 
for superior to those heretofore awarded on like occasions and with 
a much greater number of exhibitors, and had the difficulties due 
to the recess of the legislative chambers not intervened to prevent 
the country' from making adequate preparations for the event, it 
would have figured with even greater brilliancy among the other 
nations. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. ^^83 

The impression produced by the Paraguayan section was not, 
however, incommensurate with its merits, to judge by the following 
excerpts from the report of Mr. Oostendorp to the Govemment 
of the Republic : 

'The Paragua7an section was one of the first visited^ and I had the honor to 
attend His Majesty, having at my side Sefior Hemeleers Ti6vi, consul of the 
Republic in Brussels. The view of the national palace at Ascunci6n presented 
by the great decorative picture, of which I have informed your Excellency, im- 
pressed His Majesty, and he requested details regarding it. Turning then to 
the Minister of Industry and Labor, he made the very amiable observation that 
one might go to Paraguay to seek inspiration for the erection of great edifices. 
The wood furniture of the country also claimed the attention of the King, and 
he asked if the articles were made in Europe, to which I was able with great 
pleasure to reply that they were made in Paraguay. It can be said that to 
many visitors the section is a veritable object lesson of the advanced state of 
culture in Paraguay, as evidenced by the products sent and the numerous and 
interesting collection of photographic views of the capital and the countryside.' 

The following were the premiums awarded to Paraguayan 
exhibitors : 

Four diplomas, grand prize. 

Two diplomas of honor. 

Eighth diplomas, gold medal. 

Sixteen diplomas, silver medal. 

Fifteen diplomas, bronze medal. 

Five diplomas, honorable mention. 

A total of fifty premiums for forty exhibitors. It is worthy of 
note that at the Universal Exposition at Paris in 1889 Paraguay 
obtained fifty-four distinctions with only two grand prizes, while 
the number of exhibitors was much greater. 

The majority of the prizes enumerated went to the national 
industries and agriculture ; the prodigious vegetable wealth of the 
land attracted great attention, as did also the remarkable proper- 
tics of the yerbu'tnate (Paraguayan tea), the use of which has 
become so general in the southern part of South America and 
which is commencing to spread in the northern regions." 



1284 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



SANTO DOMINGO. 

COMMERCIAL NOTES. 

The Bureau is indebted to Mr. E. D. York, secretary of the 
"San Domingo Improvement Company," for copies of three 
executive decrees relating to exportation of cattle, foreign com- 
merce with Haiti, and petroleum concessions at La Romana. 

By the first decree, the exportation of cattle, both homed and 
equine is permitted, with the limitation to male animals, exporta- 
tion of females being formally prohibited. The export duty shall 
be $2, gold, for each animal. The ports of Barahona and Romana 
are open to this class of business, but vessels coming from abroad 
to load cattle in said ports arfe required to make application at the 
port of the Capital for the requisite authority, from whence they 
will be dispatched by the Administrator of Hacienda when going 
to Barahona, and by the Comisario of the Government when going 
to Romana. 

The second decree exacts that all foreign merchandise intro- 
duced into the Republic by the frontier shall have imposed upon 
it the same duties as are applied to commerce coming fi-om foreign 
countries, and shall be subject to the same formalities required by 
the custom-house. The native manufactured Haitian products 
shall, however, not be subject to any impost when brought into 
the country. 

The third decree authorizes the installation at La Romana of 
a refinery of petroleum, which is required to manufacture petro- 
leum of the standard grade of 1 50°. The decree further exacts 
that all petroleum introduced into the country fi"om abroad shall 
be submitted to a test, and any that may be below the required 
standard ( 1 50°) shall be confiscated. The duty assessed upon this 
commodity shall be 40 cents, gold, per gallon. 

The following table shows the imports of domestic merchan- 
dise fi-om the United States during the twelve months ending 
June 30, 1896, and for the corresponding period of 1897: 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



1285 



Imports, 



Articlea. 



Agricultural implements 

Books, maps, printed matter 

Breadstuffs : 

Com 

Wheat flour 

Carriages, cars 

Coal and coke 

Cotton, manufactures of 

Other manufactures of . . 

Cycles 

Fruits and nuts 

Hops 

Iron, steel, and manufactures of . . . . 

Sewing machines 

Other machinery 

Leataer, manufactures of 

Naval stores: 

Rosin, tar, turpentine, and pitch 

Turpentine, spirits 

Oils: 

Mineral 

Vegetable 

Provisions: 

Beef, canned 

Beef, salted, etc 

Tallow 

Bacon 

Hams 

Pork . 

Urd 

Butter 

Cheese 

Seeds 

Sugar and molasses 

Lumber 

Shingles, etc 

Manufactures of wood 



Values. 


X896. 


1897. 


$2,981 


$1. 428 


1.477 


1,336 


I. 131 


389 


135. 890 


163.078 


10,764 


20,588 


15, 160 


26, 211 


114. 749 


92. 831 


10,199 


31,012 


266 


4.908 


2.234 


2.388 


249 


287 


12,967 


11.283 


1,380 


I, 798 


115,427 


106, 252 


721 


1,177 


4,990 


5,036 


221 


312 


45. 807 


52, 486 


15, 389 


15,616 


56 


72 


I. 961 


2,612 


32.590 


21,037 


i«905 


2,706 


6,460 


7.316 


9,192 


4,357 


37. 247 


23, 077 


5.464 


7.331 


4,798 


4,711 


613 


538 


2.885 


2,332 


69,099 


65.512 


2,958 


9.544 


15, 166 


20,692 



UNITED STATES. 



TRADE WITH LATIN AMERICA, 



MONTHLY STATEMENT OF IMPORTS AND EXPORTS. 



Following is the latest monthly statement from figures compiled 
by the Bureau of Statistics, United States Treasury Department, 
WoRTHiNGTON C. FoRD, Chief, showing the trade between the 
United States and the Latin-American countries in leading articles, 
with a comparative statement for the corresponding month of the 
previous year. The report is for the month of November, cor- 



1286 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



rected to January 7, 1898. It should be explained that the figures 
from the various custom-houses showing imports and exports for 
any one month are not received at the Treasury Department until 
about the 2oth of the following month, and some time is necessa- 
rily consumed in compilation and printing, so that the returns for 
November, for example, are not published until some time in 
January: 

Imports and Exports, November, iSpy, 
IMPORTS OF MERCHANDISE BY THE UNITED STATES. 



Articles and countries. 



Chemicals : 

Logwood {Palo campccht ; Pdu 
campeche ; Cample A^) (ions)— 
Mexico 



Coal« b'ltUTainous {Cardifn bituminoso; 
Carvdo beiuminoso ; Charbon bitU" 
mineux) (tons) : 
Mexico 



Cocoa {Cacao ; Coco ou Cacdo crtS j 
Cacao) (pounds): 

Brazil 

Other South America , 



Coffee {Caf/; Caf/; Caf/) (pounds) : 

Central America 

Mexico 

Brazil 

Other South America 



Cotton, unmanufactured (/f{^<i/ff en 
rama; AlgodUo cm rama; Coton^ 
non manufacture) (pounds) : 
South America , 



Fibers: 

Sisal gT2LSs{Ifencqu/n ; Henequtn; 
Hcnrnquen) (tons)-— 



Mexico 



Fruits: 

Bananas {Pldtanos ; Bananas ; Ba- 
nancs) — 

Central America 

Cuba 

South America , 

Hawaiian Islands 



Oranges {Naranjas ; Laranjas ; 
Oranges) — 

Mexico 

Cuba 



November. 



1896. 



Qtsantities. 



23 



7,960 



430. 075 
540, 423 



320, 359 
305, 127 

59. 938, 656 
5, 970, 312 



122, 768 



8,141 



Values. 



$700 



17. 124 



30,064 
53,040 



47, 478 

45, 757 

5, 717. 547 

869, 755 



12, 813 



513,959 



83, 193 
3,032 

35, 154 
5,412 



84, 024 
829 



X897. 



Quantities. 



48 



7. 411 



162, 329 
232, 201 



150, 276 

I, 162, 461 

62, 812, 194 

6, 587, 198 



7.558 



Values. 



$887 



13.347 



20.754 
27.809 



20.787 

159.409 
4,406,311 

653,894 



455, 977 



87.203 



36,590 
4.586 



65. 853 
I.a86 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



1287 



Imports and Exports^ November, iSpy — Continued. 
IMPORTS OF MERCHANDISE BY THE UNITED STATES— Continued. 



Articles and ooantries. 



Y ui s)i\iis{PuUs fiuas; Pelles; Four^ 
ntr^s) (pounds) : 
South America 



Hides and sicins {Cturos y pUles; 
Couros e pelles; Cuirs et peaux) 
(pounds): 

Central America 

Mexico 

South America 



India rubber, crude (jGotna eldstica 
crtida; Borracha crtia^ Caout- 
chouc^ hrut) (pounds): 

Central America 

Mexico 

Brazil 

Other South America , 



Lead, in pigs, bars, etc. {Plomoengald- 

ptigos^ barraSf etc.; Chumbo em 

Hnguados^ barras,etc.; P lambs ^ en 

saumons, en barres, ^/r.) (pounds): 

Mexico 



Sugar, not above No. 16 Dutch stand- 
ard {Azticar, no superior at No, 
ibde la escala holandesa; Assucar 
nAo superior do No. 16 de padr&o 
hollamdez; Sicre^ pas au-dessus du 
type hollandais No. 16) (pounds): 

Mexico 

Cuba 

Brazil , 

Other South America 

Hawaiian Islands , 



Tobacco, leaf ( Tabaco en rama; Ta- 
haco em folha; Tabac en feuilUs) 
(pounds): 

Mexico , 

Cuba , 



Wood, mahogany (Madera^ caoba; 
Mogno; Acajou) (M feet): 

Central America 

Mexico 

Cuba 

South America 



Wool (Liim; LA; Lcdne) (pounds): 
South America — 

Class I 

Class 2 

Class 3 



November. 



T896. 



Quantitieft. 



Values. 



222, 425 

753* 326 
5, 686, 354 



82, 907 
5,608 

1. 327, 379 
104, 861 



10, 061, 014 



5»328 
3. 921, 267 



17,011,162 
17. 631, 371 



45.104 
551.871 



641 
121 

3 
3 



1897. 



Quantities. 



*I2 



27.544 

73.942 

811,976 



32, 398 

1,750 

696, 195 

36, 567 



98,660 



109 

86, 186 



341. 593 
551.250 



9.559 



I, 241, 940 



18,712 
245. 984 



21,806 

3.764 
158 
167 



Values. 



x68, 640 
I, 152, 574 
6, 231, 940 



68. 986 

10, 458 

3, 766. 621 

194, 630 



10, 006, 01 1 



16, 200 
60,000 



11,497,092 
35, 626, 044 



65, 382 
229, 068 



718 
204 

5 
II 



712 



106, 822 



$1, 671 



15. 574 
113.081 

886, 322 



28. 557 

2,647 

I, 860, 119 

74.184 



119,005 



375 
755 



226, 759 
1, 080, 325 



7,009 
92, 034 



16, 831 
212, 730 



35.900 

9,086 

227 

681 



1,063 
7.427 



1292 



I — 



I BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Imports and Exports, November, i8gi — Continued. 
EXPORTS OF DOMESTIC MERCHANDISE, 1897— Continued. 



Articles and countries. 



Iron and Steel, Manufactnres of — C*t d. 
Typewriting machines, etc. — C't'd. 

Santo Domingo 

Cuba 

Puerto Rico 

Argentina 

Brazil 

Colombia 

Other South America 



Leather, sole {Sueia; Sola; Cuir ^ 
semelUs) (pounds) : 
South America 



Leather, other than sole {Cu^rc^ dis- 
tinto del de suela; Couro n&o para 
solas; Cuirs, autres qui pour se- 
melles) : 

Central America 

Mexico 

Santo Domingo 

Cuba 

Puerto Rico 

Argentina 

Brazil 

Colombia 

Other South America 



Boots and shoes {Calzcub; Cal^cubs; 
Chaussurts) : 

Central America 

Mexico 

Colombia , 

Other South America , 



Naval stores : Rosin, tar, etc. (Resina 
y alquitran; Resina e alcatrdoj Re- 
sine et goudron) (barrels) : 

Centra' America 

Mexico 

Santo Domingo , 

Cuba 

Puerto Rico 

Argentina 

Brazil 

Colombia 

Other South America 



Turpentine, spirits of (Aguarrds; 
Agua-raz; T/rSenthine) (gallons): 

Central America. 

Mexico 

Santo Domingo 

Cuba 

Puerto Rico 



November. 



1896. 



Quantltl 



I»335 



684 

55 

200 

295 

3 
2, oco 

14, 899 

346 

1. 351 



1,176 

306 

15 

5.875 

620 



Values. 



$75 

1.877 
790 

520 
215 



247 



71 
1,320 



45 
305 
907 

175 

37 

2.004 



6,804 
2,696 
2,271 
2,623 



1,625 

237 
552 

585 
6 

6,360 

30.003 

694 

2,968 



375 

III 

6 

1.835 
215 



1897. 



Quantities. 



8.670 



Vi 



482 
220 I 

xo 

545 

28 

8,030 
19. 372 

633 
6,817 



691 
1,015 

5 

5.454 
211 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



1289 



Imports and Exports^ November , i^py — Continued. 
EXPORTS OF DOMESTIC MERCHANDISE, 1897— Continued. 



Articles and countries. 



BreadstufiFs — Continued. 
Wheat flour — Continued. 

Santo Domingo 

Cuba 

Puerto Rico 

Brazil 

Colombia 

Other South America. . 



Caniages,cars,etc., and parts of (Co- 
rr^agfs, carros y sus accesorios; 
Carruagens, carros; e partes dt 
carros; Voitures^ wagons et Uurs 
parties) : 

Central America 

Mexico 

Santo Domingo 

Cuba 

Puerto Rico 

Argentina 

Brazil 

Colombia* 

Other South America 



Cycles and parts of {Bicichs y sus 
occesorios; Bicycles e accessories; 
^icycUttes et Uurs parties) : 

Central America 

Mexico , 

**^'o Domingo 

f^ertoRico*!!!!!.!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 

^^^eniina , 

^'?^il 

0°^'*^bia 

^'" South America 



Clock 



^nd watches (Relojes de pared 
•J^^^ holsiilo, Relogios ae parede e de 
P ^^^o; Pendules et montres) : 

if '^^J-al America 

^«*^ico 

Bra: 
0th. 



*itina 

il 

South America. 



p 1 

. ^Carbdn; Carvdo ; Charbon) 

^*^tul America 

^Xico 

?*^o Domingo 

^^TtoRico!!";;;;!!!'!!!;;!!! 

°f^iil 

^^mbia 

^■^«r South America 



November. 



X896. 



Qoantities. 



2,828 
18, 472 

9,881 
4i» 854 
10, 285 
33.095 



932 

ii;845 

279 

16,948 

310 

275 



30 



Values. 



$13. 385 
80, 308 

42,007 
192, 745 

49,200 
122, 295 



3.150 
39, 212 

1,196 

590 

687 

13, 366 

1,427 
3.863 

1.834 



9.758 
4,621 

165 
144 

45 
3.932 

3.554 
1,050 

3.335 



1,075 
2,618 

5.843 

11.903 

9.875 



3.003 

39. 857 
2. 142 

46, 424 

778 
1, 100 



1897. 



Quantities. 



2,508 

21.317 

II. 391 
74,024 

16, 557 
21,098 



386 
21, 875 

1,086 
15.603 

1,036 



115 



9X0 



Values. 



$13. 569 

103. 879 

60,218 

373. 966 

70, 884 

loi, 057 



3.108 

67.349 
3.757 
2, no 

1.033 
5.137 
4.651 
2,956 
5.870 



1,810 
4,081 

135 
786 

413 

4.940 

14. 502 

2,089 
4,618 



665 
2,093 

701 

6,152 
7.083 



1,086 

58,044 

3,220 

37. 525 
1.953 



2,333 



1294 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



Imports and Exports, November, 7<$5p7^-Continued. 
EXPORTS OF DOMESTIC MERCHANDISE, 1897— Continued. 



Articles and countries. 



Provisions, etc — Continued. 
Seef, canned — Continued. 

Cuba 

Brazil 

Colombia 

Other South America. . . . 



Beef, salted or pickled (Carne 
de vaca^ salada d in salmuera; 
Carne de vaccay salgada ou 
em salmoura; Bttuf^ saU ou en 
saumure) (pounds)-— 

Central America 

Mexico 

Santo Domingo 

Cuba 

Puerto Rico , 

Brazil 

Colombia , 

Other South America 



Tallow(5Ip^<7y Sebo; 5»i/) (pounds): 

Central America 

Mexico 

Santo Domingo 

Cuba 

Puerto Rico . . 

Brazil 

Colombia 

Other South America 



Bacon {Tocino; Toucinho; Lard 
fum^) (pounds): 

Central America 

Mexico 

Santo Domingo 

Cuba 

Puerto Rico 

Brazil 

Colombia 

Other South America , 



November. 



1896. 



Quantities. 



Hams {Jamones; Presunto; Jam- 
bons) (pounds): 

Central America , 

Mexico 

Santo Domingo , 

Cuba 

Puerto Rico 

Brazil , 

Colombia , 

Other South America 



Pork (Carne de puerco; Cahie de 
porco; Pare) (pounds): 

Central America 

Santo Domingo 

Cuba 



480 

42.500 

7.99^ 
6, 200 



26,200 



1,900 

2,800 

14,800 

600 

26,000 

208, 830 



157. 845 
38. 379 

121. 585 
11,778 



10, 650 

4.975 
9,888 



19,948 

12. 843 

I, 822 

688, 780 

61, 785 
347,698 

1.530 
16, 837 



22, 154 
16, 361 

4,340 

327, 730 

54. 240 



12, 820 
94.698 



80,450 

I, 100 

26,000 



Values. 



$35 

3,395 
623 

557 



1,233 



83 
106 

666 

32 

1,132 

9.471 



7,382 

1.359 
5,165 

707 



405 
307 
480 



1.397 
1,124 

no 

41, 325 
3,736 

20, 635 

108 

1,089 



2,355 
1,950 

505 

31,046 

4,887 



1,132 
10, 297 



3,738 

53 
1,269 



1897. 



Quantities. 



4,468 

3,964 
8, 720 

17,018 



69, 100 

975 

1.950 

46, 704 

6, 300 

500 

35. 950 
162, 500 



179, 787 
27,963 

8,323 
22,006 

I. 512 

133. 991 
41, 620 

403 



20, 765 
8,063 

I. 817 

683, 940 

42, 874 

673,994 

743 
40, 458 



27. 039 

17,899 
5,012 

310, 188 

91, 189 

1,882 

13. 191 
98, 158 



97. 550 

2, 800 

14,000 



Vi 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



VI 295 



Imports and Exports^ November, iSpy — Continued. 
EXPORTS OF DOMESTIC MERCHANDISE, 1897— Continued. 



Articles and countries. 



Nvisioos, etc. — Continued. 
Pork— Continued. 

Puerto Rico 

Brazil 

Colombia 

Other South America. . . 



^T^iManteca; Banha; Saindoux) 
(pounds): 

Central America 

Mexico 

Sanio Domingo 

Cuba , 

Puerto Rico 

Argentina 

Brazil , 

Colombia , 

Other South America , 



^'eo and oleomargarine {Grasa y 
oieomargarina; OUo € oUomarga- 
rina; OUo et ol/omargartne) 
(pounds): 

Mexico 

Colombia , 

Other South America 



^uiier {MantequiUa; Manteiga; 
Beurre) (pounds) : 

Central America , 

Mexico 

Santo Domingo 

Cuba 

f*ueno Rico 

Hrazil 

Colombia 

Other South America 



Cheese {Qtuso; Queijo; Fromage) 
(pounds) : 

Central America 

Mexico 

Santo Domingo 

Cuba 

^uenoRico 

Brazil 

Colombia 

^ther South America 



Noveaiber. 



X896. 



Quantities. 



136, 700 
I, 200 
7.900 

352,800 



115.296 

332, 902 

18, 842 

2, 245, 848 

254. 100 

XI. 160 

276, 850 
151. 731 

993. 502 



16,500 
11,260 



^'^gar, refined (Azticar refinado; 
Assucar refinado; Sucre raf- 
fitU) (pounds) : 

Central America 

Mexico , 

^nto Domingo 

Colombia , 

^cr South America 



23. 431 
15,010 

760 

4.543 
200 

2.284 

12, 331 

50, 137 



10, 145 

9.315 
2,081 

3.983 
3.344 



7,613 
12. 811 



115.876 
11.457 

1.434 
65,000 

120 



Values. 



$6,940 

78 

393 
16,314 



6,214 

15.421 
1,079 

123, 798 

13.901 

725 

16, 771 

8.259 
59. 610 



1,451 
1.322 



3.578 

2,621 

116 

825 

40 

250 

1,717 
6,837 



1. 146 

1,258 

235 
765 

359 



1897. 



932 
1,502 



5,372 
653 

73 

2,828 

7 



Quantities. 



451. 500 

500 

18. 100 

241,500 



174.645 

444.599 
26, 210 

895. 050 
420, 523 



1. 087, 387 

196. 178 

1,015,530 



1,760 

6,900 

14.500 



18. 742 

16, 953 
4,916 

7,141 
210 

90, 106 

18,448 
58.421 



12. 865 

10,599 
2,200 

15,668 



380 
12. 467 
10, 102 



loi. 157 

53.666 

7. 211 

60.916 

13, 074 



Values. 



$22,012 

26 

1.070 

12,067 



9.582 

19. 733 
I. 519 

43. 882 

20. 781 



65, 150 
10. 563 
60.938 



192 

584 
1,502 



3,346 

3.219 

656 

1.400 

32 
11,823 

2,463 
8,135 



1.425 
1.306 

287 
1,926 



39 
1,481 

1,276 



4.837 

2,435 

400 

3.148 
745 



I 



1296 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



Imports and Exports, November, i^py — Continued. 
EXPORTS OF DOMESTIC MERCHANDISE. 1897— Continued. 



Articles and countries. 



Tobacco, unmanufactured ( TabacorULo 
ntanufacturado ; Tabaco n&o ma- 
nufacturado ; Tabac turn manu- 
facture) (pounds) — 

Central America 

Mexico 

Colombia 

Other South America 



Tobacco, manufactures of {Manufac- 
turas <U tabaco; Manufacturas de 
tabaco ; Tabac fabriquf) — 

Central America 

Mexico 

Cuba 

Argentina 

Brazil 

Colombia 

Other South America , 



Wood, unmanufactured {Madera no 
manufacturada ; Madeira nAo 
manufacturada ; Bois brut) — 

Central America 

Mexico 

Cuba 

Argentina 

Brazil 

Other South America 



Lumber {Maderas; Madeiras ; Bois 
de construction) (M feet) : 

Central America 

Mexico 

Santo Domingo 

Cuba 

Puerto Rico 

Argentina 

Brazil 

Colombia 

Other South America 



Furniture {Muebles ; Mobilia; Meu- 
bles): 

Central America 

Mexico » 

Santo Domingo 

Cuba 

Puerto Rico 

Argentina 

Brazil 

Colombia 

Other South America 



November. 



X896. 



Quantities. 



13. 575 
141, 476 



116,803 



401 

4.595 

35 
2,889 

1.045 
8,410 

3.568 

467 

3.557 



Values. 



$1,662 
14,112 



9.630 



2,194 

6,130 

6,750 

II, 367 

25 

87 

6,133 



22, 795 

4.384 
260 

120 



Wool, XTkVT {Lana cruda ; JUi crda; 
Laines brutes) (pounds) : 
Mexico 



54. 124 



376 



7.096 
60,333 
592 
31,651 
12, 337 
94.309 
44.214 

6. 911 
39. 342 



13. 730 
9, 262 

255 
2,218 

967 

25. 307 

4.252 

1,270 

8,785 



4.058 



1897. 



Quantities. 



19, 184 

203, 810 

3.850 

53. 378 



239 
3.495 

271 
2.868 

177 
6,975 
3.505 

515 

2.251 



Values. 



$2. 533 

14,606 

508 

4.549 



6,944 
1. 177 
1.695 

1.055 



41 

5.455 



11.042 

14. 377 
294 

299 

2,450 

7.235 



2.871 
37.476 

3.694 
30. 655 

3.099 
77. 561 
47. 267 

7.046 

31.990 



7.409 

II. 751 
920 

2.519 

537 

13.682 

5.493 

4.385 
6,306 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. I297 



VENEZUELA. 

TRADE WITH THE UNITED STATES. 

VI r. Proskauer, Consul of the United States at Puerto Cabello, 
recently submitted to the Department of State an extended 
1 interesting article on the opportunities for American enter- 
se and trade in Venezuela. He states that the trade in cutlery, 
ss, and earthenware, tiles, and kindred articles can be greatly 
Teased, a medium and ordinary grade finding ready sale, 
ving to the high tariff on all tobaccos and the consequent devel- 
ment of native production and manufacture, the importation of 
It commodity has become greatly restricted, and it is thought 
It Venezuela will soon become an exporter. 
Within six miles of Puerto Cabello marble of a' very fine quality 
i been discovered, and a plant costing over $50,000 has been 
cted for the development of the quarries. 
The coal used by the railways comes mainly from England, 
: Mr. Proskauer thinks that if proper efforts were made the coal 
Ti the Alabama and Virginia regions might be introduced into 
country profitably, and ultimately made to supplant the Eng- 
I coals. This suggestion would seem quite apposite and prac- 
ible, in view of the proximity of the American mines and the 
dency of American merchants and manufacturers to increase 
i monopolize the trade of Venezuela. 

The following extract from the report bearing upon the inter- 
de of Venezuela and the United States, and containing valu- 
U practical suggestions, is given : 

* * Our trade with this country is greatly hampered by the absence of • 
^crican houses, banks, etc. It is almost needless to say that all large houses 
'^c their American connections, but it is obvious that this does not supply 

• place of intercommunication between American houses in the United States 
i their branches here. 

^nc of our greatest trading difficulties might be more fully understood, 
^erally advertised, and acquiesced in, I refer to the system of giving six, 
^c, or even twelve months' credit, to enable the merchant to realize at "crop 
'^c." Banks being limited, and none at all in some places, merchants are at 

• mercy of the money lenders, if they must pay their bills in sixty or ninety 
ys, as with us, which means interest at the rate of 1 or 1^ per cent per month. 



1298 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

and not infrequently more. Rates of exchange could thus be more readily con- 
trolled, which, though seldom burdensome, sometimes reach an unreasonably 
high figure. The currency is practically upon a gold basis, silver and gold 
being interchangeable. The issuance of paper money by the Government being 
still inhibited, the only notes that circulate are those of the Bank of Venezuela 
and the Bank of Caracas, confined to local use. 

EL CALLAO MINE. 

According to the Venezuelan Herald, this famous mine has 
been sold at auction, with all its machinery, offices, and various 
appurtenances, by the original company, for the sum of 600,000 
bolivars. The firm buying it is Dalton & Co., of Ciudad Bolivar, 
supposed to represent a group of United States capitalists. When 
it is considered that the plant on the premises alone cost more 
than 400,000 bolivars, the mine brought a very low figure. 

It is understood that the new company will very shortly resume 
work, and it is hoped that this mine will rise from the ashes of its 
former glory. 

The Herald, speaking of it, says: 

"In order that our readers may form an idea about the brilliant 
past of this mine, we can inform them that according to the Gov- 
emment statistics, dating from the year 1871 to 1891, the quantity 
of gold produced amounted to $24,290,923." 

CONTRACT FOR ESTABLISHING BONDED WAREHOUSES. 

In a communication to the Department of State, Minister 
LooMis transmits the terms of a contract entered into between the 
Government of Venezuela and J osfe Rafael Nunez, a citizen of 
Venezuela, for establishing in the Republic a system of bonded 
warehouses. This enterprise is of more than passing interest to 
Americans who have trade relations with Venezuela. 

It will be observed that the concession may be disposed of to 
private firms or individuals, but not to a foreign government. 
Only the salient points of the contract are given here. 

First Article. Jose Rafael Nunez, his representatives or con- 
cessionaires, oblige themselves to construct in Caracas and in the 
ports of Venezuela which are empowered to receive imported 
goods, warehouses or depots to facilitate traders in their business 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 1^99 

ations, and to guarantee the good care and conservation of 
goods. 

!Cond Article. The warehouse company shall receive in their 
lings all the merchandise imported or for exportation which 
owners may wish to deposit ; pay on its own account all cus- 
house dues, cartage, etc., applicable to the aforesaid merchan- 
and hold it at the disposal of the owners, subject to the fol- 
ng conditions : 

i) The owners of goods deposited may remove from the ware- 
>ts the merchandise they require, after having paid the legiti- 
i charges of the company. 

') The owners of merchandise, such as cloths, ironware, and 
ware, shall pay to the warehouse company not more than 9 
:ent per year on the sum total which has been paid for custom- 
>e duties, cartage, etc. The owners of provisions shall pay 1 o 
cent per year. 

•) The warehouse company may charge for depot dues the 
of 5 bolivars per month for every thousand kilos, deposited 
he ventilated warehouses, and 10 bolivars a month for every 
isand kilograms deposited in the warehouses hermetically 
ed. 

J) The warehouse company shall charge two bolivars for 
7 thousand kilograms of articles deposited and destined for 
ortation. 

e) The warehouse company shall demand payment of the cus- 
i-house duties and other expenses incurred by merchandise 
osited only when such goods are taken out of the warehouses. 
ills manner the owners of the merchandise shall only pay the 
)unt due on the quantity taken out, and that which remains in 
warehouse shall be considered sufficient security for the balance 
to the company. 

/) The warehouse company is obligated to deliver the goods 
he same state as they were received, and will be held responsi- 
for any damage the goods may suffer on account of force majeure 
iny fortuitous cause ; but in no case shall the company be held 
)onsible for packages whose contents have not been verified by 
owners and by the company, or which are liable to spontane- 
or natural decay, or loss in weight; and 



1300 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

(^) The warehouse company shall have a complete staff of 
employes and carts or vehicles adequate for handling the merchan- 
dise with all security and necessary precautions. 

Third Article. The warehouse company shall furnish money to 
the owners of goods deposited to an amount representing one-third 
of the cost value of the goods deposited. These loans may extend 
at most for one year, at the rate of 8 per cent per annum, and 
shall be guaranteed by the same goods held in depot. If at the 
term fixed neither the sum loaned nor the interest on the same 
has been paid, the warehouse company may sell at public auc- 
tion to the highest bidder the goods which were held as security 
for the money loaned. Out of the proceeds of the sale shall be 
paid the sums due and other expenses incurred, and should there 
be a balance remaining it shall be given to the owners of the mer- 
chandise, who personally or through some representative should be 
present at the sale. If at the expiration of the term agreed upon 
only the interest of the sum loaned is paid, the owner can choose 
between having his goods sold at auction or obtaining an exten- 
sion of time for six months more to recover his goods, it being 
well understood that during these six months, additional, he is sub- 
ject to the same conditions as those which obtained during the first 
term elapsed. The warehouse company shall in its interest 
account reckon as a whole month any part of the same which may 
have elapsed. 

Fourth Article. The goods which remain deposited in the 
warehouses of the company shall be considered as guaranty both 
for the sums invested in paying custom-house duties and other 
expenses, as well as for the sums which the owners of the goods 
may have received as loans; and for such reasons the said goods 
can not be sold, seized, or be subjected to any other contributions 
but the ones stipulated here. The claims of the warehouse com- 
pany shall have priority before all other claims against merchan- 
dise deposited in them. The company shall make known to the 
public by means of the press every three months the quantity of 
goods deposited, and the names of the depositors. 

Fifth Article. The warehouse company shall pay the custom 
duties on all goods delivered to be deposited in the same custom- 
house where the goods have been received. Payment shall be 
made as soon as the commission agents shall have verified the 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



1301 



sheet containing the liquidation of the duties to be paid, presented 
by the custom-house. This shall not annul the rights which 
government can make good against the owners of the goods or 
against the goods themselves for the payment of import duties. 

Sixth Article. The Government of the United States of Vene- 
zuela obliges itself: 

(1) To grant free of custom-house duties the importation of 
all the materials required tor the complete construction of the 
buildings as well as the furniture, until the final establishment of 
the company, complying always with the stipulations of the 
Code of Finance on goods imported free of duty by contract. 

(2) To exempt the company from all national contributions. 

(3) Not to grant a similar concession to any other person, com- 
pany, or corporation during the time that this contract shall be 
valid, which is for twenty-five years. 

Seventh Article. Within two years, to be reckoned from the 
date that this contract shall be approved by the National Congress, 
the warehouse company is bound to have its warehouses established 
in Caracas, La Guayra, Puerto Cabello, Maracaibo, and Ciudad 
Bolivar; and within three years, reckoning from the same date, in 
the other ports of the republic. 

PRESIDENT IGNACIO ANDRADE. 

GeiL Ignacio Andrade, the new President of Venezuela, was 
bom in 1839, in Merida. He is descended from an illustrious family 
of the country, his father being Gen. Jose Escolastico Andrade, 
and one of his brothers is Senor Don Jose Andrade, the present 
distinguished Minister to the United States. 

President Andrade has been for a number of years intimately 
identified with the public affairs of Venezuela and has held numer- 
ous offices of dignity and responsibility. His public career is not 
limited to political affairs; he is also a distinguished soldier, hav- 
ing at one time commanded an army corps, and took a prominent 
part in the political disturbances of 1892 which resulted in placing 
the late President, Gen. Joaquin Crespo, at the head of the State. 

The new President has traveled extensively abroad and is quite 
m accord with the modern thought of the age. He resided in 
Europe tor a number of years and has visited the United States 



1302 BUREAU or AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

on several occasions. His election to the office of President in 
September last was practically unanimous, receiving 406,000 
votes out of the total 490,000 cast. 

Hon. Francis B. Loomis, United States Minister to Venezuela, 
now in this country, speaks of the inauguration of the new Presi- 
dent as arguing favorably for the continued good feeling existing 
between the two countries and the enlargement of trade. Mr. 
LooMis says Venezuela needs capital, and that President Andrade 
desires to encourage foreign investments and immigration, espe- 
cially from the United States. 



VENEZUELA. 

CUSTOMS TARIFF FOR 1897-1898. 

Number 30. 

(Third Edition.) 

Article i. — Goods of foreign origin which arc introduced through the custom- 
houses of the Republic are divided into the following nine classes : 

1 . Goods admitted free of duty. 

2. Goods liable to a duty of 10 centimes of the bolivar* per kilogramme. 

3. Goods liable to a duty of 25 centimes of the bolivar per kilogramme. 

4. Goods liable to a duty of 75 centimes of the bolivar per kilogramme. 

5. Goods liable to a duty of l bolivar 25 centimes of the bolivar per kilogramme. 

6. Goods liable to a duty of 2 bolivars 50 centimes of the bolivar per kilogramme. 

7. Goods liable to a duty of 5 bolivars per kilogramme. 

8. Goods liable to a duty of 10 bolivars per kilogramme. 

9. Goods liable to a duty of 20 bolivars per kilogramme. 

§ I. — Class I. 

Goods exempt from duty. 

Mineral waters. 

Live animals, with the exception of leeches. 

Iron boiler plates, bottoms or boilers, gratings, rollers and apparatus for 
crushing cane, also axles and frames for the same, and native iron and scrap iron 
for resmelting. 

Ploughs and ploughshares, hoes, spades, sickles, billhooks and scythes, weeding 

♦The *o/«var equals 19.3 cents United States currency, and is divided into 100 centinies. For 
weights and measures Venezuela has adopted the metrical system. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. ^3^3 

cs, hatchets, shovels, picks, " tastes,^' and cutlasses, with or without wooden 
lies, and machetes for lopping, 
rticles imported by order of the Government. 

pparatus and machines for lighting with gas, and for its manufacture; also 
hing apparatus and apparatus for generating steam by means of petroleum 
lues. 

ishing hooks and barbed-iron wire for fences, or also hooks for fastening the 
e, netting as defined by ordinance of June 13, 1894. 
ire engines. 

)oal and carbons for electric light. 

Vood ashes and residues of pressed grapes, for fertilizers, 
loman cement. 

i^arriages, accessories, and materials intended exclusively for railroads. 
Personal effects of ministers and those of diplomatic agents of the Republic on 
ir return to Venezuela. 

Baggage, effects, and used furniture belonging to Venezuelans who have resided 
nt than two years in Europe or in the United States of America, and who 
: returning to Venezuela, provided, however, that they comply with the formal- 
es prescribed by Art. 178 of Law XVI of the Financial Code; also those of 
rcigners domiciled in the country. In order to enjoy this privilege, these latter 
list comply with the formalities to which Venezuelans are subject. 
Baggage brought by passengers, with the exception of those articles that have 
3t been used, and of furniture, which will pay according to the class to which 
slonging. The duty leviable on unused articles imported together with baggage 
lall be increased by 20 per cent. 

Geographical or astronomical globes, hydrographical or marine charts, maps 
^ ^^ kinds, and lithographed or printed topographical plans of mines. 
Rennet. 

^uano and ice imported into localities where no ice manufactories exist by 
'^"^ission of the Government, 

^^oks, printed, unbound or stitched, treating of science, art, and trade; cata- 

'^^s, newspapers, and writing copy books for primary schools. 

^Ood prepared for shipbuilding, logs of pine, pitch pine for masts and squared 

^s exceeding 25 centimeters, oak, or other common wood; intended to be 

*^^ into planks, beams, or into any other form, 

"minting presses and typographical accessories, such as type, lines, prepared 

^^^ing ink, and white printing paper, neither sized nor gummed, also paper 

'^^c for manufacturing stereotype plates and alloy of lead and alluminium 

^P^'ed for stereotype printing. 

Machmery for use in agriculture, mines, weaving, saw mills, foundries, not 
^Hcrwise mentioned ; also those intended for the arts or trade, when the manu- 
'ftorer imports them himself, and after having justified the use he intends to 
•sie of them and having obtained previous permission from the Government. 

Telegraph machineiy and apparatus, with previous permission from the 
overnment. 



1304 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Steam engines of all kinds, and windmills with all their accessories, on pre- 
vious permission from the Government. 

Samples of tissues, in small strips, in quantities not exceeding 25 kilogrammes in 
weight, and of wall paper not exceeding 50 centimetres in length; or of all other 
articles whenever they are imported in such dimension and in such condition as 
to be unsalable. 

Works of art of a monumental character, on previous permission from the 
Government. 

Platinum, gold, and silver, unwrought, and legal gold coin. 

Living plants of all kinds; herbariums or collections of dry plants, other than 
medicinal; seeds for sowing, whenever the competent authority will have ascer- 
tained its destination, and potatoes fit for planting. 

Products of Colombia imported across the frontier of that country, provided 
reciprocity exists. 

Bridges, with their chains, floors, and other accessories, intended for public use 
or agricultural purposes; otherwise they pay duty on the materials of which 
composed. 

Clocks for public use, when imported by the Federal Government. 

Springs, axletrees, rims, and boards for carts and carriages to be constructed 
in the country. 

Should receptacles in which duty-free articles are imported, such as trunks, 
bags, boxes, or stuff coverings, not having lost their ordinary value, they will 
be weighed separately and pay the duty applicable to their respective class. 

§ 2. — Class II. 

Duty — 10 centimes of the bolivar. 

Sulphuric acid, and liquefied carbonic acid. 

Bran, oil-cake of bran and linseed residues, for cattle fodder. 

Galvanized iron wire, not worked. 

Almagra, chalk, ochre, Spanish white, clay, caput mortuum, and all earths for 
building purposes. 

Mineral or vegetable tar, asphalt, raw petroleum and bitumens of all kinds, 
excepting shoe blacking. 

Hoops of iron or wood for casks, barrels, and sieves. 

Rice in the grain. 

Oats. 

Iron bars (see tools). 

Common bottles, of ordinary black or white glass, for bottling liqueurs ; and 
empty demijohns and square bottles of similar glass, generally used for importing 
Hollaifds. 

Hydraulic pumps, with their pipes, valves, and other accessories. 

Boats and lighters, whole or in detached pieces, and the oars, sails, and anchors 
for the same. 

Rosin, yellow or black. 

Hydraulic lime, common lime, and all other similar materials for building pur- 
poses not elsewhere mentioned. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. ^3^5 

;s and wastes of skins and dried sheep intestines, for pork butchers. 

or tow, raw or twisted, for calking ; tarred tow and cotton wastes for 
machines. 

lets or pipes of iron or lead, 
oard in the paste, 
proof cardboard for roofing and other purposes. 

wagons, and wheelbarrows, 

in the grain, 
id wheat in the grain. 

es, chaises, gigs, omnibuses, phaetons, and all kinds of vehicles not other- 
itioned. 

)f oak and other trees, used in tanning. 

of barley, chick-peas, Du Barry's Revalenta, and any flour not other- 
itioned. 

ported into ports where ice factories are established with permission of 
ernment. 

n bars, round or square, in plates, sheets, or any other form, not worked. 
>ricks. 

, slabs, and tiles of baked clay, marble, jasper, wood, or any other mate- 
)avements not exceeding 60 centimetres ; tiles of baked clay, slates, and 

of common unwrought stone, 
ood and charcoal in pieces. 

ion wood, such as planks, beams, and joists of pine, pitch pine, and other 
either planed, tongued, nor grooved, less than 25 centimeters in thick- 
1 pine wood not specified. 

in the grain. 
s, grapes, pears, and all other fresh fruit, including cocoanuts, even 

nery reservoirs of galvanized iron and apparatus not mentioned in 

the total weight of which exceeds 1,000 kilogrammes, also ice boxes. 

, manuscript. 

►c. 

and dried fodder, such as hay and other similar fodder for animals, 

exception of medicinal herbs. 

common, white, black, or yellow. 

)od, guaiacum, Brazil wood, mulberry wood, sandal wood, rose and 

^oods, in shavings. 

:tte paper. 

;, even silent, for practice, without accessories. 

, with or without frames, slate books and pencils, slates for .billiard 

esin. 

Is for carriages, carts, and wagons, iron axle boxes for the same, and 

eels fitted on steel axles. 

1 salts. 

er's salts and silicate of soda. 



1306 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Sienna and black earths for cleaning purposes. 

J'ombstones of marble, granite, or any other material, unless the competent 
authorities consider the same of a monumental character. 
Wooden laths for roofing (" teja-mani**). 

Chalk, white, in sticks or powder, and marble and glass powder. 
Gypsum, in pieces or in powder, and gypsum for casting. 

§ 3. — Class III. 

Duty — 25 centimes of the bolivar. 

Alimentary oils. 

Colza oil and all other oils for lighting purposes, not otherwise mentioned, 
and bone oil and so-called " esperma de cristal*' oil, for machines. 

Stearic and oleic acids; stearine pure, unworked, and stearine mixed with 
paraffin, known as trade stearine. 

Acetic, hydrochloric, or muriatic acids. 

Nitric acid or aqua fortis. 

Kerosene oil. 

Steel, bronze, brass, copper, tin, pure or alloyed, lead and zinc, in lumps or 
rough, in bars, cubes, parings, or in perforated or cut-out sheets. 

Water of orange flowers, lemonades, and gaseous waters. 

Spirits of turpentine. 

Knitting needles of steel, wood, bone, caoutchouc, or other similar materials. 

Cotton. 

Spike lavender. 

Alum, not calcined, in lumps. 

English yellow or chromate of lead, minium, litharge, mineral mangan*^* 
white lead, or carbonate of lead; asbestine. 

Stuffed animals. 

Advertisements in the form of almanacs relating to medicinal or other ii* ^^ 
trial products. 

Filters and apparatus for filtering water. 

Harness and horse collars for use in connection with all kinds of carri 



calashes, coupes, omnibuses, and phaetons, and for all kinds of cars, wa^^^ ' 
and carts. 

Ground rice, sago, salep, tapioca, and crushed maize. 

Sugar, crude or not refined. 

Sulphur, flowers or paste of. 

Scales, Roman balances, dynamometers, other than those of copper or i^'"^^ 
copper predominates ; sporting shot and bullets. 

Excelsior {*' barha de palo**) and similar vegetable fibres for spartcrie. 

Barrels, pipes, and hogsheads, put together or not, and staves imported 
separately. 

Wimbles and augers for perforating stones and beams. 

Pottery, glazed or not, in any form, not otherwise mentioned. 

Zinc white and white bole. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. I307 

Canes, reeds, rushes, palm, straw, not otherwise mentioned, and osier not 
worked, " la ^spiga de trebol/* for the manufacture of brooms. 
Lees of oil. 

Cables, rigging, and cordage. 

Bowls for tobacco pipes, cigar holders, and pipes, and common clay and 
fiiience tobacco pipes, not combined with any other materiaL 
Cannon of all kinds. 

Beans of all kinds, chick-peas, lentils, Spanish beans, and all kinds of pulse, 
garden produce, and alimentary roots, unprepared. 

Cloth, unbleached and coarse, cloth called "coUta,*' unbleached. No. 3; 
common packing cloth, generally employed for cocoa and coffee sacks and for 
packing, the color of which, naturally dark, has not been changed by a prepa- 
ration intended to bleach them, even when with colored stripes and checks. 
Charcoal in powder, animal charcoal, and lampblack. 

Meat, salted in brine, or smoked hams and shoulders, not in boxes ; bacon 
and tongues, smoked or salted, with the exception of jerked meat {^'lasajo "), the 
importation of which is prohibited. 

Packing cloth lined with paper ; fine pasteboard or thick oiEce paper for visit- 
ing cards and other purposes, including waterproof paper for presses. 
Onions. 

Sieves of iron wire. 

Hair grass and similar vegetable fibres. 
Wax for shoemakers. 
Beer and cider. 

Chloride of lime, creoline, and disinfectants, liquid or in powder, not other- 
wise mentioned. 
Copper, old and scrap. 
Portable kitchens of iron or other metals. 

Hearses, including the lanterns {"vidrtos"), feathers, plumes, and all other 
accessories thereto, even when they are subject separately to higher duties, pro- 
vided they be imported together with the hearses in the same or in another 
package. 

Chalk, white or red, in lumps or in powder. 
Crucibles of all kinds. 

Preserves in vinegar other than olives and capers. 
Juniper berries. 

Emery in lumps or in powder. 
Esparto, raw. 

Fuses and quick matches for miners. 
Copper scupper nails. 

Fountains or basins of iron, marble or any other material, and statues, busts, 
v^scs and urns of marble, alabaster, granite, or other similar stones. 
Sago flour. 

Biscuits of all kinds without confections. 
Fluid gas (••^fljyZfiWo"). 
Gum arable. 



1308 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Wheat flour and semolina prepared for making pastes. 

Tools and instruments, such as hammers, sledge hammers, hatchets, capstans, 
forges, bellows of all kinds, cranes, " molejones," large screws for blacksmiths, 
bickerns, anvils, and other similar tools and instruments. 

Manufactures of iron: Wire, excepting galvanized wire, unwrought; wire 
gauze for mattresses ; anchors and chains for vessels ; safes, mortars, furniture, 
copying presses, and machines for stamping paper; nails, tacks, hobnails, rivets, 
and scupper nails ; buildings, not erected, or separate parts thereof, such as bal- 
conies, doors, balustrades, gratings, columns, roofs, even when imported sepa- 
rately; statues, urns, flowerpots, busts, and all other similar ornaments for 
houses and gardens ; weights for scales, flatirons, posts for fences ; stoves, 
boilers (" budares"), kettles, broilers, pots, frying pans, and other household 
utensils, tinned or not, enameled or not, with the exception of similar articles 
of sheet iron and tin plate, which pay duty according to Class IV. Galvanized 
iron nails and washers are also included in this class. Tin plate, unmanufactured. 

Bones, horns and hoofs, raw. 

Cotton Holland cloth, blue. 

Toys of all kinds and of whatever material, including "Tn^tras." 

Books, printed, unbound or stitched, not comprised in Class I, pamphlets, 
copy books and books intended for primary instruction, imported simply stitched 
or half-bound (" medio pasta "). 

Emery, on paper or linen. 

Linseed or linseed meal and colza seed. 

Flax, raw. 

Earthenware, common and taience, glazed or not, in articles of all forms, not 
otherwise mentioned. 

Walnut wood. 

Wood, fine, for musical instruments, furniture, etc 

Wood, in sheets and laths, for veneering. 

Wood, sawn, planed or dovetailed. 

Lard, except mixed greases known as oleomargarine and butter.* 

Machines, reservoirs of galvanized iron, and apparatus not otherwise :^^ 
tioned, and not exceeding 1,000 kilogrammes in weight. When machine^ 
imported with extra pieces which, taken separately, are subject to a higher c:^*^ ^' 
the whole will be dutiable as machines when such pieces arrive in the ^ 
package. 

Mills of all kinds not comprised in Class L 

Ore of iron, copper, and tin ; black lead and asbestos. 

Potatoes not otherwise mentioned. 

Paper of all kinds not otherwise mentioned, and serpentines or paper ribt'*'^^* 

Fish, pressed, salted, or smoked, not in tins. 

Lithographic stones, pumice stone, stones of all kinds and of all fonos W' 
grinding or whetting, fireproof stones for blast furnaces, filtering, and oth^^ 
similar stones. 

^CoUolene is classed in this number under the name of *'' oUomargarine coUoUmJ* {"Gatt^ 
ofia'ai,'* No. 6741, of June 19, i8g6.) 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



1309 



Colours, common, prepared in oil. 

Potash, common or calcined. 

Saltpetre and salt of nitre. 

Leeches. 

Sardines, pressed in oil, with tomatoes, or prepared in any other manner. 

Tallow, prepared for the manufacture of stcarine candles or stearine. 

Soda, common or calcined. 

Carbonate of soda, crystallized. 

Sulphate of iron or green copperas. 

Sulphate of copper or bluestone. 

Tissue or gauze of iron wire, not otherwise mentioned. 

Turpentine, common, of Venice. 

Poison for preserving skins. 

Glass and crystals, smooth, not silvered. 

Vinegar, common and empyreumatic, and brandy from the residues of pressed 
;Tapes. 

Wines of all kinds in pipes, casks, or ba!;rels, and red wines, the product of 
any country, imported in casks, barrels, bottles, demijohns, or other recipients. 
When port wine, even red, is imported in bottles or demijohns, it shall be 
dutiable according to Class IV. 

Coffee winnowers (" venteadores "). 

Sumac, powdered or not. 

[To be continued in Bulletin for March.] 



GOLD PRODUCTION. 

The production of gold in the several republics on the Ameri- 
^^ continent for the years 1896 and 1897 '^ shown in the table 
^'^w, taken from the Engineering and Mining Journal of Janu- 
y 1, 1898: 





1896. 


1897. 


Countries. 


Fine 
ounces. 


Kilo- 
grams. 


Value. 


Fine 
ounces. 


Kilo- 
grams. 


Value. 


^^ited States 

Jexico 


2, 558. 433 

293, 892 

24, 127 

4,500 

3.300 

120,000 

33,866 

174, 189 

3,800 

5.948 
6,880 

39» 384 


79. 576 
9,141 

750 
140 
103 

3.732 

1,050 

5,418 

118 

185 

213 

1,225 


$52, 886, 209 
6, 075, 108 

498, 450 

93, 015 

68, 211 

2, 480, 400 

697, 830 

3, 100, 500 

78. ^46 
122, 945 
144,600 
814,067 


2,685,000 
328, 969 

25. 399 

4.838 

3.628 

120, 950 

33. 866 

188,682 

3.870 

7.256 

7,256 

41.123 


83. 512 
10, 232 

7^ 
150 
113 

3.750 

1,050 

5,870 

120 

226 

226 

1,275 


$55,498,950 
6, 800, 000 


-^^Iral America . . . 

jrgcmina 

goiivia 


525.000 

100,000 

75,000 


Brazil 


2, 500, 000 


Chile 


700, 000 


Colombia 


3, 900,000 
80,000 


^uador 


Peru 


150,000 


S^guay., 

''fneiaela* 


150,000 
850,000 



BuU. No. 8' 



1310 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

The marked increase in the gold production of Mexico can be 
accounted for by the development of the mining interests of that 
country, which are, and have been for the past years, steadily 
advancing. 

Of the Central American States, Nicaragua is the only one 
whose statistics are precise and authentic. The shipments of gold 
from Bluefields during the year ended June 30, 1897, were 
$169,565, which was an increase of $31,636 over the previous 
year. 

The figures given for the South American countries for 1897, 
except Colombia, are estimates based on the most recent and 
reliable data obtainable from the respective countries. Those 
given for Colombia are official. 

Note. — The estimate of the production of gold in British Guiana for the 
years 1896 and 1897, respectively, quoted in the Journal above referred to arc 
as follows: $2,558,099 and $2,583,965. It should be borne in mind that these 
mines are claimed equally by Venezuela, and this production should be equally 
credited to that country. 



INTEROCEANIC RAILWAY. 

The question is again being agitated in South America of a 
closer union of the commercial and political relations of the dif- 
ferent republics by means, primarily, of more rapid intercom- 
munication for the exchange of the productions of these countries, 
diminishing at the same time the distance, the dangers, and the 
expense of the long navigation by way of Magellan Strait, and 
the tempestuous waters of Cape Horn. 

Everyone recognizes, especially in Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, and 
Chile, the great necessity for the construction of a South Ameri- 
can interoceanic railway, which, starting from one of the ports of 
Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, for example, piercing the Cordillera 
of the Andes by means of a tunnel, would place the ancient 
Empire of the Braganzas and Europe in direct communication 
with the four republics of the Pacific Coast, so rich in natural 
productions. 

The technical part of the work, involving the survey of routes, 
etc., has already been studied, and the plans submitted. The great 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



1311 



3stacle which has hitherto stood in the way of the realization of 
le undertaking has been the lack of capital. It appears, however, 
lat the question has now entered upon a new practical phase, and 
lat an understanding has been arrived at between the represent- 
:ives of the four republics immediately interested, who have 
pproved the project looking to a guaranty of the interest on the 
apital to be invested in the vast undertaking. It may, however, 
►e stated that Ecuador has not yet become a party to the conven- 
iens which have been negotiated. 

It is said that in Brazil the current of opinion favorable to the 
enterprise is very strong and that the scheme excites much 
enthusiasm. Recently a meeting was held at the Engineers' 
Club in Rio, in which Dr. Oliveira Bulhoes was the moving 
spirit, and which was attended by many capitalists and men prom- 
inent in public life. The Bolivian and Chilean Governments 
were represented by Senor Palavicino and Dr. Errazuri, their 
respective ministers in Brazil. At the meeting the many causes 
which paralyze the intercommerce of the South American nations 
were fully discussed, as well as the great natural wealth lying 
dormant, awaiting only the touch of enterprise and energy, which 
will necessitate the carrying out of this great international under- 
taking. 

Roughly stated, the length of a transcontinental line from Rio 
to an available port on the Pacific coast would not exceed 2,600 
•^jlometers. Upon the authority of the persons who are moving 
^^ the matter, it is stated that the capital required to begin the 
Preliminary work has been tendered and that the inauguration of 
the work only awaits the cooperation of Ecuador, with the other 
republics. 



SPECIAL ENGLISH MISSION TO SOUTH 

AMERICA. 

The "South American Joumal" of January 8, referring to the 
^eps that are being taken by the English government to retain 
^ts present trade with South America and to further extend it, con- 
^ins the following : 

'*Wc learn that the government has appointed Mr. Worth- 



1312 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS, 

INGTON, of Manchester, to proceed on a special mission to Soi 
America, with the object of inquiring into the conditions of 1 
local markets for the information of the Board of Trade, wh' 
has now under consideration the desirability of establishing 
Bureau of Commercial Intelligence. Mr. Worthington will 
accompanied by Sir Vincent Barrington, who will go out 
behalf of the Associated Chambers of Commerce, and both Co 
missicners are expected to leave this country for South Ameri 
at the end of the current month. 

The Daily Mail, in making this announcement, observes : 

The preliminaries of the scheme, the first announcement of which was 
recently made by Sir Courtney Boyle, at Nottingham, continue to make steady 
progress. Not only has a considerable amount of expert evidence been taken 
from a number of chambers of commerce, but a quantity of information of no 
little value has already been colle(;^ed. This information, however, does not 
yet suffice to indicate what will be the final character of the proposed scheme. 
That, it is suggested, can be ascertained only when the members of the depart- 
ment committee, appointed to consider the proposal, present their report to the 
President of the Board of Trade who will then submit it, accompanied by his 
own recommendation, to the Cabinet, with whom the ultimate decision will rest. 



CODE OF COMMERCIAL NOMENCLATURE. 

The Treasury Department of the United States has issued the 
following circular adopting the " Code of Commercial Nomen- 
clature," compiled and published by the Bureau of American 
Republics, as the standard for use in the various custom-houses : 

[Department Circular No. 16. Division of Customs.] 

Treasury Department, Office of the Secretary, 

Washington, D, C, January 22, 18^8, 

To the collectors and other officers of the customs : 

Under a resolution of the International American Conference, which rec- 
ommends to the governments represented therein the adoption of a common 
nomenclature, which shall designate in alphabetical order, in equivalent terms in 
English, Portuguese, and Spanish, the commodities on which import duties arc 
levied, to be used respectively by all the American nations for the purpose of 
levying customs imposts which are or may hereafter be established, and also to 
be used in shipping manifests, consular invoices, entries, clearance petitions, and 
other customs documents, the BurCfiu of American Republics has issued a pub- 
lication, in three volumes, entitled "Code of Commercial Nomenclature," which 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. ^S^S 

> 28,000 commercial terms, arranged in such form as to insure conven- 
' reference in any one of the English, Portuguese, and Spanish languages, 
publication is hereby accepted as a proper reference book for the trans- 
f commercial words and phrases for the use of this Department and of 
rs of customs and appraisers of merchandise. Any errors or inaccura- 
nd therein should be reported to the Department. 

W. B. Howell, 

Assistant Secretary, 



TRADE MISCELLANY. 

ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 

ctionof Amorican ^ representative of a large firm of coal dealers in Phila- 

°°**' delphia is now in Buenos Ay res with the view of placing 

rahontas coal on the market of that city. This coal has been used for 

ne in Central America and the West Indies and has given very satisfac- 

iults. The coal trade between the United States and the Argentine 

c is very small and is capable of great development, provided proper 

m is given to the matter gind effort made to advance it. The total value 

oal shipped to South American countries in the fiscal year ended June 30, 

ggregated only $145,000. The vast coal fields of Virginia, having an 

le port to the world at Norfolk, should be brought into immediate inter- 

ivith the countries of the West Indies and Central and South America. 

The wheat harvest in the Argentine Republic, which 
arveit in Santa F«. . u • • 11 

has been in progress tor the past month, is now practically 

Advices received from the Department of Sante F6, the center of the 

growing district of the Republic, report the crop the largest known for 

ears. The yield is stated to be not only exceptional in quantity, but 

lity of the grain in weight and color is excellent. 

I of Electric Ap- Complaint is made by importers in Buenos Ayres of 

paratns. ^j^^ condition in which the electric apparatus shipped to 

rrivcs, owing to the injudicious manner of packing. An instance is 
Fan American firm having sent a large number of globe lamps to that 

which upon arrival were found to have suffered a large per cent of 
;e. Simultaneous with this complaint the statement is made that similar 
nts from England had arrived in much better condition. The impor- 
f this suggestion would seem to be manifest to parties interested in this 
lar trade. 

BRAZIL. 



xnarine Oable. 



The Western and Brazilian cable, between Pernambuco 
and Ceari, and the Amazon cable, extending from the 
of the river to Manaos, which have been broken for some time past, 
:en repaired and messages are again transmitted regularly. 



1314 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

The exports of rubber from Para in October last 

Exports of Rnbbor. 

amounted to 2,074,644 kilograms, of which 1,061,573 
kilograms were shipped to Europe and 1,013,071 to the United States. 

aold Hffining in Minu The Sao Bento Gold Mining Company, which com- 

OerMs. menced its operations in the State of Minas Geraes one 

year ago, owns about 10,000 acres of land. The ore, which was estimated to run 
at an average of 10 pennyweights of gold to the ton, has developed much more 
richly than was anticipated, much of it running as high as 1 ounce 3 penny- 
weights. The ore is so friable as not to need stamps for working, it being 
pulverized by simply passing through rollers, and at once put into cyanide tanks. 
The capital of the company is $1,300,000 gold. 

The Jornal do Commcrcio is authority for the statc- 

Ooal Supply. .... . 

ment that the Brazilian Financial Company, in London, 
has contracted for the coal supply of the Central Railway for the next year. 
The price stipulated is $6.25 per ton delivered in the port of Rio de Janeiro. 
One-fourth of the supply may, under the contract, be delivered at Santos at an 
additional cost of 75 cents per ton. 

The South American Journal states that an Enelish 

Sale of Plantatioiu. / ° 

syndicate has been organized for the purpose of buying 
several coffee plantations in the Department of Sao Paulo, between Sarandy and 
Batataes. The gross price to be paid is 1 8,000,000 milreis. Another syndicate 
is reported to be organizing in London, with Dutch and American capital to 
twice that amount, for buying plantations in the west and north of Sao Paulo. 

CHILE. 
A company has been formed at Valparaiso to export 

Bzportatioii of Frozon Meatii. . . 

frozen meats from Punta Arenas, in the Strait of Magellan, 
to Europe. It is said that a trial will shortly be made with a shipment of 
20,000 mutton carcasses. 

GUATEMALA. 

Dutf on Electrical Appa- The Government of Guatemala has recently promul- 
rattw. gated a decree admitting electric batteries, uncharged, 

intended for public use, free of duty. Galvanized iron wire and insulated cop- 
per wire for electrical purposes, and electrical apparatus are subject to a duty 
on the basis of th«ir gross weight. Guatemala, like other countries, is intro- 
ducing in its principal cities the system of electric lighting. 

Onatoms Dntiea Payable in Official advices received from Guatemala state that, 
SiWer. dating from July 1, 1897, all import and export duties of 

the republic shall be paid in silver. 



MEXICO. 
A new industrial development is soon to be undertaken 

A Tin-Plate Factory. .x*--i- r-ir 1 

m Mexico m the inauguration or a tm-piate lactory, and 
application has been made to the Mexican Government for a suitable concession. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. ^3^S 

It is thought chat owing to the large trade in canned goods, notably fruits and 
vegetables, which the republic is developing, the proposed new industry will 
benefit it materially, and the action of the Government is awaited with interest. 

A concession has been obtained from the Mexican 

Blcjde and Rubber Factory. 

Government by an American manufacturer to construct 
and operate a bicycle and rubber factory in the City of Mexico. It is the inten- 
tion of the concessionnaire to utilize the excellent water power which he has 
secured to generate electric power and to compete with the manufacturers of the 
• United States in the trade in bicycles. Another important feature which is 
relied upon to make the venture successful is the cheapness of labor in Mexico. 
Opening of the Mesdco, Oner- An interesting and important event, as markine the 

naraca and Pacific Rail- * ... . 

way. internal development and progressive spirit of Mexico, 

was the formal opening in December last of the Mexico, Cuernavaca and 
Pacific Railway, which extends from the City of Mexico to Cuernavaca. The 
occasion was dignified by the presence of the President of the republic and his 
Cabinet ; also members of the diplomatic corps and other distinguished residents 
in the country. The distance between the present termini of the road is 75 miles, 
but the importance attached to the enterprise is in the fact that the line is pro- 
jected to Acapulco on the Pacific coast, and the construction to that port will be 
carried forward with the same energy that has marked the work up to the present 
time. 

Plana for KewLesiaiatiTe ^p to December 27, 1897, there had been received 
Building. f^j. examination twenty-nine sets of plans and specifica- 

tions for the new legislative palace to be built in the City of Mexico. Some of 
these were furnished by Mexicans and a few by Europeans, but the majority 
were the work of American architects. 
Electrical Machinery in ^^^ Syndicate Operating the street railways of Mexico 
Menco. j^ preparing to introduce electricity as the motive power. 

The company owns about 140 miles of road, and it is purposed to equip the 
entire line, including the connection from Guadalupe to San Angel, with the 
electric motor. It is estimated that the total cost of the new service will be 
about $5,000,000, and opportunities will be given all electrical manufacturers 
to bid on it. 

The growth of the cotton textile industry in Mexico 

Textile Indnatry. ° ' 

is attracting the attention of foreign countries. The 
ibllowing figures are given as significant evidence of this development and also 
of the increasing production of the raw material in the republic. In the first 
ten months of 1897 Great Britain exported to Mexico 34,301,600 yards of 
cotton fabric, compared with 42,164,200 yards in the corresponding period of 
1896. The imports from the United States for the first nine months of 1896 
and 1897 were 6,034,908 yards and 4,503,773 yards, respectively. For the 
same corresponding periods the imports of raw material from the United States 
fell off from 12,146,161 pounds to 5,129,429 pounds. It is stated on high 
aothority that three-fourths of the cotton used in Mexican mills is of home 
production and that every year there is a larger amount raised. Many new 
mills have been built within the last few years and several more are under con- 



1316 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

tract for construction in the vicinity of Puebla. The profits from the business 
are very satisfactory, amounting in some instances to 20 and 30 per cent on the 
capital invested. 

In the report submitted to Congress by Senor Jos^ Ives 

Budget for 1898-99. o j j 

LiMANTOUR for the budget of the fiscal year 1898-99 the 
estimate of expenses is placed at $52,089,000, the revenues at $52,109,000. In 
the division of revenues the customs receipts are estimated at $23,847,000, the 
interior taxes at $23,092,000. Other sources of revenue complete the antici- 
pated amount. 

Concession for a New ^ concession has recently been obtained from th.< 

Smelter. Mexican Government by parties residing in Kansas Cit-^ 

Mo., for the erection of a smelter in Villa del Carmen, in the State of Coahuil 
for the treatment of all kinds of ores. By the terms of the concession ^ 
smelter shall have a minimum capacity for treating 25 tons of ore per day. 
work of erecting the plant and all of its appurtenances shall commence wit 
two years dating from December 30, 1897, and must be completed, at thelat- 
within eight months from that date. The machinery and material required s" 
be free of import duty. 

Forfeiture of Railway Owing to the failure of the Mexican Southeastern R^ ^ 

Concession. j.^^^ Company to comply with the terms of its concess^ 

the contract has been declared forfeited by the Mexican Government. " J 
forfeiture is based upon the failure of the concessionnaires to fulfill the tcrn^L ^ 
article 2, in which it is stipulated that within a year from the promulgation otr^ 
concession (December 30, 1896) 100 kilometers of line from San Geronim «z: 
the frontier of Guatemala shall be finished. The forfeiture carries with it 
deposit of $50,000 made with the Government as earnest money for the carr ^ 
out of the contract. 

NICARAGUA. 
In the Bulletin for December reference was madcr 

National Railway. 

bill then before the Congress of Nicaragua to auth^:^ 

the sale of the National Railroad and the steamers on Lake Managua that r «-» 

connection with it. Under date of October 19, 1897, Mr. Paul Wie: s= 

United States Consul at Managua, advises the Department of State tha^ "^ 

bill has been enacted into a law, and that a commissioner appointed b '^r^ 

Government to sell or lease the road will first visit the United States. 

complete equipment of the road, according to Mr. Wiesike, will in vol v^^^ 

purchase of one hundred box cars, three engines, the reconstruction of o *^ 

the bridges, and repairs to the track, necessitating an outlay of not less 

$100,000. 

A correspondent writing in the Engineering and ^^ 
Qold SiKine. 

ing Journal states that a new mining camp has 

established in the District of Siguia, about 20 miles above Rama, and 80 ^^ 

above Bluefields, by water. This district, it is believed, will prove very ri^^ 

an assay of float-run made gives a yield of from $19.50 to $36 in gol^ 

from 6 to 10 ounces in silver per t^n. The mountain streams in the \oC* 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



»3i7 



the quartz is found furnish abundant water power. The parties owning 
id are putting in tunnels and preparing to develop their claims on an 
ed scale. 

PERU. 



id« with Lima. 



The lucifer matches used in Lima are all imported from 
Sweden, there being no factories for their manufacture in 

The importation of this article is very important. The system of 
g the city by electricity is beginning to be adopted, and it is thought that 
a comparatively short time it will supersede the present mode of lighting 

altogether, both for private and public use. Many of the other principal 
)f the republic are interested in this subject, and the opportunity for 
ran manufacturers of electrical apparatus is very favorable. The manu- 

of furniture has made such progress in the country that the importation 

article has become insignificant, and is confined entirely to the higher 



SALVADOR. 

Ion of the Dat7 on '^^^ import duty on bottled spirits entering Salvador 
Spirit*. j^^g^ through the efforts of United States Consul Jenkins 

icr representatives of foreign governments in that country, since the 21st 
ober, 1897, been reduced to $17.60 in gold and $21.10 in silver per 100 
ms, gross weight, when not exceeding 50° proof. Spirits in barrels not 
ing 50° remain unchanged from the former tariff. 



Ting Trade with 
atin-America. 



UNITED STATES. 

The following table, compiled from figures furnished 
by the Bureau of Statistics, shows the value of the carry- 
de between the United States and the various countries of Latin-America 
J month of November, and the proportion of same carried in American 
. According to the same authority, vessels flying the United States flag 
ccond among the nationalities engaged in this trade, the British leadifig, 
ed in order by American, Norwegian, and German vessels : 





Countries. 


Value of mer- 
chandise. 


^ American 
vessels. 


1 America 


$622, 678 

3. 156, 580 

1,008, 511 

270 

7. 543. 577 
416, 546 

659. 326 

"6,455 

176, 533 
310, 301 
800, 939 


$286, 378 

1,031,242 

148, 889 

270 

616, 402 

88, 531 
223, 587 
"6,455 





tina 


1 






bia ". 


or 


lay 




55. 584 


ay 


lela 


763. 8n 





1318 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

URUGUAY. 

In a report to the Department of State, made Decern- 

The Ooal Trade. 

ber 4, 1897, Consul Albert W. Swalm gives some inter- 
esting statistics regarding the coal trade in Uruguay. The bulk of coal con- 
sumed in Uruguay comes from Cardiff, with the United States as a competitor. 
Coals used on railways are free of import duty, but all others pay a tariff of 
60 cents per ton. The customs valuation of the coal business has reached 
$1,000,000, the retail price of the article ranging from $8 to $10 gold per 
ton, but in 1897 there was a marked falling off in comparison with the preced- 
ing year, both in the import and general trade. Mr. Swalm states that a repre- 
sentative of one of the largest coal-exporting companies of the Atlantic coast 
has recently been in Montevideo for the purpose of making arrangements to 
bring American coal into closer competition with the Welsh article, and he sees 
no reason why the venture should not be highly successful, provided the ship- 
ments from the United States are kept up to the standard of cleanliness set by 
the rival companies. Such has not been the case heretofore, and is largely 
responsible for the failure of American coals to dominate the market. 
Exports of Wool and Sheep- '^^^ exportation of wool from the port of Montevideo, 
■^"■* according to Mr. Swalm, consul at that port, from 

October 1 to November 30, 1897, was 6,705 bales, of an average weight of 
500 kilograms (1,102.3 pounds) each. Of this number 173 bales were dis- 
patched to the United States, other nations loading as follows: France, 3,105; 
Belgium, 883 ; and England, 997. The wool clip is reported as large and gen- 
erally of a better character than last year. From August 1 to November 30, 
1897, 7,729 bales of sheepskins were exported, of which France took the greater 
proportion. 

VENEZUELA. 

Inrtailation of Electric Tram- The concession which was granted in July, 1896, to 
way Syatem in Caracas, parties for installing an electric tramway system in the 
city of Caracas has been declared forfeited, owing to the failure of the conces- 
sionaire to comply with the terms. At present Caracas has a very imperfect 
street-railway service, and the lapse of the former grant opens a desirable oppor- 
tunity for" American capitalists interested in the promotion of such enterprises. 



BOLETlN MENSUAL 

DE LA 

OFICINA DE LAS REPOBLICAS AMERICANAS 

UNION INTERNACIONAL DE REPObLICAS AMERICANAS 

i^ouV. FEBRERO, 1898. N0.8. 



^ELACIONES COMERCIALES EN AMERICA.— 

VIII* 

RIQUEZAS INTERIORES DE MfiXICO. 

En los articulos anteriores de esta serie hemos tornado en con- 
^deracion, principalmente, el comercio extranjero de Mexico, la 
>>iiierica Central, las Antillas y la America del Sur. Vamos 
^ora a examinar las riquezas interiores de todos estos paises en 
-I orden en que los hemos mencionado, y el desarrollo que han 
ilcanzado como base para la expansion futura de su comercio 
exterior. 

El progreso que se ha hecho en Mexico durante la ultima 

dtcada, tanto en la industria como en la agricultura y en el 

^vimento de medios de transportacion, que son indispensables para 

H^e se pueda aprovechar la riqueza natural de un pais, ha sido 

''apido y positivo. Esto debe atribuirse, en primer lugar, al sis- 

^^nia de gobierno estable, regular y progresivo que ha existido en 

^sepais durante los periodos administrativos del Presidente DfAZ. 

t'Sindudable que Mexico debe una gran deuda de gratitud al 

sabio y habil estadista que, con la activa cooperacion de los 

^1 primero de esta serie de articulos fu6 publicado en el Bolet/n Mensual co- 
^wpondicnte al mes de julio de 1897. . 

1319 



1320 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

hombres mas inteligentes del pais, le ha dado una larga epoca de 
paz y fomentado su adelanto. Felizmente para Mexico, el Presi- 
dente DfAZ ha sido ayudado en- su obra por condiciones econo- 
micas, debidas en parte a medidas legislativas que han tendido 
al establecimiento de industrias peculiares al pais y a estimular 
las empresas y el espiritu de progreso. 

Mexico es muy rico en un gran numero de productos que el 
mundo necesita y que hasta el dia no han sido producidos en sufi- 
ciente cantidad para atestar los mercados. En su trafico de expo- 
tacion, Mexico no depende de aquellos productos principales, 
tales como trigo, algodon, lana, azucar y carnes, cuya produccion 
es tan enorme en las zonas templadas, que, fuera de las cpocas de 
inesperada escasez, ya no es posible realizar con ellos pingiies 
ganancias. Una corriente de riqueza esta entrando en aquel pais 
con la produccion de metales preciosos y de otros minerales de 
constante demanda, y con el cafe, lasfibras, el tabaco, la vainilla y 
las frutas, que todavia se venden a precios relativamente altos en los 
mercados del mundo. En 1897 Mexico exporto por valor de 
$42,000,000 en minerales. En los primeros nueve meses de 1897 
vendio en el exterior por valor de $4,574,252 en cafe, contra 
$3'333'3^5 durante el mismo periodo en 1896. La exportacion 
de henequen a los Estados Unidos solamente, durante los nueve 
meses, aumento en mucho mas de medio million de pesos, y la 
exportacion total asciende a cerca de $8,000,000 anualmente. La 
exportacion de naranjas se ha desarrollado notablemente, debido al 
hecho de haberse averiguado que con las naranjas mexicanas se 
pueden suplir los mercados americanos cuando la cosecha en los 
Estados Unidos no es suficiente. Aun en los afios en que aquella. 

es abundante en este pais, la produccion de Mexico no afectsk 

seriamente a las cosechas de California y Florida, por la diferenci^^B 
de la epoca en que la fruta madura y es enviada al mercado. L ^= 
vainilla lleva a Mexico un millon 6 mas de pesos al ano. L:=^ 
exportacion de tabaco le produce proximamente dos millones d -^ 
pesos, y su calidad se acerca tanto a la mejor clase del articul -^ 
cubano, que el desarroUo de esta industria es un hecho aseguradt 
En animales vivos, cueros y pieles se exporta anualmente 



valor de cerca de $3,000,000. Los bosques de Mexico son mimjy 
ricos en maderas de construccion, palos de tinte, plantas medicinal* 
y de otras clases. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 1 32 1 

La exportacion de maderas de ebanisteria y de palos de tinte 
cs por valor de $2,000,000 a $3,000,000 anualmente, y la abun- 
dancia de estos productos es tal que su explotacion puede aumen- 
tar indefinitivamente. 

Por una distancia de cerca de 1,200 millas, desde el Estado de 

Sonera al de Oaxaca, se extiende, del noroeste al sudeste, una faja 

metalitera extraordinariamente rica, que ofrece vasto campo a las 

cmpresas mineras. En esta region se encuentran, en mas 6 menos 

abundancia, ore, plata, azogue, hierro, carbon de piedra, minerales 

suaves de plomo, asfalto, asbesto, petroleo, sal, cobre, piedras pre- 

ciosas, onix y gran variedad de hermosisimos marmoles. En un 

informe publicado en agosto de 1897, el Consul General de Ingla- 

terra en Mexico dice que se estan explotando muchas minas de 

oro nuevas en los Estados de Sonera, Oaxaca y Mexico, y que 

sc debe esperar un gran aumento en la produccion del precioso 

metal. El Estado de Chihuahua es tenido por una de las pri- 

meras regiones minerales del mundo. Los ferrocarriles que en la 

actualidad sc estan construyendo ofreceran pronto los medios 

necesarios de transportacion y esto dara por resultado un vasto 

desarroUo en las empresas mineras. Capital de los Estados Uni- 

dos se ha invertido ya en gran escala en las minas de Mexico y 

hay mucha demanda de maquinas americanas, asi como de todo 

aquello que pueda contribuir a economizar trabajo. Esta demanda 

aumentara a medida que se vayan explotando nuevas minas y que 

omen mayor incremento las empresas mineras en general. 

El uso de maquinaria y herramientas americanas aumentara, 
tambien con la expansion de los trabajos agricolas y el mejora- 
niiento en los metodos de cultivo, que necesariamente tienen que 
vcnir como resultado del lucrative trafico que se hace en el exte- 
nor con los numerosos productos de Mexico. Casi toda la meseta 
central de Mexico es muy fertil y tan productiva, que con los 
^^todos mas primitives de cultivo continua dando abundantes 
cosechas despues de habersela utilizado por siglos enteros. Cuando 
^'pueblo comprenda la economia de tiempo y trabajo que se obtiene 
con las maquinas y herramientas que han dado a los Estados Unidos 
^to renombre, y aprenda la manera de usar aquellas, la produc- 
cion de esta inmensa region aumentara de un modo enorme y se 
abrira un vasto mercado para uno de los principales productos de 
Ja industria americana. 



1322 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Mexico, mientras tanto, esta creando con actividad industrias 
nacionales, y no es de dudar que con el tiempo podra utilizar en 
algunas de sus manufacturas gran parte de las materias primas 
que produce. En un infbrme fechado el 26 de setiembre de 1896, 
y publicado en los Special Consular Reports con el titulo de 
''*' Money and Prices in Foreign Countries^'' dice el Ministro de 
los Estados Unidos, Mr. Ransom, que "las manufacturas se 
ban desarrollado en Mexico considerablemente, con especialidad 
las de generos ordinarios de algodon y de lana, telas blanquendas, 
generos para chales, indianas, calicos y pano, asi como las de 
los productos de la cana de azucar, las de alcohol, papel, cigarros 
y cigarrillos. Muchas personas bien informadas opinan que la baja 
de la plata ha sido el factor principal en el desarrollo de estas 
industrias. Esto es verdad hasta cierto punto, porque el descuento 
que la plata sufre ha ejercido alguna influencia en disminuir la 
importacion extranjera y en estimular la produccion interior. 
Hay, sin embargo, otras causas poderosas que ban obrado en el 
mismo sentido, tales como la sabia, justa y habil administracion 
del Presidente DfAz; la confianza que tanto el pueblo mexicano 
como los extranjeros tienen en la estabilidad del Gobierno; la 
construccion de ferrocarriles, de los cuales todos, menos el de 
Veracruz a la ciudad de Mexico, ban sido terminados de 1883 a 
esta fecha; el mejoramiento de los puertos; el desarrollo del tra- 
fico, y la conducta generosa del Gobierno respecto de las nuevas 
industrias; en una palabra, el imperio de la ley y de la paz, asi 
como la poderosa influencia del comercio, ban contribuido a este 
resultado. 

Sin exagerar, se puede decir que durante los iiltimos diez anos, 
ciudadanos de los Estados Unidos han invertido en minas, en 
empresas de ferrocarril, de tierras y de otras clases en Mexico, 
sumas que arrojan un total mayor que todo el dinero circu- 
lante en la Republica. Al tratar de este asunto, conviene no 
perder de visa el hecho muy significativo de que los derechos de 
introduccion sobre generos de algodon y de lana, papel, tabaco y 
productor alcoholicos, son muy elevados. Los derechos sobre los 
generos de algodon fiieron impuestos primitivamente en 1830 y con- 
tinuaron aumentando hasta 1887. Desde entonces han permane- 
cido casi estacionarios. Sobre muchas clases de generos de algodon 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. ^3^3 

y de lana dichos derechos son casi prohibitivos, y se puede afirmar 

con seguridad que los derechos sobre los mas orditiarios entre ellos 

ban side, por termino medio, durante los ultimos diez 6 quince 

afios, de 40, 75 y 85 por ciento. A proposito de este particular, 

envio adjunta copia de lo que dice un eminente escritor. Prosper 

Gloner, en la obra titulada "L^i Finances des Etats-Unis Mexicains 

idpres Documents Officieh^' publicada en 1895. Se expresa 

2^1: "La fabricacion de generos de algodon en Mexico debe 

principalmente su desarrollo a los aranceles de aduana, los cuales 

con la imposicion de altos derechos ban vuelto imposible la impor- 

tacion de telas ordinarias de algodon. Un derecho de 5 por ciento 

file impuesto por primera vez en 1830 y este fue en aumento 

hasta 1887." 

El Consul General de los Estados Unidos, Mr. Crittenden, 

en un informe que dirigio de la ciudad de Mexico con fecha 7 de 

setiembre de 1896, y que fue publicado en el tomo primero de 

las '''Commercial Relations of the United States^'' i8g^-g6^ dice 

que"desde que el tipo del cambio ha variado tanto y de una 

manera tan desfavorable entre Mexico y los paises extrangeros y 

se han impuesto derechos proteccionistas sobre casi todas los arti- 

culos que se consumen en Mexico, muchos que hasta hoy se im- 

portaban, tales como frazadas, alfAnbras, panos de todas clases 

para hombres, indianas, ropa interior de todos clases, sombreros, 

calzado y otros efectos, se fabrican en la Republica de Mexico. 

Este pueblo ha sabido aprovechar con inteligencia y actividad las 

circunstaqcias adversas que se han presentado, y con maravillosa 

rapidez, tratandose de un pais como Mexico, se han establecido 

grandes y pequenas fabricas para casi todo genero de articulos, 

naciendo uso de maquinaria moderna que puede compararse 

fevoiablemente con la que otros pueblos emplean. Algunas de 

1^ telas hechas en Mexico son excelentes en cuanto a la trama y 

urdimbre, siendo ademas perfectamente acabadas. Las usan en la 

actualidad mucho mas que en tiempo pasado. Una de las grandes 

^^ntajas con que cuentan los fabricantes en Mexico es lo barato 

del trabajo y la facilidad de emplear el agua como fuerza motriz, 

pues se la encuentra en todas partes, y a menudo en las inmedia- 

ciones de los ferrocarriles que pasan por diversos puntos de la Re- 

Publica. Los trabajadores inexpertos estan bajo la direccion de 



1326 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

cipales bahias de Mexico, y el Gobierno ha dedicado a esto 
especial atencion. En los dos puertos importantes del golfo, 
Tampico y Veracruz, se ban Uevado a cabo grandes trabajos 
con el fin de que los navios encuentren alii un anclaje seguro. 
En Salina Cruz y en Coatzacoalco, que son los puertos termi- 
nales del istmo de Tehuantepec en el Pacifico y en el Golfo, obras 
semejantes estan en via de construccion, y es indudablc que 
a medida que el comercio y la industria se desarrollen en Mexico, 
los puntos mas importantes del litoral, tanto oriental como occiden- 
tal, estaran provistos de todas las facilidades modernas para un 
trafico maritimo. 

Ademas de los ferrocarriles, Mexico cuenta con medios de 
transporte en sus rios y lagos que pueden desarroUarse mucho, 
aunque las condiciones topograficas y climatologicas del pais son 
tales, que es impracticable por largas distancias la navegacion no 
interrumpida de los rios durante todo el ano. El Consul General 
de los Estados Unidos, Mr. Crittenden, en un informe publicado 
en los Special Consular Reports de 1895, con el titulo de ^^H/gh- 
ways of Commerce^' dice a este respecto lo siguiente : " La con- 
figuracion del pais y el caracter de las estaciones hecen imposible 
la existencia de grandes rios navegables. Es solamente al nivel 
' de la costa que unos pocos rios se prestan al trafico por medio de 
embarcaciones menores, y no son navegables por mas de 125 
millas los que desaguan en el Golfo, ni por mas de 62 los que 
Uevan sus aguas al Pacifico. 

Los numerosos picos, cuyas alturas varian de io,cxx5 a 17,000 
pies sobre el nivel de mar, estan apenas cubiertos de nieve, y la 
cantidad que de esta cae no es suficiente para producir grandes 
corrientes de agua. En las mesetas centrales hay unos pocos lagos 
que los indios utilizan, hasta cierto punto, para el trafico que hacen 
por medio de pequenas canoas toscamente construidas. Debido a 
la topografia, no es posible construir canales, except© en la costa 
del Golfo y en las planicies de los Estados centrales y de la frontera 
del norte ; pero el mayor obstaculo a la navegacion interior es el 
hecho de que en ciertas epocas del ano, principalmente en la esta- 
cion seca, ya sea por la evaporacion natural 6 por el poco cuidado 
en el uso del agua para regar las tierras, el volumen de los rios 
se reduce de tal modo, que no pueden flot^r en ellos ni las embar- 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. ^3^7 

caciones mas pequenas. Tarde 6 temprano se pondra coto a este 

excesivo gasto de agua, porque las autoridades tienen cuidado de 

proteger y conservar todos los elementos que contribuyen al pro- 

greso de Mexico. Esta felta de medios de navegacion podria en 

cierto mode salvarse haciendo canales por donde corriera el agua 

que existe en depositos naturales en varias partes de la Republica, 

Uevandola asi, a intervalos, en ciertas estaciones del ano, a los rios 

y canales navegibles a fin de mantener en ellos constantemente la 

profundidad necesaria. 

El Gobiemo de Mexico ha demostrado ya que sabe apreciar el 
valor de empresas de ese genero, celebrando contratos para la cons- 
tniccion de canales importantes, incluyendo el de Chijol, de 250 
millas de largo, entre Tampico y Tuxpan, y la canalizacion del rio 
Tempoal que desagua en el Panaco, cerca de Tampico. Hay 
muchos otros rios que pueden utilizarse haciendo en ellos trabajos 
de mayor 6 menor magnitud, y cuando Mexico tenga un sistema 
fluvial eficiente, las condiciones del comercio interior mejoraran 
notablemente. " Los esfuerzos del Presidente Df az y su generosi- 
dad con las empresas de ferrocarril y las lineas de vapores," dice 
el Consul General Crittenden, "han sido los principales factores 
en el establecimiento de medios de comunicaion en toda la Repu- 
blica, realizando el asi loque ninguno de su predecesores pudo hacer 
jamas, esto es, convertir a este pais en uno de los mas prosperos de 
la America espanola. Puede tenerse por cierto que la misma 
poHtica se seguira tratandose de los rios y caminos con los mismos 
benefices resultados. 

El dasarroUo intemo de Mexico y el incremento que han to- 
niado sus industrias y su trafico tienen especial importancia para 
t\ pueblo de los Estados Unidos, no solamente porque contribuyen 
al aumento general del comercio, sino porque ayudan a crear las 
mcjores condiciones para la inversion del capital americano, para 
d espiritu de empresa y el trabajo de este pais, asi como para el 
consume de maquinaria, herramientas, ferreteria, y otras manufac- 
turas en que los Estados Unidos sobresalen. En las empresas de 
fenocarril y de minas de Mexico hay ya invertido mucho capital 
americano, y es de esperarse que la agricultura y la industria atrae- 
ran la riqueza y la inteligencia que no encuentren ocupacion en 
la gran Republica del norte. Felizmente, los articulos que cada 



1328 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

j:ais ofrece en cambio por los del otro son, con pocas excepiones, 
de tal naturaleza que no pueden entrar en competencia con los 
productos de la industria nacional, y a medida que las riquezas dc 
Mexico se desarrollen, los lazos comerciales que unen a los dos 
paises seran mayores y mas fuertes para provecho de ambos. 



^^v^^-yC/^ 6o2-r^>wj^^ 



REPUBLICA ARGENTINA. 

INFORME SOBRE INMIGRACION. 

Los siguientes datos relativos a la inmigracion en la Republica 
Argentina son tornados de un informe oficial en fecha reciente. 

No se conoce con exactitud el area de la Republica, pero se 
calcula en 1,172,000 millas cuadfadas. La poblacion total, segun 
el censo de 1895, es proximamente de 4,000,000 de habitante^ 
6 sea 1.33 por kilometro (341 millas cuadradas). Tomandc^ 
por base la densidad de poblacion en Francia (73 por kilometr^:^ 
cuadrado), encontramos que el pais es capaz de oontener mas 4^ 
200,000,000 de habitantes. A pesar de los rapidos e intens^:>s 
cambios climatologicos, el pais es saludable en alto grado y 
adaptable a los habitantes de las zonas templadas. La mortaliAsd 
del pais esta limitada en gran parte a los ninos, a causa de la 
falta de conocimiento de los padres respecto a los principios de 
la higiene. 

Lo agradable del clima, la fertilidad del terreno, las facilidades 
para la construccion de ferrocariles por razon de la topografia <lel 
pais, el numero de rios que lo atraviesan y la extension d^ 1^ 
costas, son causas suficientes a atraer una numerosa y buena inmi- 
gracion. En las legitimas esferas del trabajo hay espacio para, un 
aumento de poblacion de 90,000 a 100,000 por ano. Lo ^"^ 
importa es que el inmigrante traiga algiin conocimiento y al^"° 
capital, y que venga con el proposito de comprar algun terren^ ^ 
su Uegada, fabricar una casa, labrar la tierra y formar una femi ^'^ 
De esta clase de inmigrantes el pais pueda recibir un numero ilin^'" 
tado. En toda la Republica hay tierras que se pueden compta'' 
a muy bajo precio y que solo necesitan una ligera preparaci^n 
para el cultivo, la cria de ganado, etc. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



1329 



do caracteristico del inmigrante que hasta el presentc ha 
a este pais, establecerse en las ciudades mas populosas, en 
implear su fortuna con mayor provecho tomando tierras y 
3las producir. 

migracion de italianos en la Argentina ha sido hasta ahora 
y mas numerosa ; ellos son los unicos que se han exten- 
r todo el pais, utilizando las ventajas que este ofrece. 
iiguientes cuadros muestran cual ha sido la inmigracion 
los ultimos cuatro anos y medio, y expresan la nacionalidad 
ion de los inmigrantes de 1894-96. 



Alios. 



iramitad). 



Ndmero de in- 
migrantes que 
han Uegado 
en cada ado. 



52,097 

54, 720 

61, 266 

102, 673 

135. 734 





Ntimero. 


Nacionalidad. 


Primcra 

mitad de 

1897. 


1896. 


1895. 


1894. 


ricanos 


37 

5 

143 


79 
12 

290 

53 

963 

318 


46 

II 

316 


79 




{.,.... .......,,»,,,,., 


269 






1,003 
96 


549 
211 

I 

91 

329 

2 

"5 
36 


440 
248 








553 
264 

17 

47 

4 


58 

429 

3 

126 

61 

8 

3.480 

1,039 

3 
75.204 

212 
3 


128 




385 




■ 


99 

18 


s 








1,652 

436 

13 

23, 303 

25 

2 

I 

76 
18 

301 

7,198 

22 

162 

251 
105 


2,448 
1,067 

12 
41, 203 

27 

5 

I 

178 

6 

2,336 

11,288 

62 

465 

369 

52 


2,107 

971 

7 

37,699 

"7 










s 






5S 


212 
20 

575 
18,051 

52 

679 

724 

13 


200 




2 




3. 132 




8, 122 




42 




516 




. 122 


^•«**««« •••••»•••■••••••••■•• 


17 






tl 


35.734 


102, 673 
41. 447 


61, 226 
6, 506 


54. 720 


inual 


2, 653 




• 





I 



1330 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



Profesiones y ofidos. 



Agricultores 

Boticarios 

Arquitectos 

Panaderos , 

Barberos 

Herreros 

Encuadernadores 

Albaftiles , 

Fabricantes de ladrillos . . . 

Ebanistas 

Calafateadores 

Carpinteros 

Escribientes y amanuenses, 

Cocheros 

Cocineros 

Toneleros 

Dependientes 

Trabajadores 

Dibujantes 

Doctoree 

Tintoreros 

Ingenieros 

Maquinistas 

Grabadores 

Pescadores 

Fabricantes de muebles. . . . 

iardineros 
>oradores 

Fabricantes de guantes . . . . 

S .mbrereros 

Ensambladores 

Lit6grafos 

Mecdnicos 

Harineros 

Mineros 

Mfisicos 

Pintores 

Farniac6uticos 

Fot6grafos 

Impresores 

Talabarteros 

Aserradores 

Marineros 

Costureras 

Maestros dc escuela 

Zapateros 

Tenderos 

Cantores 

Fogonero - 

Picapedreros 

Maestros de obra 

Agrimensores 

Sastres 

Curtidores 

Caldereros 

Hojalateros 

Torneros 

Cajistas 

Vinicultores 

Relojeros 

Tejedores 

Sin profesi6n ni oficio 



1896. 



Total 



58, 388 
II 

3 
74 
92 

527 
26 

2»243 

158 

59 

23 

886 

1,572 

49 
461 

87 
581 

15.983 
22 

21 

27 

9 

87 

16 

59 

34 

246 

44 
38 
64 
28 
16 
80 

85 
418 

226 

42 

»9 

32 
18 

53 

67 

165 

2,983 



1895- 



687 

2, 128 

86 

307 
496 

19 

9 

582 

161 



62 
42 



150 



105 
11.717 

102, 673 



32,941 
16 

6 

66 

54 
322 

19 

917 

46 

43 

19 
634 

839 
46 

308 

74 
204 

8,988 

II 

9 
19 

5 
75 

8 

34 

17 
102 

36 
17 
31 
19 
4 
64 
52 

309 

81 

29 
10 

16 

II 

47 
32 
96 

1.498 



276 

1. 123 

96 

211 

141 

15 

5 
218 

147 
17 
87 
38 



124 



87 
10, 467 

61, 226 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. I33I 



BOLIVIA. 

FOMENTO DEL COMERCIO CON LOS EST ADOS UNIDOS. 

En una comunicacion dirigida al Director dc esta Oficina sobre 
el desarrollo general del comercio entre Bolivia y los Estados 
Unidos, y sobre los esfuerzos que a este fin esta haciendo dicha 
Oficina, el Senor Don Luis Paz, Ministro de Bolivia en los 
Estados Unidos, dice lo siguiente: 

"Han sido repetidos los ensayos del comercio de manufacturas 
de las plazas de Bolivia con la America del Norte, y han encon- 
trado con los inconvenientes de falta de trasportes directos y de 
relaciones de bancos. La mayor parte de los algodones, particu- 
larmente de los lienzos, que se consumen en Bolivia son de la 
America del Norte, comprados en Europa, por las ventajas que 
ofrecen los transportes directos a Buenos Aires 6 a los puertos del 
Pacificb y por las facilidades en los giros de valores. 

'*Conviene llamar la atencion del Gobierno y de los industria- 
les americanos sobre estos puntos esenciales para las relaciones 
del comercio. He procurado interesar a mi Gobierno y a mi pais 
para que abran las corrientes comerciales e industriales con la 
America del Norte que puede hacer competencia ventajosa a 
Europa sobre muchos articulos. 

"Con este objeto he presentado extensos informes sobre los 
medios de hacer propaganda con el Bureau of American Repub- 
lics y con el Philadelphia Museum, haciendo conocer nuestras 
fiientes de produccion y de riquezas." 



BRASIL. 

NUEVA CAPITAL DE MINAS GERAES. 

En 12 de diciembre ultimo se celebro, con las formalidades del 
^ la traslacion oficial a Bello Horizonte de la capital del 
tstado de Minas Geraes. Asistieron al acto todos los funcio- 
^ios y principales ciudadanos del Estado. El Gobernador firmo 




133^ BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

en el acto el decreto trasladando la capital de Ouro Preto a Bello 
Horizonte. 

La siguiente breve descripcion de la nueva capital, esta tomada 
del Jornal do Commercio de Rio: "La ciudad de Bello Hori- 
zonte esta situada en un extenso y hermoso valle rodeada por 
cuatro colinas de poca elevacion, circundada en parte por la cordi- 
llera de El Rei, y dividida por un pequefio rio (el Arrudas) y 
sus tributarios. La ciudad contiene treinta y ocho edificios piibli- 
cos; los principales son el Capitolio, no concluido todavia, los 
cuatro Departamentos del Interior, de Hacienda, de Agricultura, 
y de Policia; la Imprenta del Gobierno; la Audiencia; el Gim- 
nasio y el Establecimiento de fuerza electrica; la Iglesia del 
Rosario ; las residencias de varios secretarios, y jefes de oficina ; la 
estacion de ferrocarril y un gran numero de casas de estilo 
moderno. La poblacion total de la ciudad es de unos 12,000 
habitantes. 

Una de las partes mas importantes de la ciudad es el parque 
central, que contiene 1 78 acres. Las calles son rectas y tienen una 
anchura de 65 pies; son intersectadas por avenidas de 1 14 pies de 
ancho. La avenida principal es la de AfFonso Penna, de 1 62 pies 
de ancho y 347 yardas de largo. Hay agua en abundancia y la 
ciudad esta alumbrada por luz electrica, inaugurada el 1 1 de 
diciembre. 

Los gastos de traslacion de la capital y los ocasionados por la 
construccion de nuevos edificios destinados al servicio del ramal de 
ferrocarril Bello Horizonte, han ascendido, hasta el presente, a la 
suma de $ 1 1 ,000,000. 



COLONIA DE BELIZE. 

OPORTUNIDADES COMERCIALES. 

El Consul Albert E. Morlan dice, en un informe dirigido 
al Departamento de Estado, publicado en los ''*' Consular Reports of 
the United States'' correspond ientes al mes de febrero, que la 
municipalidad de Belize, capital de la colonia de este nombre, 
esta considerando el proyecto de proveer aquella ciudad con todo 
lo necesario para la extincion de incendios. El informe dice en 
sustancia que tal vez se necesiten dos bombas de vapor, por lo 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. ^333 

menos, con las mangueras, carretones, escaleras, etc., que se nece- 
siten, asi como tambien una torre de agua, con canerias maestras y 
bocas de agua para las principales calles. Los que deseen entrar 
en los detalles de este asunto, pueden comunicarse con el Consul 
de los Estados Unidos, quien presentara sus proposiciones, etc., a 
las autoridades. 

Tratando del comercio de los Estados Unidos con la Colonia 
de Belize, dice el Consul Morlan que los Estados Unidos casi 
monopolizan dicho mercado, pero que debidoa los activos esfuerzos 
de las companias "Anglo-Swiss" y "Nestle," que negocian en 
leche, este articulo americano, aunque se considera superior, apenas 
tiene ya salida en el mercado. El mencionado Consul aconseja 
a los hombres de negocios que quieran extender sus operaciones 
en aquel pais, que se unan y establezcan una agencia activa en 
Belize. Hay alli oportunidades para el desarrollo del comercio 
en leche, aguas gaseosas, pafios, generos de algodon, drogas, loza 
comun, cristaleria, ferreteria y cuchilleria, sombreros, pinturas, 
viveres, galletas en lata, cuerdas y bramante, articulos de talabarteria, 
perdigones y municiones, sedas, generos de lana, cerveza blanca y 
negra, velas, polvora, aceites (no minerales), jabon, licbres y vinos, 
ladrillos, arroz y sal. 



CHILE. 

ESTADiSTICA COMERCIAL DE 1896. 

Esta Oficina acaba de recibir la estadistica oficial del comercio 
extranjero y de cabotaje de Chile durante el ano 1896, y hacemos 
de aquel valioso y amplio documento, el siguiente extracto. 
En las computaciones se le da al peso un valor de 76 centavos, 
ore. El valor de las mercancias sujetas a derechos de importacion, 
esta tornado de la valuacion establecida en los aranceles, y el de 
los articulos que entran libres de derecho se calcula por los 
precios declarados en las tacturas. El valor de las exportaciones 
se calcula con arreglo a los precios corrientes del mercado. 

La estadistica comprende dos secciones: una bajo el titulo de 
** Comercio General," y la otra bajo el de " Comercio Especial." 
La primera seccion comprende todos los generos que se importan 
en el pais, ya sean para el consumo local 6 ya para ser reembarcados, 



1334 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



y todos los articulos que se exporten, incluyendo los de transito. 
La segunda seccion comprende, clasificadas, todas las importa- 
ciones destinadas al consumo nacional, todas las exportaciones de 
manufacturas nacionales y las manufacturas de origen extranjero 
que se saquen de las aduanas para reembarcarlas. El primer 
cuadro, 6 sea el del "Comercio General," muestra el valor total 
de las importaciones y exportaciones de la Republica en el ano 
1896, comparado con el de 1895, y el aumento 6 diminucion 
correspondientes. Se vera por este cuadro que hay una diminu- 
cion en el comercio extrangero, ascendiente a $13,278,000. 

El segundo cuadro contiene las cifras del " Comercio Especial," 
y muestra un aumento de $6,315,785 en 1896, que es el aumento 
mayor que se registra en los anales estadisticos de la Republica. 





1895. 


1896. 


1896, 




Aumento. 


Dimtnuddii. 


Comercio General: 

IinDortaci6n 


$83. 856. 789 
76, 244, 441 


$68,464,717 
78,358,612 




15. 392. 172 


CxDortaci6n 


2.114,171 






Total 


160, loi, 230 


146, 823, 229 


2.114,171 


15.392.172 


Comercio Especial: 

ImDortaci6n 


69, 206, 552 
72, 919, 882 


74, 082. 805 
74. 359. 414 


4. 876, 253 
1,439.532 




ExDortaci6n 








Total 


142.126,434 


148, 442, 219 


6.315.785 









Las cifras del comercio de transito acusan un aumento de 
$514,639 en 1896; el comercio de cabotaje sufrio un descenso 
de $36,219,204, comparado con el de 1895. 

El siguiente cuadro, que expresa el valor de la importacion 
por paises, acusa un aumento en la importacion de articulos 
provenientes de los Estados Unidos, que ascendio a $2,229,551. 



Paises. 



Gran Bretafia . . . 

Alemania 

Estados Unidos 

Peril 

Argentina 

Francia 

Australia 

Uruguay 

Italia 



1895- 



32, 086, 959 

17,299,039 

4, 579, 614 

4, 476, 388 

5.141,351 
1,644,059 

680, 479 

498. 443 

539» 790 



1896. 



30. 249, 002 

29, 080, 943 

6,807,155 

4. 397. 230 
4, 105. 244 
2, 834. 216 
I, 522, 293 
711,641 
692, 534 



1896. 



Aumento. 



2.781.904 
2.227,551 



1,190,157 
841, 814 

213. 198 
152,744 



Dixiiinuci6ii. 



I. 837. 957 



59. 158 
1,036,107 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



1335 



Palses. 



India 

Espafia 

B^lgica 

China 

Ecuador 

Brasil 

Paraguay 

Polinesia 

Colombia 

Costa Rica 

Suecia 

Guatemala 

Holanda 

Bolivia 

Portugal 

Suiza 

Pe5ca de ballena 

Total 



1895. 



593, 575 
361, 43S 
208, 283 

157, 538 
172,685 

301,006 

230, 141 
3,108 

99,307 
80,064 



3.054 
48 

18 

250 

4,610 

64, 405 



69, 206, 552 



1896. 



1896. 



Aumento. 



Ditninuci6n. 



557, 530 
469, 753 
330. 925 
284, 668 

197, 388 
186, 622 
182, 450 
168, 024 
130,092 

97. 213 
20,360 

10, 391 

570 
250 

130 



46, 171 



74, 082, 805 



loS, 316 
122. 542 
127, 130 

24. 703 



36,045 



164, 916 

30. 785 

17, 149 
20, 360 

6.537 
522 

232 



8,030,559 



114,384 
47. 691 



120 

4,610 

18, 234 



3,154,306 



Aumento en 1896, $4,876,253. 

El tanto por ciento de la importacion que hace en Chile cada 
uno de los principales pdises, es come sigue : 

Gran Bretafla 40. 83 

Alemania 27. 10 

Estados Unidos 9. 18 

Pcrti 5. 93 

Argentina '5. 54 

Francia 3. 82 

Australia 2. 05 

Como sc ve por el cuadro precedente, el valor de la exportacion, 
sin incluir el comercio de transito, ascendio a $74,359,414, distri- 
buidos en las siguientes partidas : 

Productos mineros $6i, 322, 833 

Productos agricolas 11, 124, 379 

Articulos manufacturados 54, 922 

Miscelinea 105, 409 

Efectivo 768, 012 

Total 73, 385. 645 

Articulos extranjeros que pagaron derechos 412, 827 

Efectivo extranjero 560, 942 

Total 74, 359. 424 

Comparada esta cantidad con la del ano precedente, resulta un 
aumento de $1439,532. Del analisis de las partidas resulta un 
aumento de $1,146,342 en los productos mineros; de $1,769,226 



1336 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

en los productos agricolas, y de $1,964 en los articulos manutac- 
turados. Las siguientes partidas acusan un descenso en 1896, 
comparadas con sus similares de 1895: Miscelanea, $105,188; 
efectivo, $703,478; articulos extranjeros que pagan derechos, 
$147,790, y efectivo extranjero, $521,544. El descenso del 
nitrato fue de $1,596,843; el del carbon, de $126,667, y el del 
oro, $98,758. 

Las estadisticas comerciales en que nos occupamos, contienen 
ademas del comercio general de 1896, una sinopsis del comercio 
de la Republica, correspondiente a la primera mitad de 1897, 
comparado con el de igual periodo en 1896. El valor total del 
comercio de la primera mitad de 1897, ^^^ ^^ $59^003^284, contra 
$77,099,201 en los primeros seis meses de 1896. La importa- 
cion de 1897, ascendente a $32,032,677, acusa un descenso de 
$5,997,883, comparada con la de 1896. El valor de la exporta- 
' cion en 1897 fue de $26,970,607; comparadas estas cifras con 
las de la exportacion durante igual periodo en. 1896, resulta un 
descenso de $12,098,034. 



GUATEMALA. 

MEDIDAS ECONOMICAS. 

El Departamento de Estado ha recibido de la Legacion de los 
Estados Unidos en Guatemala, copia de dos decretos relativos a 
la situacion economica de aquella Republica. El primer decreto 
dispone que desde el 1** de enero del corriente ano, quedaran uni- 
ficadas todas las deudas reconocidas por el Gobiemo, y que para 
seguridad de los acreedores se emitiran bonos de la deuda interior 
que se cambiaran por los actuales bonos de la deuda flotante, por los 
de los tres millones, por los de la exposicion, por los del emprestito 
de los bancos en mayo, por los del emprestito de setiembre y por 
los documentos autorizados a cargo del comite de la exposicion 
centro americana. 

Los bonos de la deuda interior seran de $100, $500 y $1,000 
y devengaran un interes de 1 2 por ciento anual. Estos bonos seran 
amortizados por sorteos trimestrales que comenzaran en marzo 
de 1899 y ^^^ cantidades seran determinadas en el presu- 
puesto. El interes sera pagado por el Banco de Guatemala al 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. ^337 

in de cada mes a partir de enero de 1898. Los bonos de la 
ieuda flotante seran cambiados por los»de la deuda interior con el 
descuento.de la mitad del interes acumulado a la fecha. Las 
fracciones menores de $100 no pagaran interes, y el Director 
General de Cuentas emitira certificados en cambio de las mismas. 
Los bonos de la deuda interior destinados a cubrir los documentos 
del emprestito de guerra de setiembre, quedaran en poder del 
Director General de Cuentas y seran entregados a los tenedores 
de dichos documentos una vez que los presenten cancelados. 

Para el servicio de esta deuda se consignan 15 centavos del 
impuesto sobre cada botella de aguardiente que se venda en 
losdepositos nacionales, desde el 1° de enero hasta el 30 de seti- 
embre de 1898, y despues de esta fecha se reservaran asimismo 
25 centavos del impuesto y 5 por ciento de los derechos sobre las 
f^crcancias extranjeras. El Banco de Guatemala queda cncargado 
^^1 servicio de la deuda interior. 

El segundo decreto dispone la redencion gradual, en plata, de 
^os los billetes en circulacion que sean presentados a los bancos 
^ la Republica. Este decreto declara en sustancia que el Presi- 
^nte, considerando que el permiso concedido a los bancos para 
^Spender los pagos en metalico expira el 1° de enero de 1898, 
^spone que se recojan en los meses de enero y febrero de 1898 
>s billetes de $1 y $5; en marzo los de $1, $5, $10 y $50; en 
bril los de $1, $5, $10, $20, $25 y $100; y en mayo que- 
daran establecidos los pagos en plata, en general. Los depositos 
lechos en los bancos despues del 1° de enero, se pagaran en la 
-lase de moneda en que se hicieren, ya sea billete o ya metalico. 
El decreto de 2 1 de mayo queda alterado en el sentido de que 
los billetes no incluidos en el cambio gradual mencionado, con- 
tmuarancomo moneda de curso legal hasta el 30 de abril de 1898. 



NICARAGUA . 

LA COSECHA DE PLATANOS EN BLUEFIELDS. 

Los siguientes datos relativos a la cosecha de platanos de Blue- 
elds en noviembre de 1897, son tomados de un informe oficial 
™igido al Departamento de Estado. 



i 



1338 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Namero y precio de los racimos de platanos exportados en 
noviembre de 1897 y novicmbre de 1896. 



Afio. 


Radtnos. 


Pttsdo. 


1807 " 


Ndmero. 

32,000 

45.000 

8, 500 

II, 500 


Pesos* 
.50 
.40 
. 20 
. 10 


Centavos. 
20.6 
16.5 
8.4 


*"V/ •••••••••••••••• 


4.1 




97,000 






^ 






1896 H 


11,000 

29,000 

4,000 


.35 
■30 

.15 


16. OS 

13.75 
6.88 








44,000 













* Pesos de Nicaragua. 

El importe pagado a los plantadores en noviembre de 1897, 
fue de 36,850 pesos ($15,227.27), y la cantidad pagada por flete, 
etc., fue 30,487.59 pesos ($12,598.17). En igual mes del afio 
anterior, se pagaron 13,150 pesos ($6,032.12) a los plantadores y 
el importe de los fletes fue 14,936.60 pesos ($6,851.65). Total 
en noviembre de 1897, 67,337.59 pesos ($27,825.44), contra 
28,086.60 pesos ($12,883.77) en noviembre de 1896. 

En noviembre de 1897 se despacharon cinco cargamentos para 
Nueva Orleans, que comprendian un total de 45,000 racimos 
enteros, 8,500 medios racimos y 11,500 cuartos racimos; y dos 
cargamentos para Mobile que hicieron un total de 32,000 enteros. 
En noviembre de 1896, se despacharon dos cargamentos para 
Nueva Orleans (17,000 enteros y 4,000 medios), y dos para 
Mobile (23,000 enteros). En noviembre de 1896, solo habia dos 
lineas de vapores; ahora hay tres, y una de las companias tiene 
dos vapores. El aumento de precio, dice el Agente consular, se 
debe a la competencia entre los exportadores. 



PARAGUAY. 

EL PARAGUAY EN LA EXPOSICION DE BRUSELAS. 

El honorable John Stewart, Consul General del Paraguay 
en los Estados Unidos, ha remitido a esta Oficina la siguientc 
memoria escrita por el Ministro de Relaciones Exteriores, Don 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. ^339 

si Decoud, relativa a la parte que aquella Republica tomo en 
Exposicion'Intemacional de Bruselas de 1895. 
La participacion que el Paraguay ha tenido en el gran certamen 
emacional ultimamente celebrado en Bruselas, a pesar de que 
/o que concurrir de un modo precipitado por el corto tiempo 
que dispuso para ello, ha venido a demostrar de una manera 
Imaria los grandes adelantos realizados en aquel pais en estos 
dmos anos. 

El Paraguay, cuyo pasado tanto contribuyo a peijudicarle a los 
38 del extraniero, ya no es actualmente la region misteriosa de 
niestras dictaduras, sino un pueblo viril y emprendedor, fortalecido 
aliento moderno, donde el inmigrante honrado, como el rico 
tpitalista, hallaran ancho campo a su' acti vidad, al amparo de las 
as ventajosas leyes y de uno de los gobiernos mas liberales de 
ud America. 

Despues de la guerra con la triple alianza argentino-brasilero- 
cental, en que consumio casi todas sus energfas, el Paraguay se 
' levantado con sus propios esfuerzos y en 25 anos de constante 
ibajo, bajo los beneficos auspicios de una paz casi nunca inter- 
nipida, ha sabido conquistarse un puesto honroso y respetable 
'tre sus hermanas del sur. Prueba de esto es el exito obtenido 
I la ultima exposicion de Bruselas. 

Tanto las artes como las industrias, la agricultura y la biblio- 
afia nacional tuvieron alii honrosa representacion, como lo 
^eban los premios obtenidos, muy superiores a los que se les 
I discemido anteriormente en casos analogos y con un niimero 
ucho mayor de expositores, lo cual hace suponer fundadamente 
Je si dificultades motivadas por el receso de las Camaras legis- 
tivas no hubieran impedido a este pais prepararse para el certa- 
men con algunos meses de anticipacion, habria figurado con 
desperado brillo entre los demas paises. 

La impresion producida por la seccion paraguaya no ha dejado, 
in embargo, de responder a sus meritos, a juzgar por los siguientes 
^^rrafos que entresacamos del informe del Senor Oostendorp : 

^asccci6n del Paraguay fu6 una dc las primeras visitadas, y tuve el honor de 
*P^rar i S. M., tenicndo i mi lado al Sr. Hemeleers Fi^v^, Consul de la Repu- 
"^* en Bruselas. La vista del palacio nacional en la Asuncion, representada 
J^'^^gran cuadro decorativo de que ya he infbrmado 4 V. E., hizo impresi6n i 
*' "'• y inc pidi6 detalles & este respecto ; dirigi6ndose cntonccs al Sefior Ministro 



1340 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

de la Industria y del Trabajo, hizo la muy amable observaci6n de que sc podria 
ir al Paraguay con el objeto de buscar inspiraciones para crigir nucvos edificios. 
Los mucbles de madera del pais llamaron tambi^n la atcnci6n del Rcy, y pregunt6 
si habian sido hechos en Europa, i lo que pude, con mucho placer, contestar 
que fueron hechos en el Paraguay. 

Se puede decir que para muchos visitadores, la secci(5n es una verdadera lecci6n 
objetiva del estado avanzado de cultura del Paraguay, asi como lo demuestran 
los productos mandados y la numerosa 6 interesante colecci6n de vistas foto- 
gr&Hcas de la capital y del campo. 

Los premios obtenidos han sido los siguientes : 

Cuatro diplomas, grand prix. 

Dos diplomas de honor. 

Ocho diplomas, medalla de oro. 
' Diez y seis diplomas, medalla de plata. 

Quince diplomas, medalla de bronce. 

Cinco diplomas, mencion honorifica. 

Total, 50 premios para 40 exposi tores, debiendo advertirse que 
en la Exposicion Universal de Paris de 1889 ^^ Paraguay obtuvo 
54 distinciones, con solo dos grand prix para un nunero de ex- 
positores mucho mayor. 

Los premios enumerados corresponden en su mayor parte a la 
industria y a la agricultura nacionales, habiendo llamado tambien 
muchisimo la atencion la poderosa riqueza vegetal de aquella tierra 
y las especialisimas propiedades de la yerba mate, cuyo uso se 
halla tan generalizado en la parte meridional de la America del 
Sur, comenzando ya tambien a propagarse en las regiones del nortc. 



SANTO DOMINGO. 

NOTAS COMERCIALES. 

• 

Mr. E. D. York, secretario de la compania denominada "San 
Domingo Improvement Company," ha tenido la bondad de rcmi- 
tir a esta Oficina las copias de tres decretos del Ejecutivo refe- 
rentes a la exportacion de ganado, al comercio exterior con Haiti 
y a las concesiones de petroleo en La Romana. 

Por el primer decreto se permite la exportacion de ganado 
vacuno y caballar, pero limitado a los animales machos, pues la 
exportacion de hembras queda expresamente prohibida. Los 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



1341 



dcrechos de exportacion seran de $2, oro, por cabeza. Los puertos 
de Barahona y La Romana estan abiertos a esta exportacion, pero 
los buques que vengan del extranjero a cargar ganado en dichos 
puertos, estan obligados a solicitar el debido permiso en el puerto 
de la capital, donde seran despachados por el Administrador de 
Hacienda si van a Barahona, y por el Comisario del Gobierno, is 
se dirigen a La Romana. 

El segundo decreto dispone que todas las mercancias extranje- 
ras introducidas en la Republica por la frontera, paguen los mismos 
dercchos que las mercancias provenientes de paises extranjeros, y 
que queden sujetas a las mismas formalidades que se exijen en las 
aduanas. Los productos haitianos, manufacturados en Haiti, no 
pagaran derechos de importacion. 

El tercer decreto autoriza la instalacion en La Romana de una 
Tcfineria de petroleo con la obligacion de febricar petroleo de 1 50°. 
Este decreto dispone, ademas, que el petroleo que se introduzca 
del extranjero sea sometido a un analisis y confiscado si no tiene 
los 150° que se exije. Los derechos de este articulo seran de 40 
centavos por galon. 

El siguiente cuadro contiene las cifras que acusan la importa- 
cion de mercancias nacionales de los Estados Unidos en Santo 
Domingo, durante los doce meses que terminaron en 30 de junio 
de 1896, y durante igual periodo en 1897 : 



Instruinentos de agricultura 

L'bros, mapas, impresos 

Cereal es : 

Maiz 

Harina de trigo 

Camiagcs, carros, y carretas 

Carb6D de piedra y cok . . . , 

Manufacturas de algod6n 

Otras manufacturas de algod6n 

Bicicletas 

Anitas y nueces 

Upulo 

Hierro, acero y sus manufacturas 

Miquinas de coser 

Otras m&qinas 

Cuero, manufacturas de 

Efcaos naval es : 

Pez nibia alquitrin, trementina y brea 

Aguanis 

Accitcs : 

Mineral 

V^etal 

Bull. No. 8 7 



1896. 



1897. 



$2, 981 


$1, 428 


1,477 


1,336 


1,131 


389 


135, 980 


163, 078 


10, 764 


20, 588 


15, i6o 


26, 211 


114, 749 


92, 831 


10,199 


31.012 


266 


4,908 


2,234 


2.388 


249 


287 


12,967 


11,283 


1,380 


1.798 


115.427 


106, 252 


721 


1. 177 


4.990 


5,036 


221 


312 


45. 807 


52. 486 


15.3S9 


15,616 



1342 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



Provisions : 

Came de vaca en lata , 

Came de vaca salada 

Sebo ^. 

Tocino 

Jam6n 

Came de puerco 

Manteca 

Mantequilla , 

Queso 

Semillas , 

Azdcar y melaza 

Tablaz6n 

Tablas de ripia 

Manufacturas de madera 



X896. 



I56 


tli 


1,961 


2,612 


32,590 


21,037 


1.905 


2,706 


6,460 


7.316 


9.192 


4,357 


37. 247 


23r077 


5.464 


7.331 


4.798 


47" 


613 


538 


2.885 


2,332 


69,099 


65. 512 


2,958 


9,544 


15,166 


20,692 



1897. 



VENEZUELA. 



COMERCIO ENTRE LOS EST ADOS UNIDOS Y VENEZUELA. 

Mr. Proskauer, Consul de los Estados Unidos en Puerto 
Cabello, ha dirigido al Departamento de Estado un extenso 
informe sobre las oportunidades que ofrece Venezuela al espiritu 
emprendedor y comercial de los Estados Unidos. Dice el men- 
cionado Consul que el comercio en cuchilleria, cristaleria, tejas 
de barro y articulos semejantes, es susceptible de gran desarrollo, 
pues los articulos de esta clase, aun los de mediana 6 inferior 
calidad, tienen facil salida. 

La importacion de tabaco ha quedado reducida a muy cstrechos 
limites por causa de los altos derechos impuestos sobre aquclU 
hoja y del consecuente desarroUo de su cultivo y manufectura en 
Venezuela, que se cree sera en breve un pais exportador de tabaco. 

A 6 millas de Puerto Cabello, se ha descubierto un marmol 
de calidad superior y se ha fundado un establecimiento, que h^ 
costado mas de $50,000, para la explotacion de las canteras. 

El carbon que se consume en los ferrocarriles viene principal' 
mente de Inglaterra, pero Mr. Proskauer cree que haciendo el d^* 
bido esfuerzo, podria introducirse con provecho en el pais el carbc>^ 
de Alabama y Virginia, que reemplazaria a la postre el carbon 3-^ 
Inglaterra. Esto es practicable por razon de la proximidad del^ 
minas de America y de la tendencia de los comerciantes y fab^ 
cantes americanos a aumentar y monopolizar el comercio 
Venezuela. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. I343 

A continuacion se insertan unos parrafbs del mencionado in- 
forme, que tratan del comercio entre los Estados Unidos y Vene- 
zuela, y contienen indicaciones practicas de importancia : 

* * * Nuestro comercio con este pais estd grandcmente restringido por 
la auscncia de casas de comercio americanas, bancos, etc. Es casi innecesario 
decir que tod as las casas de importancia estin en comunicaci6n con otras de los 
Estados Unidos^ pero es evidente que esta comunicaci6n no puede ser, ni con 
mucho, tan eficaz como la que existiria entre las casas americanas v sus sucursales 
aquL 

Una de las mayores dificultades comerciales que existen deberia ser mejor 
comprendida y reconocida como una verdad. Me refiero al sistema de con- 
ccder seis, nueve y hasta doce meses de cr6dito, facilitando asi al comerciante 
le hacer el pago de las mercancias al tiempo de la cosecha. Los bancos son 
limitados, y en algunos lugares no los hay ; por consiguiente^ los comerciantes 
quedan i la merced de los prestamistas, si es que han de pagar sus letras en 
scsenta 6 noventa dias, como entre nosotros, lo cual implica un interns de 1 6 
i^ por cicnto y con frecuencia mis. Los tipos del cambio podrian uniformarse 
mis ficilmente de aquella suerte, pues aunque no son gravosos por lo general, 
son, sin embargo, excesivos i veces. El sistema monetario tiene de hecho por 
base el oro, pues la plata y el oro se entrecambian. Como el Gobierno no emite 
papel moneda, los jinicos billetes que circulan son los del Banco de Venezuela 
y los del de Caracas, los cuales estin limitados al uso local. 

LA MINA "EL CALLAO." 

« 
Segun el Fenezuelan Herald^ esta famosa mina, con toda su 

maquinaria y dependencias, ha sido vendida por la compania 

primitiva en publica subasta por la suma de 600,000 bolivares. 

Dalton & Co., de ciudad Bolivar, la compraron, y se supone que 

dicha compania representa un grupo de capitalistas de los Estados 

Unidos. Si se toma en consideracion que las obras hechas alii 

costaron mas de 400,000 bolivares, se ve que la mina fue vendida 

a un precio muy bajo. 

Se cree que la nueva compania dara miiy pronto principio a la 

explotacion de la mina, y se espera que esta recobrara su antiguo 

csplendor. 

Refiriendose a la mina, el Herald dice lo siguiente : 

" A fin de que nuestros lectores se formen una idea de la riqueza 

dc esta mina en lo pasado, podemos asegurarles que, segun informes 

oficiales, que se extienden desde 1871 hasta 1891, la cantidad de 

oro que produjo ascendio a $24,290,923. 



1344 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

EL PRESIDENTE DON IGNACIO ANDRADE. 

El General Don Ignacio Andrade, actual Presidente de Vene- 
zuela, nacio en Merida en 1839; desciende de una familia ilustrc 
del pais y es hijo del General Don Jose Escolastico Andrade. 
El Senor Don Jose Andrade, distinguido Ministro de Venezuela 
en los Estados Unidos, es uno de sus hermanos. 

El Presidente Senor Andrade ha figurado por muchos afios en 
los asuntos piiblicos de Venezuela y ha ocupado numerosos pues- 
tos de prominenciay responsabilidad. El Senor Andrade, en su 
vida publica, no se ha limitado a los asuntos politicos, sino que es 
tambien un soldado distinguido que mando un cuerpo de ejercito, 
y tomo parte muy importante en la revolucion de 1892, la cual 
coloco al General Don Joaquin Crespo a la cabeza del Gobiemo. 

El nuevo Presidente ha viajado mucho y esta perfectamente 
identificado con el espiritu de la epoca. Residio en Europa 
por muchos afios y ha visitado a los Estados Unidos en varias 
ocasiones. Su eleccion para la Presidencia, en setiembre ultimo 
fue casi unanime, pues recibio 406,000 votos de los 490,000 que 
se depositaron. 

El Honorable Francis B. Loomis, ministro de los Estados 
Unidos en Venezuela, y el cual esta ahora en este pais, cree que 
la administracion del nuevo Presidente es favorable a la con- 
tinuacion de las relaciones cordiales entre los dos paises y al 
mayor ensanche del comercio. Mr. Loomis dice que Venezuela 
necesita capitales, y que el Presidente Senor Andrade desea 
fomentar la inversion en Venezuela de capitales extranjeros, 
asi como tambien la inmigracion, especialmente de los Estados 
Unidos. 



VENEZUELA. 

ARANCEL DE DERECHOS DE IMPORT ACION DE 1897-1898. 

Nlimero 30. 

Art. 1** — Las mercaderlas procedcntes del extranjero que se introduzcan por 
las Aduanas de la Repdblica se dividen en nueve clases^ i saber : 
1* Clase, libre. 
2* Pagari por kilogramo diez centimes de bolivar. * 



* Bl bolivar vale una peseta (valor nominal ) y se divide en 100 c^ntimos. Con respccto & pesas y 
medidas, Venezuela ha adoptado el sistema m^trioo. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPl^BLICS. ^345 

3* Pagara por kilogramo veinticinco centimes de bolivar. 

4* Pagari por kilogramo sctcnta y cinco c6ntimos dc bolivar. 

;• Pagara por kilogramo un bolivar veinticinco c^ntimos. 

6* Pagari por kilogramo dos bolivares cincucnta^c6ntimos. 

7* Pagari por kilogramo cinco bolivares. 

8* Pagari por kilogramo diez bolivares. 

9* Pagari por kilogramo veinte bolivares. 

§1. — Clase I. 

Libre, 

Aguas minerales. 

Animales vivos, excepto las sanguijuelas. 

Almas, fondos 6 calderas de hierro, parrillas, tambores y juegos de traipiches 
J los ejes y almas para los mismos y el hierro nativo, asi como el viejo en piezas 
iButilizadas propios ambos para fundici6n. 

Arados y rejas de arado 6 puyones, azadas, azadones, calabozos, chicoras, 
chicurones, escardillas, hachas, palas, picos, tasies, podaderas, con 6 sin mangos 
demadera y los machetes de rozar. 

Articulos que se importen por orden del Gobierno. • 

Aparatos y m&quinas para el alumbrado por gas y para producirlo, y tambi6n 
los que sirven para incubar huevos y para generar vapor del residuo del petr61eo. 
El carb6n mineral y carb6n para producir la luz el6ctrica. 

Anzuelos y alambre propio park cercas con puas 6 en la forma indicada en el 
cltchr comprendido en la Resoluci(5n de 13 de junio de 1894, y tambi6n las 
grapas con que se fija dicho alambre. 

Bombas para incendio. 

Cimento romano. 

Carruajes, utensilios y materiales destinados exclusivamente para caminos de 
hierro. 

Ccnizas de madera y orujo de uvas para abono. 

Efcctos que traigan consigo para su uso los ministros publicos y agentes diplo- 
miticos de la Republica, i su regreso i Venezuela. 

Equipajes, efcctos y muebles usados de los venezolanos que hayan residido 
mis dc dos afios en Europa 6 los Estados Unidos del Norte, y que quieran resti- 
tuirse a Venezuela, siempre que llenen los requisitos establecidos en el articulo 
178 dc la Ley XVI del C6digo de Hacienda y los de los extranjeros domicilia- 
dos en el pais siempre que reunan 6 concurran en ellos las mismas circunstancias 
por las cuales se les acuerda i los venezolanos. 

Equipajes del uso de los pasajeros, con exclusi6n de los efcctos que no hayan 
sido usados y de los muebles, los cuales pagarin segun la clase i que corres- 
ponden. Los derechos de los efectos no usados que se traen en los equipajes se 
recargan con un 20 por cicnto. 

Esferas 6 globos celestes 6 terrestres, las cartas hidrogrificas y de navegacidn, 
los mapas de todas clases y los pianos topogrdficos de minas, litografiados 6 
imprcsos. 

Extracto de cuajo. 



1346 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Guano y tambi6n el hielo cuando se importe por los lugares donde no haj 
maquinarias establecidas, con aucorizaci6n del Gobierno, para producirlo. 

Hucvos. 

Libros impresos en plicgos 6 4 la rdstica que traten de ciencias, artes y ofici 
cat^logos, peri6dicos y muescras de escritura propias para las escuelas de prii 
ras letras. 

Maderas aparejadas i la construcci6n naval y las trozas de pino, pitchpi 
propias para mdstiles y tambi6n las cuadradas de pitchpine de mis de o"*, 25 
espesor, roble u ocras maderas ordinarias no especificadas propias para ser a 
rradas en tablas^ cuartones, 6 en cualquiera otra forma. 

M&quinas para imprentas y los dtiles para dar forma i la impresi6n9 co 
tipos, interlineas, tinta preparada, el papel bianco de xmprenca sin cola 6 gomi 
tambi6n el grueso para hacer matrices y el metal compuesto de plomo y alumi; 
que sc emplean para imprimir segiin el sistema de estereotipia. 

Miquinas propias para la agricultura y explotaci6n de minas, telares, aser 
deros y fundiciones, no especificados en otras clases, asi como tambi6n las prop 
para artes y oHcios, cuando los mismos industrials las importen, debiea 
expresarse el uso que han de hacer de ellas y previa orden del Gobierno. 

Miquinas y aparatos para tel6grafos el6ctricos, previa orden del Gobierno. 

Motores de vapor* de cualquiera clase y los molinos de viento con todos ! 
accesorios, previa orden del Gobierno. 

Muestras de telas en pequefios pedazos, cuyo peso no exceda de 25 kiloi 
tambi6n de papel de tapiceria que no excedan de 50 centimetros de longitud, 
de otros objetos, siempre que por su dimensi6n y otras circunstancias no pued 
ofrecerse en venta. 

Objetos artisticos de cardcter monumental, previa orden del Gobierno. 

Platino (i oro bianco, el oro 6 la plata sin manufacturar y tambi6n el oro 
moneda legitima. 

Plantas vivas de todas clases, y los herbarios 6 colecciones de plantas secas q 
no sean medicinales; las semillas para sembrar, y las papas menudas grelada 
retofiadas propias dnicamente para sembrar que i juicio del Ejecutivo se trai§ 
con este destino. 

Producciones de Colombia que se introduzcan por las fronteras con aquel pj 
siempre que gocen de igual exenci6n en aquella Repdblica las producciones 
Venezuela. 

Puentes con sus cadenas, pisos y demis adherentes, cuando sean para uso ] 
blico 6 empresas agricolas, pues de lo contrario pagarin el derecho corresp 
diente i las materias de que se compongan. 

Relojes para uso publico, cuando sean introducidos por el Gobierno Nacioi 

Resortes, ejes, llantas y planchas para carros y coches que hayan de co 
truirse en el pais. 

Los objetos en que se introduzcan los articulos libres como badles, sacos 
noche, carteras, mantas 6 telas que no desmejoren su precio ordinario, se pesa 
por separado y pagarin el derecho que i cada uno corresponda. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. ^347 

§2. — Clase II. 

Diez centimos dc bolivar. 

Acido sulfiiirico y gas iicido carb6nico liquido. 

Afrecho y tortas de afrecho y de residues de linaza para alimento de animales. 
Alambre de hierro galvanizado, no manufacturado. 

Almagre^ greda, ocre, bianco de Espafia^ arcilla^ caput-mortuum y toda tierra 
para edificios. 

Alquitr&n mineral 6 vegetal, asfalto, petr61eo bruto y betunes de todas clases, 
excepto el del calzado. 

Arcos 6 flcjes de hierro 6 de madera para pipas, bocoyes y cedazos. 

Arroz en grano. 

Avcna. 

Barras de hierro (como herramientas). 

Botellas comunes de vidrio negro 6 claro ordinario, para envasar licores, dama- 
juanas, 6 garrafones vacios y los frascos cuadrangulares del mismo vidrio en que 
ncnc ordinariamente la ginebra, 

Bombas hidriulicus con sus respectivos tubos, viilvulas y demis piezas acceso- 
rias. 

Botes y lanchas armados 6 en piezas y los remos, velas y anclas para estas 
cmbarcaciones pequefias. 
Brea, rubia 6 negra. 

Cal hidr&ulica, cal comdn y cualquier otro material semejante de construcci6ny 
no incluido en otras clases. 

Carnaza, desperdicios 6 garras de cueros y las tripas secas de carnero que 
emplcan las salchicherias. 

C&fiamo 6 estopa en rama 6 torcida para calafatear 6 estopar, la estopa em- 
breada y los desperdicios de algod6n para limpiar mdquinas. 

^afierJas 6 conductos de hierro 6 de plomo para cafierias y los codos y cone- 
^'ones para dichos tubos. 
*-3ft<Sn en pasta. 

^''t<Sn impermeable para techar edificios y otros usos. 
2i-r^^5^ carretas y carretillas de mano. 
^ ^^"^a en concha. 



'-^no y trigo en grano. 

^ *^t!s, calesas, quitrines, omnibus, faetones y toda clase de carruajes no com- 

^^^cs en otras clases. 

, ^'^^^za de encina, de roble 6 de otros irboles que se emplean en las curti- 
durias^ ^ ^ 

^na de cebada, de garbanzos 6 sea revalesci6re de Barry y cualquiera otra 
^ 310 especificada en otras clases. 

^*c que se introduzca por los puertos donde haya establecidas, con autori- 
*^ del Gobierno, miquinas para producirlo. 

^iTo redondo 6 (;padrado, en platina, en planchas 6 l&minas y en cualquiera 
°^^*^<»nnabruta. 



V 



1348 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Ladrillos para limpiar cubiertos. 

Ladrillos y lozas 6 baldosas de barro cocido, de m&rmol, de jaspe, de madera 
y de cualquiera otra materia para pisos, siempre que no cxcedan de sesenta cen- 
timecros; las tejas de barro 6 de pizarra y las piedras ordinarias brutas de todas 
clases. 

Lefia y carb6n vegetal en pedazos. 

Maderas ordinarias como tablas, vigas y cuartones de pitchpine 6 cualquiera 
otra sin cepillar nL machihembrar menores de m. 0.25 de espesor, y las de pine 
no especificadas, cualquiera que sean sus dimensiones. 

Maiz en grano. 

Manzanas, uvas, peras y cualquiera otra fruta fresca, quedando incluidos en 
csta clase los cocos, aunque no est6n frescos. 

M&quinas, tanques de hierro galvanizado y aparatos no especificados en la 
primera clase, cuyo peso total exceda de mil kilogramos y los refrigeradores para 
conservar el hielo. 

Musica escrita. 

Mafioco. 

Paja 6 sea yerba seca, como el heno y otras semejantes, propias para alimento 
de animales, que no sean medicinales. 

Pez comun blanca, negra 6 rubia. 

Palo de campeche, guayac&n, brasilete, mora, sandalino rosado y cualquier 
otro semejante, en rasuras. 

Papel para cigarrillos. 

Pianos, aunque sean mudos para ejercicios mecinicos, sin accesorios. 

Pizarras con marcos 6 sin ellos, los libros y l^pices de pizarra, y las pizarras 
para mesas de billar. 

Resina de pino. 

Ruedas para coches, carros y carretas, las bocinas de hierro para dichos 
vehiculos y las ruedas de acero montadas sobre ejes de acero. 

Sal de Epsom. 

Sal de Glauber y el salicilato de soda. 

Tierra de siena y tierra negra para limpiar. 

Tumulos 6 sepulcros de marmol, granito 6 cualquiera otra materia, cuando i 
juicio del Gobierno no sean obras artisticas de car&cter monumental. 

Teja-mani. 

Tiza 6 greda blanca en pedazos 6 en polvo, y tambi6n los polvos de mirmol 
y de vidrio. 

Yeso en piedra 6 en polvo y el yeso mate. 

§ 3. — Clase III. 

Veinticinco centimos de bolivar, 
Aceite de comer. 

Aceite de colza y cualquier otro aceite para alumbrado, no comprendido en 
otra clase, el aceite de hueso y el llamado de esperma de cristal, que se emplea 
para las m^quinas. 

Acido este^rico y ol6ico, estearina sin manufacturar, pura, y tambi6n la mezclada 
con parafina, conocida con el nombre de estearina comercial. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. I34C) 

Acido ac6tico, hidrocl6rico 6 muridtico. 
Acido nitrico 6 agua fuerte. 
Aceite dc kerosene. 

Acero, broncc, lat6n, cobrc, estafio puro 6 ligado, plomo, y zinc en pasta 6 
a bruto, en barras, en cabillas, en rasuras 6 en l&minas, est6n 6 no estas ultimas 
aladradas 6 agujereadas. 

Agua de azahares, limonadas y aguas gaseosas. 

Aguarrds 6 espirtu de trementina. 

Agujas para tejer, de acero, madera, hueso, caucho 6 dc cualquiera otra 
materia semejante. • 

Algod6n. 

Alhi^cema 6 espliego. 

Alumbre crude en piedra. 

Amarillo ingl6s 6 cromato de plomo, azarc6n 6 minio, litargirio y manganese 
lineral y el albayalde 6 carbonate dc plomo y la asbestina. 
Animales disecados. 
Anuncios en forma de almanaques de productos medicinales 6 de otras indus- 

^paratos 6 filtradores de agua. 

^rneses y collcras, para coches de todas clases y para calesas, quitrines, 

^ibus, faetones y toda clase de carruajes, carros 6 carretas. 

^rroz molido, sagu, sulu, tapioca y el maiz pilado. 

Vzucar mascabado 6 prieto. 

^-xu-frc en flor 6 en pasta, 

ftalanzas, romanas y pesos, cxcepto los de cobre 6 que tengan la mayor parte 

estc metal y las municiones, perdigones y balas. 

Barba de palo y la fibra especie de esparto. 

Barrilcs, pipas y bocoyes armados 6 sin armar y las duelas cuando vengan por 
eparado. 

oarrenas y taladros para pcrforar piedras 6 troncos. 

Barro vidriado 6 sin vidriar en cualquiera forma, no especificada en otras clases. 

"^2nco de zinc y bolo bianco. 

^J^cos, j uncos 6 junquillos, eneas, palma, paja no especificada, mimbre sin 

"^acturar y la espiga de tr6bol para hacer escgbas. 
^^^^ dc aceite. 

^^^, jarcias y cordeleria 6 mecate. 



^^mbas, boquillas y pipas de b^rro 6 de loza ordinaria, sin ninguna otra 

^^nes de guerra de cualquiera materia que scan, 
^^^^tas, frijoles, garbanzos, lentejas, habichuelas y toda clase de legumbrcs, 

^as y raiccs alimenticias 6 comestibles sin preparar. 
"^^c 6 cafiamazo y coleta cruda numcro 3, telas crudas ordinarias que rcgu- 
^c se emplean para hacer sacos de cacao y de caf6 y para cnfardelar mcr- 
^"^ cuyo color naturalmente oscuro no ha sido alterado por las preparacioncs 
r ^^ para blanquearlas, aunque tengan listas 6 cuadros de color. 
^^*"o6n vegetal en polvo, carb6n animal y negro humo. 



1350 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Carne salada, salpresa 6 ahumada, jamones y paletas que no vengan en latas, 
el tocino y las lenguas ahumadas 6 saladas^ excepto la carne salada en tasajo que 
es de prohibida importaci6n. 

Cafiamazo empapelado para enfardelar^ cart6n Uno 6 papel grueso para escri* 
torio, para tarjetas y para cualquier otro uso^ incluy6ndose en esta clasificaci6n 
el papel impermeable para prensas. 

CeboUas. 

Cedazos de alambre de hierro. 

Cerda vegetal y sus similares. 

Cerote para zapateros. 

Cerveza y sidra. 

Cloruro de cal, creolina y los desinfectantes llquidos 6 en polvo, no comprendi- 
dos en otra clases. 

Cobre viejo, en piezas inutilizadas. 

Cocinas portitiles de hierro u otro metal. 

Coches funebres, incluso los vidrios, plumeros 6 penachos y cualquier otro 
articulo perteneciente al coche, aunque sea de los que separadamente pagan m&s 
derecho, siempre que vengan con el coche en el mismo 6 en otro bulto. 

Creta blanca 6 roja en piedra 6 en polvo. 

Crisoles de todas clases. 

Encurtidos en vinagre con excepci6n de las aceitunas, alcaparras y alcapa- 
rrones. 

Enebrina 6 semilla de enebro. 

Esmcril en piedra 6 en polvo. 

Esparto en rama. 

Espoletas y mechas para la explotaci6n de minas. 

Estoperoles de cobre. 

Fuentes 6 pilas de hierro, m&rmol 6 cualquiera otra materia, y las estatuas, 
bustos, jarrones y floreros de m&rmol, alabastro, granito 6 cualquiera otra piedra 
semejante. 

Flor de sagu. 

Galletas de todas clases, sin mezcla de dulce. 

Gas fluido. 

Goma arlbiga. 

Harina de trigo y s6mola quebrantada para hacer fideos. 

Herramientas 6 instrumentos como mazos, mandarrias, hachuelas, cabrestantes, 
fraguas, fuelles de todas clases, gatos para levantar pesos, mollejones^ tornillos 
grandes para herreros, bigornias, yunques y toda otra herramienta 6 instrumento 
semejantes & los indicados. 

Hierro manufacturado en alambres y en telas de alambre que sirven de fondo 
& las camas, excepto los galvanizados sin manufacturar ; en anclas y cadenas 
para buques, en cajas para guardar dinero, en morteros 6 almireces; en muebles; 
en prensas para copiar cartas y timbrar papel; en clavos, tachuelas, brocas, 
remaches y estoperoles; en edificios desarmados 6 en parte de ellos como bal- 
cones, puertas, balaustres, rejas, columnas, techos, aunque vengan separada- 
mente; en estatuas, jarrones, floreros, bustos y cualquier otro adorno semejante 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



>35i 



para casas y jardines; en pesas para pesar; en planchas para aplanchar; en 
postes para empalizdda; en anafes^ budares, calderos, parrillas, ollas, sartenes, 
tostadores y cualquiera otra pieza para el servicio dom6stico, est^n 6 no estafia- 
dos, y tengan 6 no bafio de loza, excepto el lat6n de hierro u hoja de lata en las 
mismas piezas que corresponden i la 4* clase. Los clavos de hierro galvanizado 
coo arandelas tambi6n de hierro galvanizado corresponden i esta 3* clase. 
Hoja de lata sin manufacturar. 
Hueso, cuerno y pezunas sin manufacturar. 
Holandilla azul de algod6n. 

Juguetes de todas clases para nifios, de cualquiera materia que sean y tambi^n 
las metras. 

Libros impresos en pliegos 6 la riastica, no comprendidos en la primera clase^ 
folleroSy cuadeinos y los libros de instrucci6n primaria que vengan en la misma 
forma 6 en media pasta. 

Lija con base de g^nero 6 de papel. 
Linaza en grano 6 molida y las semillas de colza. 
Lino en rama. 

Loza ordinaria y loza de barro vidriada 6 sin vidriar en cualquier forma, no 
especificada en otras clases. 
Madera de nogal. 

Madera fina para construir instrumentos de musica, ebanisteria, etc. 
Madera en hojas 6 sean chapas para enchapar muebles. 
Maderas aserradas, cepilladas 6 machihembradas. 

Manteca de puerco pura con exclusi6n de toda otra mezcla y la mantequilla. 
Maquinas, tanques de hierro galvanizado y aparatos no comprendidos en las 
clases anteriores, cuyo peso no exceda de mil kilogramos ; advirti6ndose que 
cuando con las miquinas vengan algunos articulos anexos i ellos para repuesto y 
que separadamente paguen mis derecho, se aforari el todo como miiquinas, si 
▼ienen en el mismo bulto. 

Molinos y molinetes no comprendidos en la i* clase. 

Mineral de hierro, cobre, estafio, el lipiz plomo, 6 mina de plomo y el amianto 
6 asbesto. 

Papas no especiHcadas. 

Papel de cualquier clase no especificado y la serpentina 6 cinta de papel. 
Pcscado salpreso, salado 6 ahumado, que no venga en latas. 
Picdra para litografiar, piedra p6mez, piedra de todas clases y en cualquiera 
forma para moler y para amolar ; las refractarias para hornos de fundici6n, las 
de dcstilar y cualquiera otra semejante & las indicadas. 
Pinturas ordinarias, preparadas en aceite. 
Potasa com(in y la calcinada. 
Salitrc y sal de nitro. 
Sanguijuclas. 

Sardinas prensadas, en aceite, en tomates 6 en cualquiera otra forma. 
Scbo prcparado para bujfas, estcfiricas, 6 estearina. 
Soda 6 sosa comijn 6 calcinada. 
Soda 6 sosa carb6nica, cristalizada. 



1352 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Sulfate dc hierro 6 caparrosa. 

Sulfate de cobre 6 piedra lipis. 

Telas 6 tejidos de alambre de hierro, no comprendidos en otras clascs. 

Trementina comun de Venecia. 

Veneno para preservar pieles. 

Vidrios 6 cristales pianos sin azogar. 

Vinagre comun y vinagre empireumAtico, y el orujo de uvas en aguardiente. 

Vinos de todas clases en pipas, barriles 6 barricas, y los vinos tintos cualquiera 
que sea el lugar de su procedencia y el de su producci6n, ya vengan en pipas, 
barriles 6 barricas 6 en botellas, garrafones u otros envases. El vino de Oporto, 
aiin siendo tinto, corresponde i la 4* clase, si vicne en botellas 6 garrafones. 

Venteadores de caf6. * 

Zumaque en polvo 6 en rama. 

[Se continuard en el ndmero del Boletin Mensual correspondiente al mes de marzo.] 



FERROCARRIL INTEROCEANICO. 

Agitase de nuevo la cuestion en la America del Sur de hacer 
mas estrechas las relaciones comerciales y politicas entre las 
diferentes Repiiblicas por medio de una comunicacion mas rapida 
que tavorezca el mejor cambio de productos entre aquellos paises, 
disminuyendo al mismo tiempo la distancia, los peligros y los 
gastos del largo viaje por el Estrecho de Magallanes y por las 
tempest uosas aguas del Cabo de Hornos. 

Todos reconocen, especialmente en Brasil, Peru, Bolivia y 
Chile, la gran necesidad de un ferrocarril interoceanico en la 
America del Sur, que saliendo de los puertos del Brasil, Rio 
Janeiro, por ejemplo, y atravesando la Cordillera de los Andes por 
medio de un tunel, pondria en comunicacion a Europe y al antiguo 
imperio de los Braganzas con las cuatro Republicas de la costa de 
Pacifico, tan ricas en productos naturales. 

Ya se ha Uevado a cabo la parte tecnica de la obra, pues se ha 
hecho el estudio de la linea y se han presentado los pianos, pero 
el gran obstaculo para la realizacion de esta empresa es la falta dc 
capital. Parece, sin embargo, que la cuestion es objeto ahora dc 
consideracion practica y que los representantes de las cuatro 
Republicas inmediatamente interesadas han llegado a un acuerdo y 
aprobado el proyecto de garantizar el interes del capital que se 
invierta en aquella vasta empresa. El Ecuador no se ha adherido 
todavia a los acuerdos tomados. 



DUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. ^353 

Dicese que en el Brasil la opinion publica es del todo favorable 
a la empresa y que el proyecto excita gran entusiasmo. Reciente- 
mente se ha celebrado una reunion en el Club de Ingrenieros de 
Rio, organizada por el Dr. Olivera Bulhoes, a la cual asistieron 
muchos capitalistas y hombrcs prominentes en la vida publica. 
El Gobierno boliviano y el chileno fueron representados por el 
Senor Palavicino y el Dr. Errazuri, sus respectivos ministros en 
el Brasil. 

En la reunion se discutieron ampliamente las muchas causas 

que paralizan el comercio entre las naciones de la America del 

Sur, y se hizo merito de la gran riqueza natural que yace inex- 

plotada, esperando solo el influjo de esta gran empresa inter- 

'lacional. 

La extension de una linea transcontinental desde Rio hasta 
^^ Puerto de la costa del Pacifico, no excederia de unos 2,600 
^ilorrietros. Segiin los personas que entienden en este asunto, 
■* <^apital que se necesita para los preliminares de la obra, ha 
*^^ entregado ya, y solo se espera para inaugurar los trabajos, la 
^^^peracion del Ecuador con las otras republicas, 



^isi6n especial del gobierno ingles en 

la america del sur. 

El South American Journal de 8 de enero, refiriendose a los 

^3.sos que esta dando el Gobierno ingles para retener y ensanchar 

*^ actual comercio con la America del Sur, publica lo siguiente: 

**Se nos comunica que el Gobierno ha encomendado a Mr. 

^ ORTHiNGTON, dc Manchester, el encargo especial de ir a la 

-^nnerica del Sur, con el objeto de investigar las condiciones de los 

^ercados locales para informacion de la junta de comercio que 

^sta considerando ahora la conveniencia de establecer una oficina 

de relaciones comerciales. Mr. Worthington ira acompanado de 

Sir Vincent Barrington, el cual representa a las camaras de 

comercio asociadas. Ambos comisionados piensan salir de este 

P^is, para la America del Sur a fines del corriente mes." 

^i Daily Mail, al dar esta noticia, agrega : 

°* preliminares del proyecto que Sir Courtney Boyle hizo pdblico reciente- 
^^ en Nottingham, continiian haciendo firmcs progresos. No s61o se han 



1354 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

obtenido informes fehacientes de varias c&maras de comercio, sino que se han 
rccogido tambi6n datos de no poco valor. Esta informacidn no basta, sin em- 
bargo, 4 indicar cual sea el caricter final de aquel proyecto. Esto, segun se dice, 
s61o podri ser determinado cuando los miembrqs de la comisidn que ha sido 
nombrada para estudiar la proposici6n, presenten su informe al presidente de la 
''Junta de Comercio " la cual lo sometari entonces al Gabinete, acompafiado de 
sus recomendaciones, y el Gabinete decideri en definitiva. 



c6digo de nomenclatura comercial. 

El Ministerio de Hacienda de los Estados Unidos ha emitido 
la circular que publicamos a continuacion, y por la cual se vc 
que adopta para uso en las aduanas de este pais el Codigo 
de Nomenclatura Comercial preparado y publicado por la Oficina 
de las Repiiblicas Americanas : 

[Circular del Ministerio No. i6. Departamento de Aduanas.] 

Ministerio de Hacienda. 

DeSPACHO del MiNlSTRO. 

Washington^ D. C, enero 22 de i8<)8, 
A los Administradores y otros Empleados de las Aduanas : 

De conformidad con una resoluci6n de la Conferencia Internacional Ameri- 
cana, por la cual se recomend6 i los gobiernos representados en ella, la adopci6n 
de una nomenclatura comun para designar en orden alfab^tico, en ingles, portu- 
gu6s y espafiol, aquellos articulos gravados con derechos de importaci6n^ i fin 
de que dicha nomenclatura fliera usada por todas las naciones americanas al 
imponer derechos en las aduanas existentes 6 que puedan existir mis tarde, as( 
como para preparar manifiestos, facturas consulares, partidas de aduana, solici- 
tudes de despacho en las mismas y otros documentos, la Oficina de las Repdbli- 
cas Americanas ha publicado, en tres tomos, una obra titulada " Codigo de 
Nomenclatura Comercial," que contiene 28,000 t6rminos comerciales, ordenados 
de tal manera que constituyen un excelente libro de consulta en las tres lenguas, 
inglesa, portuguesa y espafiola. 

Notifico i usted que la mencionada publicaci6n ha sido adoptada por este 
Ministerio para la traducci6n de palabras y frases comerciales, y que los adminis- 
tradores de aduana, asi como los aforadores, deben guiarse por ella, informando 
i este ministerio de cualquier error 6 inexactitud que descubran en el citado 
trabajo. 

W. B. Howell, Sub-Secretano. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. ^355" 



COMERCIO MISCELANEO. 

REPtJBLICA ARGENTINA. 

Inportacidn de Oarb6n ^^ agente de una casa importante de Filadelfia que 
Americano. comcrcia en carb6n, estd en Buenos Aires ocupado en 

>locar el carb6n de Pocahontas en el mercado de aquella ciudad. Este carb6n 
r Ha usado por algiin tiempo en la America Central y las Antillas y ha dado 
sv&ltados muy satisfactorios. El comercio de carb6n entre los Estados Unidos 
la Repdblica Argentina es muy limitado y puede adquirir gran desarrollo si 

Hacen los csflierzps apropiados i su desenvolvimiento y se le presta la debida 

:cTici6n. El valor total del carb6n embarcado para la America del Sur en el. 

iio fiscal que termin6 el 30 de junio de 1897, fu€ s61o de $145,000. El carb6n 

e las cxtensas minas de Virginia, que tiene fScil salida por el puerto de Norfolk, 

•udiera encontrar mercado en las Antillas y en la America Central y del Sur. 

La cosecha de trigo de la Rcpdblica Argentina, que 
3o«»clu deTrigo en Santa Fe. .° j 1 /, • \ 

habia venido practicandose en todo el ultimo mes, ha 

tcrniinado ya. Segiin noticias recibidas del Dcpartmento de Santa Fe, que es el 
centro del distrito productor de trigo de la Repfiblica, la 61tima cosecha ha sido 
la mayor que se ha visto en muchos afios. Dlcese que la cosecha ha sido excep- 
tional, no s61o en cantidad, sino tambi6n en la calidad del grano, tanto en peso 
como en color. 
El^^»Mu• de Aparatos Qu6janse los importadores de Buenos Aires del mal 
Eifctriooa. estado en que llegan i su poder los aparatos y accesorios 

"tctricos que se les envfan, i causa del poco cuidado con que se hace el 
cmpaquc. Se cita el hecho de una casa americana que envi6 4 aquel mercado un 
cxtenso cargamento de Umparas de globo, muchas de las cuales llegaron rotas, 
^imultineamente i este queja, consignase el hecho de que los cargamentos de 
'gual clase de articulos procedentes de Inglaterra, han llcgado en mejores condi- 
^lOnes. Estos hechos son de importancia manifiesta para los interesados en 
*?"^^ comercio. 

BRASIL. 



boc; 



Q El Cable del Oestc y del Brasil, entre Pernambuco y 

Ceari, y el Cable del Amazonas, que se extiende desde la 

. ^ ^e este Ho hasta Manaos, los cuales han permanecido rotos por algdn 

Po, han sido rcparados y ha quedado rcstablecida la comunicaci6n. 

^^l»ortacito da Gknna ^* exportaci6n de goma elistica por el puerto de Pari, 

EUatica. ^jj octubre (Sltimo, ascendi6 i 2,074,644 kilogramos, de 

^ales 1,061,513 fueron embarcados para Europa, y 1,013,071 para los 

^^^'^dos Unidos. 

MUnj^OioanMinaa ^^ ^^^ Bento Gold Mining Company, que hace un afio 

^^•'■•■' comenz6 sus operaciones en el Estado de Minas, es propie- 

^^%de unos 10,000 acres de tierra Calculibase una extracci6n de media onza 



1356 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

de oro por tonelada, pero en algunos lugares el mineral es mucho mis abundante 

de lo que se esperaba y se obtiene en la proporci6n de una onza y setenta y dos 

granos por tonelada. £1 mineral es tan quebradizo que puede trabajarse sin 

necesidad de machacarlo previamente, pas&ndolo simplemente por entre cilindros 

y echindolo en seguida en los tanques de cianuro. £1 capital de la compatiia es 

de 1,300,000 ore. 

La nueva faibrica de sombreros cstablecida ultimamente 
Narva Fftbrica de Sombreros. ^ . , ^ ^ n- ^ r * 

en la ciudad de Rio de Janeiro emplea 1 20 operarios y 
hace 1,000 sombreros al dia. Puede, sin embargo, producir hasta 5,000 som- 
breros diariamente, haciendo todo el trabajo de que es capaz, y se dice que lle- 
gard i emplear 600 operarios. 

Asegura el Jornal do Commercio que la Braziliaim^ 
Abastecimiento de Oarb6n. . . 

Financial Company, de Londres, ha celebrado un con— 

trato para el abastecimiento de carb6n del Ferrocarril Central durante el ano 

pr6ximo. El precio que por dicho articulo se pagard, segun lo estipulado, ser& 

de $6.25 la tonelada, puesta en el puerto de Rio de Janeiro. Segun el convenio^ 

la cuarta parte de toda la cantidad puede ser entregada en Santos, con un gasto 

adicional de 75 centavos por tonelada. 

CHILE. 
Se ha constituido una compafiia en Valparaiso con el 

Exportaci6n de Game Selada. 

objeto de exportar came helada i Europa, haciendo los 
cmbarques por Punta Arenas, en el Estrecho de Magallanes. Dicese que muy 
pronto se exportarfin, por via de ensayo, 20,000 carncros muertos. 

MfiXICO. 
Muy pronto quedari establecida en M6xico una nueva 

XTna Fibrica de Hojalata. . . 

industria con la inauguraci6n de una fabrica de hojalata, 

y ya se ha solicitado del Gobierno una concesi6n apropiada. Debido i la gran 
importancia que va adquiriendo en la Republica la industria de muchos articulos 
que so conservan y exportan en latas, especialmente frutas y legumbres, la 
proyectada fibrica viene realmente & satisfacer una necesidad, y se aguarda con 
interns la acci6n del Gobierno. 

TAbrica de Bicicietav y de U" fabricante amcricano ha obtcnido una concesi6n 
Liantaa de Ooma EiAstica. del Gobiemo de M6xico para establecer una fibrica dc 
bicicletas y de llantas de goma ellstica. Es la intenci6n del concesionario utilizar 
el excelente caudal de agua con que ya cuenta, para generar fuerza el^ctrica y 
competir con los fabricantes de los Estados Unidos en el comercio dc bicicletas. 
Otra de las ventajas con que se cuenta para llevar i cabo con buen ^xito esta 
empresa, es la baratura del trabajo del obrero en Mexico. 
Inaaffiiraci6n del Ferrocarril Un acontecimiento de inter6s 6 importancia por cuanto 

de M^idco, OaemaTaca 7 n . » / 

el Pacfflco. denota el desarroUo interior de Mexico y su espiritu 

progresivo, fu6 la inauguraci6n oficial, en diciembre iiltimo, del ferrocarril dc 
Mexico, Cuernavaca y el Pacifico, que se extiende desde la ciudad dc Mexico 
hasta Cuernavaca. Di6 mayor importancia y distinci6n i este acto la presencia 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. I357 

*rcsidcnte de la Repiiblica y su Gabinete, asi como de varies miembros del 

)o diplomitico y otras personas distinguidas residentes en el pals. La dis- 

a cntre los extremes de la llnea es de 75 millas, pero la importancia de cstc 

csa consiste en el hecho de que el ferrocarril seri prolongado hasta Acapulco, 

. costa del Pacifico, y su construcci6n hasta este puerto seri Uevada & cabo 

la misma actividad que desde el principio ha distinguido i esta empresa. 

■paraiaConstrnccidn Hasta el 27 de diciembre de 1807, se habian recibido 

Nnevo Palacio Fe- ^ , . , , 

il. para examen veinte y nueve series de pianos, con las 

ispondientes proposiciones, para la construcci6n del nuevo palacio legislative 
; ciudad de M6xico. Algunos de estos proyectos han sido presentados por 
canos y otros por europeos; pero la mayoria precede de arquitectos 
icanos. 

ininaria Eifotrica en ^^ sindicato que explota I08 tranvias de M6xico, se pre- 
M63dco. ^^T2i i introducir la electricidad como fuerza motora en el 

cio deellos en la capital. La compafila es propietaria deunas 140 millas de 
que proyecta explotar en su totalidad, empleando la electricidad como motor, 
ia incluido en el proyecto el ramal entre Guadalupe y San Angel. Calcfilasc 
:1 costo total del nuevo servicio seri de unos $5,000,000, y se brindari i 
5 los fabricantes electricistas la oportunidad de presentar proposiciones. 

£1 desarrollo de la industria textil del aleod6n en 

Indnstria Teztil. »,, . . t , . 

Mexico, esti llamando la atenci6n de los paises extranjeros. 
iguientes cifras evidencian este desarrollo, asl como tambi^n el aumento en la 
iblica de la producci6n de algoddn. En los diez primeros meses de 1897, la 
I Bretana export6 i Mexico 34,301,600 yardasde tejidos de algod6n, contra 
64,200 yardas en el perlodo corrcspondiente de 1896. La importaci6n 
edcnte de los Estados Unidos, en los nueve primeros meses de los afios 
> y 1897, fu6 de 6,034,908 yardas y 4,503,773 yardas, respectivamente. En 
lucve primeros meses de 1897, la importaci6n de algod6ii en rama, procc- 
e de los Estados Unidos, baj6 de 12,146,161 jibras, i que habia ascendido 
jual periodo del ano anterior, 4 5, 1 29,429 libras. Dicese por personas com- 
ntes que las tres cuartas partes del algod6n que se usa en los telares mexicanos 
de producci6n nacional y que cada afio se cultiva aqu^l en cantidad mayor. 
los (iltimos afios se han establecido muchos telares y se han celebrado con- 
os para la construcci6n de otros en la vecindad de Puebla. El provecho en 
I industria es muy satisfactario, pues representa del 20 al 30 por ciento sobre 
apital invcrtido. 
cttiAp para eotableoer Sc ha obtcnido recicntemcntc del Gobierno mexicano 

** Nuvra Fnndicidn 

v^Minflraiea. una concesidn para establecer en Villa del Carmen, Estado 

Coahuila, una fundici6n para el beneHcio de toda clase de minerales. Los 
'cesionarios rcsiden en Kansas City, Mo. 

^gun los t6rminos de la concesi6n, la fundici6n deberd tener capacidad para 
'cficiar diariamentc, como minimum, 25 toneladas de mineral. La erecci6n de 
^ndici6n y de todos sus accesorios deberi comenzar dentro de dos afios, k 
'Urdcl 30 de diciembre de 1897, y deberi quedar terminada, i mas tardar, 
tro de los echo meses subsiguientes i la terminaci6n de aquel periodo. La 
[uinaria y el material para esta obra entrarin libres de derecho. 

BoU. No. 



1358 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

FtfrdidadeuxaOoncesidnde Debido al hccho dc no habcr cumplido la Compafiladc 
rerrocaml. Ferrocarril Mexicana del Sudeste con las estipulaciones 

dc la concesi6n que le fu6 otorgada, el Gobierno mexicano declar6 que el contrato 
habia caducado. Esta resoluci6n se funda en no haber los conccsionarios cumplido 
con lo que dispone el artlculo 2°, en el cual sc estipul6 que dentro de un afio 
despu^s de promulgada la conccsi6n (20 de diciembre de 1896) 100 kilometres dc 
la linea, de San Ger6nimo i la frontera de Guatemala, debian estar terminados. 
Con la caducidad se pierde la suma de $50,000 depositada en manos del Gobierno, 
como prueba de buena £6 en el cumplimiento del contrato. 

En los presupuestos para el afio fiscal de 1808-00, 

PrerapuMto de 1898-1899. , 1 >, 7 y?» 

presentados al Congreso por el Senor Don Jos^ Ives 

LiMANTouR, se calculan los gastos en $52,089,000, y los ingresos en $52,109,000. 

El importe de los derechos de aduana se calcula en $23,847,000, y las coniri- 

bucions en $23,092,000. Los ingresos provenientes de otras fuentes coraplctan 

aquella cantidad. 

NICARAGUA. 

En el BoLETfN de diciembre se hizo referencia i un 

Ferrocarril Nacional. 1 1 «• j 

proyecto de ley, penaiente entonccs ante el Congreso de 

Nicaragua, autorizando la venta del Ferrocarril Nacional y los vaporcs del 

Lago Managua que hacen sus viajes en combinaci6n con aqu61. Ahora, el 

C6nsul de los Estados Unidos en Managua, Mr. Paul Wiesike, comunica al 

Departamento de Estado, con fecha 19 de octubre de 1897, que aqucl proyecto 

ha sido aprobado y que el comisionado que ha nombrado el Gobierno, par* 

vender 6 arrendar la llnea, visitiri en primer t^rmino &. los Estados Unidos. 

Para el equipo completo de la linea, segun Mr. Wiesike, se necesitan loocarros 

de caj6n y 3 locomotoras, la reconstrucci6n de uno de los puentes y la rcpara- 

ci6n del camino, todo lo cual requiere un gasto de no menos de $100,000. 

Una correspondencia publicada en el Engineering and 
Minas de Oro. 1 • ^ . 

Mining Journal, dice que se han descubierto unas mina* 
en el Distrito de Siquia, i unas 20 millas de Rama y i 80 de Bluefields, rJo arriba. 
Creese que este distrito es muy rico, pues los ensayos practicados han dado po' 
rcsultado de $19.50 i $36 en oro, y de 6 i 10 onzas de plata, por tonclada. 
Los arroyos de las montanas en la localidad dondc se encuentra el cuarzo» 
suministran agua en abundancia que puede utilizarse como fuerza moiriz. L^^ 
propietarios de la tierra estfin abriendo galerias y prepar&ndose i explotar s^* 
posesiones en grande escala. 

PERT?. 

Los f6sforos de azufre que se consumen en Lima, ^ 
importan de Succia, pues no hay fibricas de este artlcuio 
en el Perd, y su importaci6n es muy cuantiosa. 

Se estd adoptando ya el alumbrado el6ctrico y sc crcc que dentro dc po^^ 
tiempo sustituird por completo al alumbrado de gas, tanto en los lugares J 
cstablecimiento ptiblicos como en las residencias de particulares. Muchasdcla* 
ciudades principales de la Republica estdn interesadas en este adelanto y, P^^ 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



'359 



consiguiente, la oportunidad que se ofrece i los fabricantes de aparatos el^ctricos 
en los Estados Unidos, es por demis favorable en aquel pals. 

La fabricaci6n de muebles ha hecho tales progresos en el pais, que la impor- 
taci6n de muebles extrai\jeros es ya casi insigniHcante y se limita por completo i 
los de mis fina construcci6n. 



bdutriade 

li Amirica Lcfina. 



ESTADOS UNIDOS. 

La tabla que publicamos i continuaci6n, hecha con 
datos suministrados por la OUcina de Estadistica^ deja ver 
i cuanto ascendi6 la industria de transportes entre los Estados Unidos y los 
diierentes parses de la America latina durante el mes de noviembre, asi como la 
proporci6n que de dicha industria se hizo en navios americanos. Segun la misma 
autoridad, los buques que llevan la bandera de los Estados Unidos ocupan el 
^do lugar entre los que se dedican i la industria mencionada. El primer 
bgar lo ocupan los ingleses, viniendo en seguida los navios americanos y despu6s 
losnoniegos y los alemanes. 



Paises. 



America Central 
Mhico 

Argentina 

Boliria . . 
Brasfl 

Chile .*.'.'' 

Colombia... 

Ecuador 

Paraguay 

Pert 

Uruguay 

V«nc2uela 



Valor de la 
mercancia. 



$622, 678 

3.156,580 

1,008,511 

270 

7. 543. 577 
416, 546 

659. 326 
n6,455 

524 
176. 533 
310, 301 

800, 939 



Navfos ameri- 
canos. 



286, 378 

1,031,242 

148, 889 

270 

616, 402 

88, 531 

223, 587 

"6,455 



55. 584 
863,811 



Omndoda Oarb6n. 



URUGUAY. 

En un informe al Departamento de Estado, fechado el 4 
de diciembre de 1897, el C6nsul Albert W. Swalm da 
^tercsantcs datos referentes al comercio de carbdn en el Uruguay. El carb6n 
^^ a! Uruguay de Cardiff, Wales, en competencia con el de los Estados Unidos. 
^ carb6n que usan los ferrocarriles es libre de derechos, pero todo otro carb6n 
P^ 60 centavos por tonelada. El avaliio aduanero del triiico de carb6n ha 
°*ontado 401,000,000. El precio al por menor fluctda de $8 i $10 (oro) la tone- 
**^pcro en 1897 hubo una depresi6n, tanto en la importaci6n como en cl 
''^gocio en general, comparado con el afio anterior. 

Infonna Mr. Swalm que recientemente ha llegado i Montevideo un represen- 
tee de una de las compafilas de la costa del Atldntico mis fuertes en la exporta- 
a6n dc carb6n, con el prop6sito de hacer arreglos para llevar carb6n americano 
i compctir con el de Wales. No ve el C6nsul porque el negocio no ha de tener 
^ ^xito, sicmpre que los cargamentos de los Estados Unidos conserven el 



1360 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

modelo de limpieza establecido por las companias rivales, lo cual no ha sucedido 
hasta ahora, siendo esta la causa principal de que el carb6n americano decaiga y 
no domine el mercado. 

ExportacidndeLanayPieie. La exportaci6n de lana del puerto de Montevideo, 
de Oamero. segdn Mr. SwALM, C6nsul de los Estados Unidos en esc 

puerto, fu€, desde el 1® de octubre al 30 de noviembre de 1897, de 6,705 pacasdc 
500 kilogram OS (1,102.3 libras). De 6stas, 173 pacas se despacharon para los 
Estados Unidos ; para Francia, 3,105 ; i B61gica, 883, y d Inglaterra997. La lana 
trasquilada fu6 larga y generalmente de mejores condiciones que la del aiio 
anterior. Del 1® de agosto al 30 de noviembre de 1897, se exportaron 7,729 
pacas de pieles de carnero, de las cuales la mayor parte fu6 i Francia. 

VENEZUELA. 
Inctalacidn del sistema de La concesi6n que se hizo en Julio de 1806 para el 

Tranrfas ElActriooa en Oa- . . 

racaa. establecimiento de un sistema de tranvfas el6ctricosen 

la ciudad de Caracas, ha quedado sin efecto por no haber cumplido los conccsio- 
narios con los t6rminos del contrato. Al presente, el servicio de ferrocarril 
urbano en Caracas es muy deficiente, y como dicha concesi6n ha quedado sin 
efecto, se presenta ahora i los capitalistas americanos interesados en la promoci6n 
de esta clase de empresas, una oportunidad favorable para solicitar una nueva 
concesi6n. 



BOLETIM MENSAL 



DA 



jEcretaria das Republicas AMERICANAS 

UNIAO INTBRNACIONAL DAS REPUBLICAS AMBRICANAS 

OL. V. FEVEREIRO de 1898. No. 8. 



tELAgOES COMMERCIAES ENTRE OS PAIZES 

AMERICANOS.— VIII* 

RECURSOS NACIONAES DO MEXICO. 

Nos artigos anteriores desta serie, o commercio exterior do Me- 
^^co, America Central, Antilhas e America do Sul, fbi principal- 
^ente considerado. Agora vamos examinar os recursos intemos 
lestes paizes em sua ordem, e seu estado de desenvolvimento como 
^ para o augmento do seu commercio no exterior. 

No Mexico, o progresso realizado durante a ultima decada nas 
'^dustrias manufactureiras e agricolas, assim como no augmento 
^iacilidades de transporte que sao muito necessarias para utilisar 
^^ctivamente os recursos naturaes de um paiz, tem sido rapido e 
Sectivo. Isto e devido, principalmente, a estabilidade, ordem e 
^pirito de progresso que tem caracterisado a administra9ao do 
fesidente Diaz, durante sens successivos termos. Nao se pode 
uvidar que o Mexico tem uma grande divida de reconhecimento 
ira com o habil estadista e esclarecido executi vo, que, com a coope- 
9ao zelosa do melhor intelligencia do paiz, Ihe assegurou um 
•ande periodo de paz e de tranquillo desenvolvimento. Feliz- 
lente para o Mexico, elle tem sido auxiliado por condi96es eco- 
)micas creadas, em parte, pela legisla9ao, que contribuiram para 

■ 9 

^Opriraeiro artigo desta serie foi publicado no Boletim mensal de Julho de 1897. 

1361 



1362 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

fomentar as industrias proprias ao paiz e para estimular o espirito 
de empreza e trabalho. 

O Mexico e muito rico em uma variedade de productos de que 
todo o mundo necessita, e cuja produc9ao nao e sufficiente ainda 
para supprir em excesso o mcrcado. O Mexico, no seu commer- 
cio de exporta9ao nao depende de productos taes como o trigo, 
algodao, la, assucar e carncs, os quaes, se produzem em tanta 
quantidade nas zonas temperadas, que n^o se podem realizar com 
elles grandes ganhos, salvo nos periodos de falta de produccao. 
As riquezas estao correndo para o Mexico em consequencia da 
sua grande produc9ao de metaes preciosos e outros mineraes que. 
se procuram constantemente ; do cafe, das fibras, tabaco, baunilha 
e fructas que ainda trazem pre90S relativamente elevados nos 
mercados do mundo. No anno de 1897, o Mexico exportou 
mineraes no valor de $42,000,000. Nos primeiros nove mezes 
de 1897, ^ Mexico exportou cafe no valor de $4,574,252 contra 
$3,333,385 durante o mesmo periodo de 1896. 

Suas exporta95es de hennequen para os Estados Unidos durante 
OS nove mezes augmentaram de mais de meio milhao de dollais, c 
o total das exporta96es monta a quasi $8,000,000 annualmente. 
A exporta9ao de laranjas foi muito augmentada em conscqueacia 
de descobrir-se que as laranjas mexicanas podiam ser usadas para 
supprir a falta na colheita dos Estados Unidos. Ainda mesrn^ 
quando ha boa colheita de laranjas neste paiz, a produc9ao «^ 
Mexico nao prejudica as colheitas da California e Florida, porquc 
as laranjas dos respectivos paizes amadurecem e sao vendidas em 
difFerentes esta95es. O Mexico recebe de sua exporta^ao dc 
baunilha mais de $1,000,000 por anno. A exporta9ao de tabaco 
monta a $2,000,000, approximadamente, e a qualidade da folh^ 
e tao semelhante a de Cuba que o desenvolvimento deste ramo da 
industria agricola parece assegurado. Exportam-se annualmente 
animaes, couros e pelles no valor de cerca de $3,000,000. ^ 
Mexico e muito rico em madeiras de construc9ao, paos de tiO' 
turaria, plantas medicinaes e outros artigos de uso. A exporta?^^ 
de paos de marcenaria e de tinturaria monta a $2,000,000 ^ 
$3,000,000 annualmente, e a abundancia do producto e tanta ^^^ 
a industria e susceptivel de grande desenvolvimento. 

Uma zona metallifFera de riqueza extraordinaria estende-s^ ^ 
uma distancia de cerca de 1 ,200 milhas, na direc9ao do norocs^^ 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. I363 

para o sudoeste, desde o Estado de Sonora ate o Estado de 

Oaxaca, e offerece um vasto campo para a explora9§Lo lucrativa de 

minas. Encontram-se nesta regiSo em maior ou menor abundan- 

cia, ouro, prata, mercurio, ferro, carvao de pedra, chumbo brando, 

asphalto, asbesto, petroleo, sal, cobre, pedras preciosas, onyx, e 

marmores de grande variedade e belleza. Em um relatorio publi- 

cado em Agosto de 1897, o consul geral britannico junto ao 

Mexico declara que estao sendo exploradas muitas novas minas 

de ouro nos Estados de Sonora, Oaxaca, e Mexico, e pode-se 

esperar um grande augmento da produc9ao. Cre-se que o Estado 

de Chihuahua e a mais rica regiao mineral do mundo. As estra- 

das de ferro que se estao construindo, darSLo as facilidades de trans- 

porto que se necessitam, e sem duvida, serao seguidas por um 

grande desenvolvimento da industria mineira. Ja se tem empre- 

gado o capital americano em grande escala nas minas mexicanas, 

e tem sido creado um mercado para machinas e apparelhos ameri- 

canos de economisar trabalho, os quaes serao mais procurados a 

propor9ao que se augmentem as emprezas mineiras. 

Um mercado para as machinas e instrumentos americanos sera 
^ectuado pelo augmento das emprezas agricolas e pelo melhora- 
mento dos methodos de agricultura que a venda lucrativa no 
cstrangciro de muitos dos productos mexicanos deve produzir. 
Uma grande parte do planalto central do Mexico e muito fertil e 
^0 productivo, que continua, com os mais primitivos methodos de 
cultura e depois de seculos de uso, a produzir colheitas abundantes. 
Quando o povo reconhecer a economia do tempo .e trabalho que 
^ pode efFectuar pelo uso das machinas e instrumentos agricolas, 
no fabrico dos quaes os Estados Unidos sao afamados, e com- 
prehender seus varios usos, a produc9ao desta grande regiao sera 
^normemente augmentada, e sera creado um vasto mercado para 
"ni dos mais importantes ramos das manufacturas americanas. 

Mexico, entretanto, esta augmentando rapidamente suas 
'^dustrias nacionaes, e no correr do tempo, podera utilisar, sem 
^^vida, uma grande por9ao de suas materias primas em certos 
^^08 manufactureiros. O Sr. Ransom, ministro dos Estados 
^nidos, em um relatorio em data de 26 de Setembro de T896, que foi 
P^Wicado nos relatorios consulares especiaes " Money and Prices 
'^ Foreign Countries," diz o seguinte: "A industria manufac- 
^ureira no Mexico tem sido desenvolvida em grande escala, espe- 



1364 DUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

cialmente na manufactura de tecidos de algodSio e de 12L de grossa 
qualidade, tecidos branqueados ordinarios, tecidos para chales, 
chitas, e fazendas de la; tambem na manufactura de productosde 
canna de assucar, alcohol, papel, charutos e cigarros. Muitas 
pessoas hem informadas crem que a diminui9ao no pre90 da prata 
foi a causa principal do desenvolvimento destas industrias. Sem 
duvida, ate certo ponto, isto e verdade. O grande desconto sober 
a prata deu como resultado a diminui9^o das importa96es do exte- 
rior e o fomento da produc9ao nacional. 

Mas outras causas poderosas contribuiram para este resultado, 
taes como uma habil, judiciosa e equitativa administra9ao do 
Governo durante a presidencia do General Diaz, a confiancado 
povo mexicano e dos estrangeiros na estabilidade do Governo, a 
construc9ao de estradas de ferro (sendo todas construidas desde o 
anno de 1883, salvo a de Vera Cruz ate a cidade do Mexico) os 
melhoramentos dos portos da costa, o augmento do commercio, a 
legisla9ao liberal do Governo para com novas industrias. Com 
efFeito, todas as influencias geraes de ordem, paz, e commercio 
tern contribuido para este resultado. N^o e extravagante dizer 
que, durante os ultimos dez annos, os cidadSos dos Estados Unidos 
tcm empregado nas minas, estradas de ferro, terras, e outra.s 
emprezas do Mexico, capitaes maiores do que o total da moed^ 
em circula9ao na Republica. 

Tambem nao devemos desprezar o facto muito significante dc 
que OS direitos aduaneiros sobre os artigos manufacturados de alg<^ 
dao, la, papel, tabaco e os productos alcoholicos sao muito eleva- 
dos. Os direitos sobre os tecidos manufacturados de algod^^ 
foram impostos no anno de 1830, e foram augmentados vari^^ 
vezes ate 1887. Desde este periodo tem permanecido quasi fixos. 
Estes direitos tem prohibido a importa9ao de muitas classes d^ 
tecidos de algodao e de la, e pode-se dizer com seguran9a q^^ 
sobre as qualidades grossas destes productos os direitos nos ultimas 
dez on quinze annos tem sido na media de 40 a 75 e 85 por cento. 
Nesta connexao, accrescento uma exposi9ao feita por um escritor 
eminente n'uma obra intitulada " Les Finances des Etats-Unis 
Mexicains d'apres Documents Officials," por Prosper GLONEi^» 
publicada em 1895. Elle disse: "A industria de algodao no 
Mexico deye seu desenvolvimento aos excessivos direitos adua- 
neiros que se impoem sobre os tecidos de algodao ordinarios. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. ^3^5 

Cinco por cento destes direitos foi imposto primeiramente em 
1830, e o augmento de direitos continuou ate 1887." 

Sr. Crittenden, consul geral dos Estados Unidos, em um 

relatorio datado da cidade do Mexico a 7 de Setembro de 1896, 

que foi publicado no primeiro volume das rela9oes commerciaes 

dos Estados Unidos em 1895-96, diz que, desde que a taxa de 

cambio entre o Mexico e os governos estrangeiros tornou-se tSo 

variavel e desfavoravel, e altas tarifas de protec9ao foram impostas 

sobre quasi todos os artigos que se consomem no Mexico, muitos 

dos artigos que antes se importaram, taes como cobertores, tapetes, 

pannos de toda a classe para roupa de homens, chitas, roupa feita 

de todas as classes, chapeos, sapatos e outros artigos sao manu- . 

6cturados necessariamente na Republica do Mexico. O povo 

destepaiz foi bastante intelligente e energico para aproveitar-se 

dtsiz corrente ad versa, e por conseguinte, tem construido com 

admiravel rapidez uma serie de fabricas grandes e pequenas para 

o 6brico de quasi todas as classes de mercadorias e se empregam 

Bellas machinas modernas que comparam favoravelmente com as 

achinas empregadas por outras na95es. 

"Alguns artigos manufacturados no Mexico sao excellentes em 

"dume, trama e aperfeicoamento e se usam mais geralmente do 

^xie no passado. Os fabricantes do Mexico tem as vantagens de 

larios baratos e o livre uso de for9a de agua, que se encontra em 

luitas partes do Mexico, e muitas vezes perto das estradas de 

•rroque penetram em varias partes da Republica. Os trabalha- 

^ores inexpertos estao sob a direc9ao de peritos estrangeiros que 

^c)m facilidade os instruem na execu9ao das obras mais difficeis. 

^cgundo informa9oes que tenho recebido, as fabricas pagam divi- 

^<ndos annuaes de 20 a 40 por cento. * * * 

*'Com o estimulo que produzem as causas mencionadas, o 

^ifxico nao tardara em ter fabricas em todos os Estados de facil 

Access© e que se adaptam ao estabelecimento das mesmas. Os 

pToductos destas fabricas irao melhorando cada dia e poderao ser 

^'cndidos a pre9os que excluirao em grande parte dos mercados os 

artigos mais ordinarios. Hoje mesmo se exporta cal9ado de 

^Iguns dos Estados do norte do Mexico para nosso paiz. ^Tenho 

^'isto aqui alguns tecidos muito bem feitos para vestidos de homens 

^ ^ni fato feito nos melhores estabelecimentos custa de $20 a 

W mocda mexicana. Acha-se no Mexico grande quantidade 



1366 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

de la. Tainbem se cultiva o algodSo em algumas partes da 
Republica, mas a quantidade nSLo e sufRciente para o consurao 
e o que falta para supprir a demanda, que monta a 75,000 e 
100,000 fardos per anno, e importado de Texas, e custa, quando 
collocado nas fabricas, de 21 a 22 centavos por libra, moeda 



mexicana." 



O Sr. Garden, consul geral da Gri Bretanha na cidade do 
Mexico, concorre com os representantes americanos quanto ao 
grande desenvolvimento de emprezas industriaes neste paiz. "A 
grande actividade no fabrico de algodao," diz elle no seu relatorio 
de Agosto de 1897, "pode ser medida pelo facto de que, ainda 
que haja uma colheita de algodao extraordinariamente boa no 
Mexico em 1896, as importa9oes de algodao cm excederam as do 
anno anterior por mais de 30,000 quintaes, ou mais que 10 poi 
cento, e kto mesmo, n^io obstante ter augmentado muito o pre^ 
de algodao." Elle attribue a diminui9ao de quasi 12 percent 
nas importa9oes de fazendas de IS, " ao grande melhoramento d^-s 
qualidade das manufacturas nacionaes." Explica-se o augment:-^ 
de quasi 70 por cento nas importa9des de ferro e a9o pela "activ^ 
dade extraordinaria na construc9ao e melhoramento de obras c3 
utilidade permanente para o paiz." 

O desenvolvimento industrial do Mexico tem sido acompanhac:::i=3 
por um augmento notavel nas facilidades de transports No p ^^ 
meiro de Julho de 1897, estiveram funccionando na Republi ^ 
7,365 milhas de estradas de ferro, e ha razao de esperar, julgan^^ 
do progresso dos annos recentes e os vastos recursos que esper^fc-^ 
uma sahida para os mercados do mundo, que a construccao ^^ 
estradas de ferro sera muito augmentada no proximo futii *" 
"Hoje," disse o consul geral Grittenden no seu relatorio ^ 
7 de Setembro de 1 896, " pode-se atravessar por via ferrea qa ^^ 
todas as partes da Republica, e chegar ao Mexico vindo cJ^ 
Estados Unidos por qualquer de tres vias ferreas, ou por vck^^ 
nificos vapores de New York ate Tampico ou Vera Gru:2^ 
d'alli por via ferrea ate a cidade do Mexico. Estas vias ferret* 
entretanto, tem sido construidas quasi inteiramente na costa ^^ 
Atlantico; por conseguinte, a costa do Pacifico e em grande part^^ 
inaccessivel ou e attingida indirectamente e por maiores distanc^-^ 
Tudo isto, entretanto, esta sendo rapidamente modificado, e hc^ ^ 
estao-se construindo tres vias ferreas na direc9ao dos portos 3-^ 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. ^3^7 

Pacifico. Em breve, pode-se dizer, com efFeito, que o Mexico 
esta atravesaudo em toda parte por vias ferreas. Essas novas 
estradas de ferro est^o sendo subsidiadas pelo Govemo." 

Desde a data do relatorio do Sr. Crittenden, a estrada de ferro 

atravez do Isthmo de Tehuan tepee, que liga o Atlantico ao 

Pacifico, foi concluida e promette ser um factor do commercio 

intemacional, dando, alem disto, os meios de facil communica9ao 

entre as costas de leste e do oeste da Republica e ligando os 

grandes systemas de vias ferreas do planalto central. 

commercio maritimo do Mexico, na costa do Atlantico, e 
^ffectuado em grande parte pela New York and Cuba Mail Steam- 
^^ip Company, conhecida tambem como ** Ward Line," que tem 
'^^a frota de vapores que navegam entre New York e os princi- 
ples portos da costa do Golfo do Mexico, incluindo Progreso, Vera 
^'"uz, Tampico, Campeche, etc., por via de Habana. Na costa 
^^ Pacifico, OS vapores da Pacific Mail Company vindo de San 
^ ^3.ncisco, tocam em varios portos, taes como Salina Cruz, Aca- 
P^lco, Manzanillo, e Mazatlan. 

O melhoramento dos principaes portos do Mexico, tem sido, 

P^r muitos annos, objecto de solicitu.de e esforcos especiaes por 

P^rtc do govemo mexicano, e nos dous portos do Golfo mais 

^^^portantes, Tampico e Vera Cruz, obras de grande magnitude. 

^^rn sido construidas afim de obter um ancoradouro seguro para os 

navies. Estao-se construindo obras semelhantes em Salina Cruz 

^ Coatzacoalco, os portos do Pacifico e do Golfo respectivamente 

do Isthmo de Tehuantepec, e com o desenvolvimento das indus- 

trias e commercio do Mexico, os pontos importantes ao longo das 

costas de leste e do oeste serao gradualmente providos de todas as 

fecilidades modernas necessarias para efFectuar o trafico maritimo. 

Alem das estradas de ferro, o Mexico tem facilidades de trans- 

PWes fluviaes que sao susceptiveis de grande desenvolvimento. 

^^3s as condi95es topographicas e do clima impedem que se possa 

''^^'^gar OS rios sem interrup9ao durante o anno. Sobre este as- 

sunxp^Q^ Sr. Crittenden, consul geral dos Estados Unidos, em 

^^ Telatorio que foi publicado em relatorios consulares espe- 

^lae^ "Highways of Commerce," em 1895, diz: "A configura- 

9^^ do paiz e a natureza das esta9oes tornam impossivel a exis- 

^^^ia de grandes rios navegaveis. Alguns rios podem ser nave- 

S^^cs por pequenas embarca95es por uma distancia que nao excede 



1368 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICSc 

de 125 milhas do Golfo e 62 milhas da costa do Pacifico. Os 
numerosos picos, cujas alturas sao de 10,000 a 17,000 pes sobreo 
nivel do mar, s§o pouco cubertos de neve, e a quantidade de neve 
que cae n'elles nao e sufficiente para formar grandes volumes de 
agua ou rios. 

" Nos planaltos centraes,ha alguns lagos, cujas aguas sao utilisa- 
das, ate certo ponto, pelos indios para o trafico em suas pequenas 
canoas. Os canaes sao impraticayeis, por causa da topographia, 
salvo na costa do Golfo, nos planaltos dos Estados centraes e do 
norte ; mas o maior obstaculo para a navega92lo interior e o facto 
de que em certos periodos do anno, principalmente na esta9i 
secca, quer por evaporacao natural, quer pelo uso descuidado d 
aguas para a irriga9ao, os ribeiros diminuem de modo que torna 
impossivel a navega9ao dos rios pelas mais pequenas embarca9oe 



Mais cedo ou mais tarde esta perda de agua sera remediada, po 
que as autoridades sSo vigilantes em proteger e guardar todos 
elementos que contribuem para o progresso do Mexico. E^ 
falta de meios de navega9ao podia ser remediada, ate certo pontn^-o, 
pela canalisa9ao ou pela conserva9ao das aguas nasbacias natur:k^ -^s 
que existem em varias partes da republica, desviando-as em cer^cz^is 
esta9oes do anno para os ribs ou canaes que se podem nave^^ :^r, 
afim de manter constantemente a necessaria profundidade." 

O Governo do Mexico ja deu provas de que conhece o \zj^ "lor 
de taes emprezas contractando varios canaes importantes, incluix""^ <io 
o canal de Chijol, que se estende de Tampico a Tuxpan a urn. wna 
distancia de 200 milhas, e a canalisa9ao do Rio Tempoal €^u€ 
despeja no Panaco perto de Tampico. Ha muitos outros rios e 
ribeiros que podem ser utilisados por meio de melhoramentos de 
maior ou menor magnitude, e quando o Mexico tiver side pro- 
vido de um systema efficiente de vias fluviaes, seu commero'o 
interno sera muito augmentado. "Os esfor90s do Preside nte 
Diaz e sua liberalidade para com as emprezas de vias ferreas e- as 
linhas de vapores," diz o consul geral Crittenden, foram os 
principaes factores do estabelecimento de meios de communicacrao 
na Republica, realisando o que nenhum dos seus predecessaf^^ 
puderam fazer^isto e, tornar este paiz um dos mais prosperos cJ^ 
hispano-americanos. Pode-se assumir que a mesma politi^^ 
geral sera seguida no melhoramento dos rios e estradas, co^ 
resultados correspondentemente beneficos. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. ^3^ 

O desenvolvimento intemo do Mexico e o augmento de suas 

iudustrias e commercio nacional sao de importancia e de interesse 

especial para o povo dos Estados Unidos, porque contribuem n§Lo 

somente para o augmento geral do commercio, mas criam as 

nielhores condicOes para o emprego de capitaes e trabalhadores 

cntendidos dos Estados Unidos, e para a venda de machinas, 

^nstrumentos, ferragens e grande variedade de outras manufecturas 

aniericanas, no fabrico dos quaes os Estados Unidos sSio eminen- 

^^s. Capitaes americanos ja estao empregados em grande escala 

^as estradas de ferro e minas do Mexico, e pode-se esperar que 

eaiprezas agricolas e manufactureiras tambem attrahirSo os capi- 

^^s e OS peritos da grande Republica do norte. Felizmente, os 

artigos que se ofFerecem para a troca por um paiz, s^io de natur- 

reza que, com poucas excep95es nao fazem concurrencia com as 

'^uiis^rias nacionaes do outro, e a propor92LO que os recursos inter- 

'^os cio Mexico se forem desenvolvendo, as rela95es commerciaes 

^^^ ciuas Republicas deverao tomar-se mais estreitas e fortificadas. 




BRAZIL. 

IMMIGRAgAO EM. 1896. 

O ultimo relatorio do consul geral dos Paizes Baixos no Rio 
^^ Janeiro menciona que durante o anno de 1896, 99,379 immi- 
S^^ntes desembarcaram no porto do Rio de Janeiro, e 58,579 no 
P^rto de Santos, isto e um total de 1 57,948 individuos perten- 
^^ntes as seguintes nacionalidades : 

^^li^nos 96. 324 

^^spanh6es 24, 153 



Au 



'^uguezes 22, 299 

striacos 8, 365 

^^l^mftes 1, 070 

*^*»Ssos 562 

**^«ricanos do Norte. . . 47^ 

^'^^Hcezcs 328 

**issos 153 

^^^lezes 63 

^**iamarquezes 55 

r^lgas 22 

^ ^llandezes 7 

^'^ersas nacionalidades if 046 



1370 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Este relatorio se refere somente aos portos do Rio de Janeiro e 
de Santos; nao computa as entradas nos outros portos do Brazil, 
especialmente os do rio Amazonas onde se estabeleceu recente- 
mente um servi9o regular de immigra9ao. 

ESTRADAS DE FERRO DO SUL DO BRAZIL. 

Le-se no BresU de Pariz de 26 de Dezembro ultimo : 

**Inaugurou-se no dia 15 de Novembro a esta9aio de Carasinho, 
da linha ferrea de Santa Maria ao Uruguay, pertencente a Com- 
panhia de Estradas de Ferro Sudoeste Brasileiras. Esta linha faz 
parte da concessao de Itarare a Santa Maria da Bocca do Monte 
e ramaes, dividida entre duas companhias: uma Brazileira, a de 
Sao Paulo ao Rio Grande, que construe as linhas do Estado do 
Parana, e a outra Belga, Estradas de Ferro Sudoeste Brazileiras 
que construe as do Rio Grande do Sul. Das linhas desta ultima 
companhia foram entregues ao trafico 299 kilometros, dos quaes 
160 de Santa Maria a Cruz Alta, e 139 deste ponto a novaesta^So 
de Carasinho. Antes do fim do anno sera inaugurada a esta9ao 
de Passo Fundo, a 54^ kilometros desta ultima esta92LO, o que 
elevara a extensSo das linhas em trafico a 354J^ kilometros. 

" Pela sua parte as linhas da Companhia Sao Paulo ao Rio 
Grande estSo muito adiantadas. Os trabalhos de aterro estSio quasi 
concluidos em uma extensSo de 96 kilometros ao norte de Ponta 
Grossa, e em bom andamento em uma extensSLo de 150 kilometros 
ao sul desse ponto. A colloca9ao dos trilhos progride rapidamente. 

"A concessao de Itarare e uma das que teem dado melhores 
resultados practicos. Os trabalhos come9aram em 1890 e teem-sc 
construido ate o presente cerca de 560 kilometros, isto e 80 kilo- 
metros por anno." 



COSTA RICA. 

DESENVOLVIMENTO FINANCEIRO E COMMERCIAL. 

Extrahimos de documentos ofRciaes remettidos a esta Secretaria 
pelo Sr. Manuel Arag6n, director geral de Estatistica, a seguinte 
informa9ao relativa ao desenvolvimento da Republica de Costa 
Rica. 

A popula9ao tem augmentado constantemente durante os ultimos 
quatorze annos. O recenseamento geral de 1882-83 calcula o 
numero da popula9ao em 182,528 e o de 1895-96, em 285,cx)3. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



1371 



Segundo o calculo feito a 31 de Mar90 de 1897, ^ popuIa93o 
actual e de 294,941, que mostra um augmento de 112,413 nos 
ultimos quatorze annos. Durante o exercicio db 1 895-96, a circu- 
lacao do papel moeda nacional foi reduzida a $2,764 e a dos certi- 
ficados de guerra a $98,669. Esta circula9ao foi reduzida ainda 
mais, de modo que a 31 de Mar90, 1897, nio havia em circula9ao 
papel moeda nacional e os certificados de guerra tinham diminuido 
a $79455.75. Na mesma data a divida interna montava a 
$1,117,000. 

meio circulante do paiz no fim do exercicio de 1895-96, 
montava a $20.08, por cabe9a da popula9So. A unidade mone- 
taria e o colon, que e uma moeda de ouro de 778 milligrammas 
de peso e de 900 millesimos de fineza, e equivale a 46^ centavos 
na moeda de ouro dos Estados Unidos. Desde o decreto de 24 
de Outubro de 1896, que estabeleceu o padrao de ouro, a moeda 
de prata tern sido empregada como moeda subsidiaria. 

A cultura e a exporta9ao do cafe constituem o principal negocio 
da Republica. Segundo os relatorios da Reparti9ao de Estatistica 
Nacional, o total do cafe exportado no primeiro semestre de 1897 
montou a $4,666, 160 (ouro). Durante o mesmo periodo bananas 
foram exportadas no valor de $225,267.50; madeira no valor de 
$262,862.64, e outros artigos no valor de $47,676.19. Destas 
cxporta9Qes, a Gr2L Bretanha recebeu no valor de $2,770,196; os 
Estados Unidos no valor de $1,359,470, a Allemanha no de 
$924,300 e OS demais paizes no de $148,000. O total das impor- 
tacoes durante o mesmo periodo montou a $2,252,970. 

As importa96es dos paizes foram as seguintes : 



Paizes. 



Estados Unidos. 

Allemanha 

^Dglaterra ..*.*.'., 

^'^9a.. 

Italia '.'..'/.. 

Jespanha 

«lgica 

America do Sul, 

St Thomas . 

Cuba. 



Nicaragua 

Guatemala 

^vador 

Jolumespostaes. 
°*8^em pcssoal 

Total 



Valor cm ouro. 


Por cento. 


$871, 646. 91 


38.69 


357.652.02 


15.87 


518,833.37 


23.0a 


167, 303. 77 


7.43 


83. 070- 50 


3.68 


55.154.48 


2.45 


4. 893. 50 


0. 22 


94, 571. 90 


4. 20 


445.00 


0.02 


20, 543. 78 


0.91 


10, 739. 90 


0.48 


28S.06 


0. OC 


21, 334. 50 


0.95 


44, 999- 30 


2.00 


I, 493- 40 


0.07 


2, 252, 970. 39 


100 



1372 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

O cafe exportado foi distribuido do modo seguinte : 

Sacc 
Para Londres 133, ( 

Para Hamburgo 24, 1 

Para New York 33, 1 

Para Cal ifornia 19, < 

Para Bremen 12, ^ 

Para Bordeaux 5 J 

Para os demais paizes i, ; 



GUATEMALA. 

MEDIDAS FINANCEIRAS. 

O Ministerio de Estado recebeu da Lega95o americana • 
Guatemala copias de dous decretos relativos a situa9§Lo finance 
daquella Republica. O teor do primeiro decreto e como 
segue : 

Desde o primeiro de Janeiro do anno corrente, todas as divia 
do Governo serao unificadas, e como garantia dos credores, apoli 
da divida interna serSo emittidas, as quaes serao trocaveis pe 
apolices da actual divida fluctuante, as do emprestimo de t 
milhoes, as da exposi9ao, o emprestimo dos bancos em Maic 
emprestimo de Setembro e os titulos garantidos pela Exposi^ 
da America Central. 

As apolices da divida interna serio emittidas nas denomina9« 
de $100, $500, e $1,000, a 12 por cento por anno. Estas ap« 
ces serao amortizadas por sorteios trimensalmente que come9a 
no mez de Mar9o de 1899, e cujas quantias ser^o determina* 
no or9amento; os juros serSo pagos pelo Banco de Guatemala 
fim de cada mez-desde Janeiro de 1898; as apolices da div 
fluctuante serao trocaveis pelas apolices da divida interna com " 
desconto da metade dos juros accumulados na data da transac9 
as denomina9oes de menos de $100 n2io receberSo juros m 
director geral de contas emittira certificados das mesmas. 
apolices da divida interna que estio destinadas ao resgate do emp 
timo de guerra de Setembro, serSo detidas pelo director geral 
contas e serSo entregues aos possuidores quando estes apresentax 
OS documentos cancellados. 

Para o pagamento desta divida, serSLs destinados 15 centavos 
imposto cobrado sobre cada garrafa de bebidas espirituosas vend 
DOS depositos do paiz, desde o primeiro de Janeiro ate 30 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. ^373 

!mbro de 1898, e depois desta data, 25 centavos deste imposto 
centavos dos impostos de importa9ao sobre mercadorias 
mgeiras. O Banco de Guatemala esta incumbido da admi- 
racao da divida interna. 

) segundo decreto estipula o resgate gradual em prata de lodos 
)ilhetes a receber emittidos pelos varios bancos da Republica e 
que o Presidente, considerando que o prazo concedido aos 
cos para a suspensao de pagamentos em moeda termina no 
neiro de Janeiro de 1898, resolve o seguinte: 
S^os mezes de Janeiro e Fevereiro de 1898, os bilhetes das 
omina96es de $1 e $5 serao trocados: em Mar90 os de $1, $5, 
> e $50; em Abril, os de $1, $5, $iO, $20, $25 e $100; no 
aeiro de Maio a troca geral de prata sera reestabelecida. 
)s depositos recebidos pelos bancos depois do primeiro de 
^iro serao pagos na mesma classe de moeda em que se fizeram 
epositos, quer papel, quer moeda. O decreto de 2 1 de Maio 
alterado, sendo comprehendido que os bilhetes nSlo incluidos 
esgate acima mencionado continuirSo a ser a moeda legal ate 
ie Abril de 1898. 



PARAGUAY. 

O PARAGUAY NA EXPOSIQAO DE BRUXELLAS. 

ista Secretaria recebeu do Honrado Senhor John Stewart, 
isul geral do Paraguay nos Estados Unidos a seguinte memo- 
escripta pelo ministro de rela95es exteriores, Don Jose 
^coND, relativa a parte que aquella Republica tomou na Exposi- 
> Internacional de Bruxellas de 1895. 

A participa9ao que o Paraguay teve na grande exposi9ao inter- 
-ional ultimamente celebrada em Bruxellas, apezar de ter de 
^correr de um modo precipitado pelo curto tempo que dispoz 
^a ella, demonstrou de maneira convincente o grande adianta- 
'ito realizado naquelle paiz nestes ultimos annos. 
Paraguay, cujo passado tanto contribuiu para prejudical-o 
' olhos do estrangeiro, ja n^o e actualmente a regiao mysteriosa 
sinistras dictaduras, mas um povo viril e emprehendedor, que 
^nde aos impulsos modemos, onde o immigrante honrado 
no o rico capitalista encontrarao largo campo a sua actividade, 
BuU. No. 8 9 



1374 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

sob a protec9ao das mais vantajosas leis e de um dos govemos 
mais liberaes da America do Sul. 

Depois da guerra com a triplice allian9a argentino-brazileiro- 
oriental em que consumiu quasi todas suas energias, o Paraguay 
tem-se levantado com seus proprios esfor9os e em vinte e cinco 
annos de constante trabalho, sob os beneficos auspicios de uma 
paz quasi nunca interrompida, tem conseguido chegar a um posto 
honroso e invejaverentre suas irmas do sul. Prova disto e o exito 
obtido na ultima exposi9ao de Bruxellas. 

As artes industrias nacionaes, a agricultura ea bibliographia, 
tiveram alii honrosa representa9ao, como o provam os premies 
obtidos, muito superiores aos que Ihes foram conferidos anterior- 
mente em casos analogos, e com um numero muito maior de ex- 
positores, e si as difficuldades motivadas pelo recesso das Camaras 
legislativas nSo tivessem impedido ao paiz preparar-se para a ex- 
posi9ao, teria figurado com inesperado brilho entre os demais 
paizes. 

A impressSo produzida pela sec9ao paraguaya n^o deixou, com- 
tudo, de corresponder a seus meritos, a julgar pelos seguintes para- 
graphos que extrahimos do relatorio apresentado pelo Sr. Oosten- 
DORP ao Govern© da Republica. 

O Paraguay foi uma das primeiras sec^oes visitadas e live a honra de acom- 
panhar a S. M. tendo a meu lado o Sr. Hemeleers Fi^vi, Consul da Republica 
em Bruxellas. A vista do palacio nacional em Assumpgao, represencada pelo 
grande quadro decoracivo de que ji informei a V. Ex., causou impresslo em 
S. M., e me pediu detalhes a este respeito; dirigindo-se entao ao Sr. Ministro 
da Industria e do Trabalho, fez a muito amavel observagao que se poderia ir ao 
Paraguay com o objecto de buscar inspiragoes para construir novos edificios. 
A mobilia de madeira do paiz chamou tambem a atten^ao do rei, e perguntou 
si tinha sido feita no Europa, ao que pude, com muito prazer, responder que foi 
feita no Paraguay. Pode-se dizer que para muitos visitantes, a secgSo 6 uma. 
verdadeira rela^ao do est ado adiantado de cultura do Paraguay, assim como o 
demonstram os productos mandados e a numerosa e interessante coUec^ao de 
vistas photographicas da capital e do campo. 

Os premios conferidos a expositores paraguayos foram os 
seguintes : 

Quatro diplomas, premio grande. 
Dois diplomas, de honra. 
Oito diplomas, medalhas de ouro. 
Dezaseis diplomas, medalhas de prata. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 1375* 

Quinze diplomas, medalhas de bronze. 

Cinco diplomas, men96es honrosas. 

Foi um total de 50 premios para 40 expositores. Deve-se notar 
quena Exposi9ao Universal de Pariz de 1889, o Paraguay obteve 
54 distinc^oes com so dous premios grandes para um numero de 
expositores muito mais importante. 

Os premios enumerados correspondem em sua maior parte a 
industria e a agricultura nacional; a poderosa riqueza vegetal 
daquella terra chamou tambem muito a atten9ao, assim como as 
propriedades notaveis da herva matte, cujo uso se acha tSo gene- 
ralisado na parte meridional da America do Sul, come9ando ja 
tambem a propagar-se nas regioes do norte : 



VENEZUELA. 

COMMERCIO DOS EST ADOS UNIDOS COM VENEZUELA. ^ 

Sr. Proskauer, consul dos Estados Unidos em Puerto 
Cabello, remetteu ultimamente ao Ministerio de Estado um 
extcnso e interessante artigo sobre as opportunidades em Vene- 
zuela de emprezas commerciaes americanas. Diz que o com- 
mercio de cutelaria, telhas de vidro e de barro e artigos semelhantes, 
pode ser muito augmentado, e que as qualidades ordinarias destes 
pnxiuctos encontram uma prompta venda neste paiz. Em conse- 
qucncia dos excessivos impostos sobre o tabaco, e, por conseguinte, 
descnvolvimento da sua cultura e fabrico nacional, a importa9ao 
deste artigo tem sido muito restringida e se ere que Venezuela 
tornar-se-ha breve .exportadora. 

Dentro de 6 milhas de Puerto Cabello foi descoberto mar- 
more dc boa qualidade, e obras que custam mais de $50,000 ja 
foram installadas para explorar as pedreiras. 

carvao de pedra que se emprega nas estradas de ferro procede 
principalmente da Inglaterra, mas o Sr. Proskauer ere que, si se 
csfor9arem diligentemente, o carvao dos Estados de Alabama e de 
Virginia pode ser introduzido neste paiz com vantagem e final- 
mente poderia supplantar o carvio inglez. Essa suggestao parece 
pratica e opportuna, em vista da proximidade das minas ameri- 
canas e a disposi9ao por parte dos commerciantes e fabricantes 
Americanos de augmentar o seu commercio com Venezuela. 



1376 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

A seguinte informa9ao e extrahida de um relatorio sobre o 
commercio dos Estados Unidos com Venezuela, e contem sug- 
gestoes valiosas e praticas: 

* * * O commercio dos Estados Unidos com estc paiz 6 muito prejudi- 
cado pcla falta de casas bancarias amcricanas, etc. Nao 6 necessario dizer que 
todas as casas grandes tern seus estabelecimentos americanos, mas € evidcnte que 
isto nao substitue a falta de communicagao cntre as casas americanas nos Estados 
Unidos e seus estabelecimentos aqui. 

Uma das nossas principaes difficuldades de commercio dcve ser comprehendida 
mais claramente e publicada para o conhecimento do publico. Rcfiro-me ao 
systema de dar ao commerciante um credito de seis, nove, ou at6 doze mezcs 
para dar-lhe tempo de esperar pela colheita. Os bancos sao limitados e em 
alguns lugares nao existem. Por conseguinte, os commerciantcs, se tem dc 
fazer os pagamentos dentro de 60 ou 90 dias, como succede comnosco, ficam nas 
maos dos emprestadores de dinheiro e tfim de pagar juros i razao de 1 ou ijf 
por cento por mez ou mais. A taxa de cambio, assim, podia ser regulada mais 
facilmente, a qual, ainda que seja raramente pesada, algumas vezes 6 muito alta. 
A moeda repousa praticamente sobre o padrao de ouro, podendo o ouro cor^ 
verter-se em prata e vice-versa. Estando prohibida a emissao de papal-moed^^ 
pelo Governo, os unicos bilhetes que estao em circulacao sao os do Banco dl^ 
Venezuela e do Banco de Caracas, e sao limitados ao uso local. 

CONTRACTO PARA O ESTABELECIMENTO DE ARMAZEMS 

ALFANDEGADOS. 

N'uma communica9ao dirigida ao Ministerio de Estado o 
Ministro Loomis transmitte as estipula95es de um contracto cele-^ 
brado entre o Govemo de Venezuela e o Sr. Jose Rafael NCnez, 
venezuelano, para o estabelecimento na Republica de um systema 
de armazens alfandegados. 

Esta empreza e de muito interesse para os americanos que tern 
relacoes commefciaes com Venezuela. 

E de notar que a concessao pode ser transferida a casas parties* 
lares ou individuos, mas nSo a nacoes estrangeiras. 

Os principaes pontos do contracto sao os seguintes : 

Artigo 1°. Jose Rafael NCnez, seus representantes ouconc' 
sionarios, obrigam-se a construir em Caracas e os portos de Vei 
zuela habilitados para a importa9ao, armazens ou depositos q^ 
facilitem aos negociantes suas opera9oes e os garantam o cuida 
e conserva9ao de suas mercadorias. 

Artigo 2°. A Empreza de Armazens recebera em seus estah^^^ 
lecimentos todas as mercadorias de importa9ao ou de exportaf ^ 



ns a quantiaaae ae mercaaonas que necessitem, pagando 
lente os gastos occasionados a empreza. 
Os donos de mercadorias seccas, taes como tecidos, ferragens, 
iilheria, etc., pagarao a Empreza de Armazens, nSo mais de 
o de 9 por cento annual sobre a quantidade que se tenha 
elos direitos aduaneiros e demais gastos de acarreto, etc.; e 
5S de viveres pagarao nao mais de lo por cento annual. 
A Empreza de Armazens cobrara por direitos de armazena- 
razao de 5 bolivares mensaes por cada 1,000 kilogrammas 
)osito em armazens ventilados, e 10 bolivares mensaes por 
000 kilogrammas por deposito em armazens hermeticamente 

)S. 

Por deposito de artigos de exporta^So a empreza cobrara 
eito de armazenagem a razao de 9 bolivares por cada 1,000 
mmas. 

V Empreza de Armazens nao cobrara os direitos e seus 
gastos pelas mercadorias que tenha em deposito, sinSio ao 
*stas retiradas de seus armazens ; de modo que os donos de 
orias farao seus pagmentos em relacao com a quantidade 
cadorias que tirem; e a que deixem em deposito ficara em 
a do que devam a empreza. 

A Empreza de Armazens obriga-se a entregar as merca- 
nas mesmas condi9oes em que as tenha recebido, e sera 
avel pelo prejuizo que sofFram em seus armazens por for9a 
ou caso fortuito; mas em nenhum caso sera responsavel 
jelles artigos que nao tenham sido verificados em seu con- 
pelos interessados e a empreza, ou que estejam expostos a 



1378 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

parte do pre9o de custo das mercadorias depositadas. Est 
prestimos verificar-se-h^o ate o prazo de um anno a taxa dt 
cento annual, e serSo garantidos com as mesmas mercadori 
estejam em deposito. Si, vencido o prazo, nio se tiver j 
dinhciro emprestado, nem o dos juros que Ihe corresponc 
Empreza de Armazens vendera em hasta publica as mere 
que garantam o emprestimo; tomara do producto da arrem 
a quantidade de juros e os gastos correspondentes que se I 
vam ; e si houver algum saldo, sera entregue aos donos de 
dorias devendo concorrer ao acto da arremata9ao os donos 
representante. Mas, si ao vencer-se o prazo se tiverem p; 
juros e so se deva o emprestimo, o dono tem o direito de ej 
entre a arremata9aio immediata ou a proroga9ao de seu din 
resgate ate por mais seis mezes ficando submettido durani 
proroga9ao as mesmas condi96es em que esteve durante c 
vencido. A Empreza de Armazens fara a arrecada9ao d 
juros dando por vencido o mez come9ado. 

Artigo 4°. — As mercadorias que permane9am depositac 
armazens da empreza, serao consideradas como garantia, qi 
dinheiro empregado pela empreza em pagamento dos d 
aduaneiros e outros, quer das quantias que seus donos U 
recebido da empreza, como emprestimo; e por conseguin 
poderao em nenhum caso ser vendidas, embargadas nem si 
tidas a outras contribui95es a nao serem existentes. Sejam 
forem as circumstancias que se apresentarem, ter-se-hao em c 
legitima9ao e prioridade dos direitos adquiridos pela empr 
Armazens sobre as mercadorias que appare9am comprom 
como garantia de suas negocia95es. A empreza fara conhe 
publico, por meio da imprensa, cada tres mezes, a existen 
mercadorias e o nome dos depositantes. 

Artigo 5°. A Empreza de Armazens pagara os direitos 
neiros correspondentes as mercadorias que Ihe sejam entregi 
deposito, na mesma alfandega respectiva. O pagamento fe 
immediatamente depois que os agentes de commissSo ti 
verificado o documento apresentado pela alfandega que c 
a liquida9ao dos direitos que devem ser pagos. Isto e sei 
juizo das ac95es que competem ao Governo contra o do 
mercadorias e sobre estas mesmas pelo pagamento <los direi 
importa9ao. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. I379 

Artigo 6°. O Govcmo dos Estados Unidos de Venezuela 
obriga-se : 

(1.) A conceder a isen9§o de direitos para a importa9ao dos 
imteriaes de construc9ao e a mobilia que a empreza necessite ate 
scu completo estabelecimento ; cumprindo em cada caso o disposto 
no codigo da fazenda sobre as importa96es de mercadorias livres 
de direitos por'contractos. 

(2) A exonerar a empreza de todo imposto nacional. 

(3) A nao fazer concessao igual a deste contracto a nenhuma 
pessoa, companhia ou corpora9ao, por todo o tempo que dure 
este contracto, cujo prazo e de vinte e cinco annos. 

Artigo 7^. Dentro dos dous annos a contar da data em que 
forapprovado este contracto pelo Congresso Nacional, a Empreza 
de Armazens devera tel-os estabelecidos em Caracas, La Guaira, 
Puerto Cabello, Maracaibo e Ciudad Bolivar, e dentro de tres 
annos a contar da mesma data, nos demais portos habilitados. 

O PRESIDENTE IGNACIO ANDRADE. 

General Ignacio Andrade, actual Presidente de Venezuela, 
nascea em Merida em 1839; descende de uma familia illustre do 
paiz e e filho do General Jose Escolastico Andrade. O Senhor 
Jose Andrade, distincto Ministro de Venezuela nos Estados 
L'nidos, e um de seus irmaos. 

Presidente Andrade tem figurado por muitos annos nos 
assumptos publicos de Venezuela e tem occupado numerosos 
postos de prominencia e responsabilidade. Sua vida publica n5o 
S€tem limitado aos assumptos politicos, mas e tambem um soldado 
distincto que mandou um corpo de exercito e tomou parte muito 
in^portante na revolu9ao de 1892, a qual collocou 6 General 
JoAguiM Crespo a testa do Govemo. 

novo Presidente tem viajado muito, e esta perfeitamente 
'dentificado com o espirito da epocha. Residiu na Europa por 
^^itos annos e tem visitado os Estados Unidos em varias occa- 
si^s. Sua elei9ao para a Presidencia em Setembro ultimo foi 
4^asi unanime, pois recebeu 406,000 votos de um total de 
490*000. 

Honrado Sr. Francis B. Loomis, Ministro dos Estados 
Unidos em Venezuela, que esta agora neste paiz, ere que a 



1380 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

administra9ao do novo Presidente e favoravel a continua9ao das 
rela96es cordiaes entre os dous paizes e ao augmento do com- 
mercio. O Sr. Loomis diz que Venezuela necessita capitaes, e 
que o Presidente Andrade deseja fomentar o emprego em Vene- 
zuela de capitaes estrangeiros, assim como tambem a immigracao, 
especialmente dos Estados Unidos. 



MISSAO ESPECIAL DO GOVERNO INGLEZ NA 

AMERICA DO SUL. 

O South American Journal de 8 de Janeiro, referindo-se aos 
passos que esta dando o Governo inglez para reter e estender seu 
commercio actual com a America do Sul, publica o seguinte : 

" Communicam-nos que o Governo nomeou o Sr. Worthingtok, 
de Manchester, como enviado especial para a America do Sul, 
com o objecto de investigar as condi96es dos mercados locaes 
para informa9ao da junta de commercio que esta considerando 
agora a conveniencia de estabelecer uma reparti9ao de infor- 
ma9ao commercial. O Sr. Worthington ira acompanhado de 
Sir Vincent Barrington,o qual representara as camaras de com- 
mercio associadas. Ambos os commissarios pensam partir deste 
paiz para a America do Sul em fins do corrente mez." 

O Daily Mail, ao dar esta noticia, accrescenta : 

Os prcliminarcs do projccto, que Sir Courtney Boyle foi o primeiro a annun- 
ciar recentemente em Nottingham, continuam satisfactoriamente. Nao s6mentc 
t6m-se obtido muitas informa^oes uteis de varias camaras de commercio, mas 
tem-se recolhido tambem dados de muito valor. Estas informafSes nao bastam, 
entretanto, para indicar qual seja o character definitivo do projecto. Isto 
s6mente poderi ser determinado quando os membros da commissao que foram 
nomeados para estudar a proposta, apresentarem seu relatorio ao presidente da 
junta de commercio, a qual o submetteri entao ao Gabinete, acompanhado de 
suas recommendayoes, e o Gabinete decidird definitivamente. 



CODIGO DA NOMENCLATURA COMMERCIAL. 

A Secretarla do Thesouro dos Estados Unidos publicou a 
seguinte circular que adopta para uso nas varias alfandegas deste 
paiz, como livro de consulta, o Codigo da Nomenclatura Com- 



tctorcs c outros empregados das alfandegas : 

iformidadc com uma resolu^ao da Confcrencia Intcrnacional Americana, 

se recommenda aos governos representados n'ella a adop^ao de uma 
itura commum para designar em ordem alphabctica em inglez, em portu- 
espanhol, aquellcs artigos sobre os quaes se impoem direitos de impor- 
:vendo a mesma ser usada pelas na9des americanas ao impor direitos 
\ ou que forem mais tarde estabelecidos, assim como para preparar 
s, facturas consulares, entradas, despachos de sahida e outros docu- 
e alfandega, a Secretaria das Republicas Americanas publicou em tres 

uma obra intitulada "Codigo da Nomenclatura Commercial,'* que 
8,000 palavras commerciaes dispostas de tal maneira que constituem 

conveniente de consulta nas tres linguas, ingleza, portugueza e hes- 

ublicagao 6 pela presente aceita como obra de consulta para a traducyao 
ras e phrases commerciaes para uso desta Secretaria e dos inspectores de 
IS, assim como dos avaliadores de mercadorias. 

ecretaria deyeri ser notiHcada de qualquer erro ou inexactidao que se 
n*ella. 

W. B. Howell, Sub-Secretario, 



COMMERCIO MISCELLANEO. 

REPUBLICA ARGENTINA. 

9S0 de Oarrto de ^"^ representante de uma casa importante de carvao 
a Americano. j^ pedra de Philadelphia esti actualmcnte em Buenos 
3m o fim de collocar neste mercado o carvao Pocahontas. Estc 
em sido empregado por muito tempo na America Central c nas Antilhas 
ado resultados satisfactorios. O actual commercio de carvao entre os 
Unidos e a Republica Argentina i muito pcqueno, mas 6 susceptivel de 
lesenvolvimento si se esforgarem diligentemente. O total das exporta- 



1382 BUREAU or AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

de trigo, a colheita 6 a maior que se tern feito por muitos annos. Diz-se que a 
colheita 6 excellente, tanto na sua quantidade, como na qualidade e cor dograo. 
Bxifardamonto do Apparelhos ^^ importadores de Bucnos Aires queixam-se do mio 
£i«ctricos. estado em que os apparelhos electricos chegam a csta 

cidade. Cita-se, como exemplo, uma casa americana que enviou a este mercado 
uma grande remessa de lampadas globulares para luz electrica, as quaes chegaram 
em grande parte quebradas. Ao mesmo tempo em que se fez essa reclama^ao, 
cita-se o facto de que as remessas da Inglaterra chegaram em muito melhor 
condiyao. As pessoas interessadas neste commercio devem aproveitar-se desta 

tuggestSo. 

BRAZIL. 

O cabo do Oeste e do Brazil entre Pernambuco c Ccara, 
Oabo Sabmarino. 

e o cabo do Amazonas, que se estende desde a foz deste 

rio at6 Manios, os quaes estiveram interrompidos por algum tempo, foramcon- 

certados e est& restabelecida a communicagao. 

As exportagoes de borracha do Pari no mez de Outu- 
Ezporta^fto do Borraoha. . ^ . • 

bro'proximo passado montaram a 2,074,644 kilogrammas, 

dos quaes 1,061,573 kilos foram embarcados para a Europa e 1,013,071 paraos 
Estados Unidos. 

MineragftodeOnroemMinaa ^ Companhia Mineira de Sao Bento, que comcfou suas 
Gtoraes. opera^Ses no Estado de Minas ha um anno, possuc quasi 

10,000 geiras de terra. O mineriofoi calculado a dar uma m6diade 311 gram- 
mas de ouro por tonelada, mas em alguns lugares era muito mais rico e deuyiS 
grammas. O minerio 6 muito friavel e nao se necessitam moinhos para tra- 
balhal-o. Podc scr pulverisado passando-o simplcsmente entre cylindros, depois 
collocando-o nos tanques. A companhia tem um capital de $1,300,000 (ouro). 

A nova fabrica de chap^os estabelecida ultimamcntc na 

Nova Fabrica de Ohaptes. . , c 

cidade do Rio de Janeiro, emprega 120 operarios e \XL 
1,000 chap^os por dia. Pode produzir at6 5,000 chap^os diariamcnte, d<> 
maximo, e diz-se que chegari a empregar 600 operarios. 

O Jornal do Commercio noticia que a Brazilian Finan- 

Abastecimento do Oary&o. 

cial Company, de Londres, celebrou um contracto para 
abastecimento de carvao da Estrada de Ferro Central durante o anno proximo. 
O prejo que se estipulou foi de $6.25 por tonelada, coUocada no porto de R»o 
de Janeiro. Segundo o contracto, a quarta parte de toda a quantidade podc scr 
cntregue em Santos, com uma dcspeza addicional de 75 centavos por tonelada. 

CHILI. 

Ezporta^fto do Oamos Organisou-se ultimamente em Valparaiso uma co**^- 

aeiadas. panhia para exportar carnes geladas de Punta Arenas ^ 

Estreito de Magalhaes para a Europa. Diz-se que em breve a companhia cxp^ 
tard 20,000 carneiros como seu primeiro ensaio. 

MEXICO. 
Vai-se inaugurar em breve no Mexico a nova indust^ 

Fabrica de Folha de Flandres. r^/y 

do fabrico de folha de Flandres e ji foi solicitada ao \X^ 
verno mexicano a propria concessao. Cre-se que, em consequencia do augmcti^^ 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. ^3^3 

do commercio de productos conservados, taes como os fructos e legumes, que 
a Republica esti desenvolvendo, a nova industria que se projecta favoreceri 
muito paiz, e se espera com interesse a ac^So do paiz a respeito. 
FaMca d« BicTcietas e de Uma concessao foi feita pelo Governo mexicano a 
®**""*^ urn fabricante americano, para const ruir e operar uma 

iabrica dc bicycletas e de borracha no Mexico. O concessionario prop5e-se 
uiilisar a grande forga de agua que ]i obteve para produzir a forga electrica 
efazcr concurrencia com os fabricantes dos Estados Unidos no commercio de 
bicycletas. Por causa dos salarios baratos no Mexico espera-se que a empreza 
icri bom cxito. 
iBopn^io da Estrada de Um interessante e importante successo, que mostra o 

Fern do Mexico. Oaerna- . * * . 

ncadoPadiico. desenvolvimento interno e o espinto progressivo do 

Mexico, foi a inaugura9ao no mez de Dezembro proximo passado da estrada de 
ferro do Mexico, Cuernavaca e do Pacifico que estende-se da cidade de Mexico 
at6 Cutmavaca, O Presidente da Republica e seu ministerio assistiram is cere- 
monias, assim como os membros do corpo diplomatic© e outras pessoas dis- 
tinctasda Republica. A distancia entre os pontos terminaes da estrada 6 de 75 
nulhas, mas o que 6 de importancia quanto a esta linha, € que se projecta 
Ktcndd-a at^ Acapulco na costa do Pacifico e sua construcgao at6 este porto 
scri proscguida com a mesma energia que tem sido manif'estada nas obras con- 
duidas. 

R«w»P«ao noTo Paiacio ^^^ ^ ^^^ ^7 ^^ Dezembro dc 1897, o Governo Mexi- 
^**^**^®' cano tinha recebido para approvagSo, vinte e nove pianos 

0" «pecificag6es para o novo Paiacio Legislativo que prop5e-se construir na 
^dade de Mexico. Alguns destes foram submettidos por mexicanos e outros 
porcuropcos, mas a maior parte foi submettida por architectos americanos. 
ft. No parecer submettido ao Concresso pelo Sr. Tos^ Ines 

Or^antento para 1898-99. . f . 

LiMANTOUR, a despeza para o exercicio de 1898-99 e 
®r?ada em §52,089,000, e a renda em $52,109,000. Na divisao de rendas, a 
^cnda aduaneira 6 orgada em $23,847,000, os impostos internos em $23,092,000 
^oresto do orgamento de renda vem de outras fontes. 

^^MiccttSo Mra nma Fabrica Uma concessao foi feita ultimamente pelo Governo 
<taPandigfto. mexicano a uma companhia de Kansas City, Missouri, 

P^fa a construc^ao de uma fabrica de fundi^ao na Villa del Carmen no Estado 
^cCoahuila, para a prepara^ao de todas as classes de mineraes. Pelas estipula- 
joes da concessao, a fabrica de fundi^ao deveri ter uma capacidade minima de 
^fatar 25 toneladas de mineraes por dia. A construc^So da obra deverd come^ar 
«ntro do prazo de dous annos, a contar de 30 de Dezembro de 1897, e deve 
^rconcluida dentro do prazo de oito mezes contado^ da mesma data. As 

JJiachinas c materiaes que se necessitam para a obra serao importados livrcs de 
direitos. 

Aaaniiafio de ti»«« Oonees- Devido ao facto de nao ter cumprido a Companhia de 
M Estrada de Ferro. Estrada de Ferro Mexicana do Sudoeste com as esti- 
P^ila^flcs da concessao, o Governo Mexicano annullou o contracto. Esta reso- 
'0?ao i baseada em nao terem os concessionarios cumprido com o que dispoe o 
artigo 2**, no qua! se estipulou que dentro de um anno depois de promulgada a 
concessao (20 de Dezembro de 1896) 100 kilometres da linha, de San Ger6nimo 



1384 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

i fronteira de Guatemala, deviam estar concluidos. Com a annuUagao do con- 
tracto sc pcrde a somma de $50,000 depositada no Thcsouro do Govcrno como 
garantia do cumprimento do contracto. 

NICARAGUA. 

No Boletim de Dezembro se fez referenda a um pro- 
Estrada de FeiTo Nacional. . , , . 1 » 1 • X 

jecto de lei, entao pendente de discussao perante o Con- 

grcsso de Nicaragua, autorisando a venda da Estrada de Ferro Nacional e os 

vapores do Lago Managua, que fazem suas viagens em combinagao com aquelja. 

O Sr. Paul Wiesike, consul dos Estados Unidos em Managua, communica ao 

Ministerio de Estado em data de 19 de Outubro de 1897, que aquelle projecco 

foi approvado e que o commissario nomeado pelo Governo para vender ot» 

arrendar a linha, visitari primeiramente os Estados Unidos. O equipamcnto 

completo da linha, segundo o Sr. Wiesike, comprehenderi a compra de 1 

carros de carga, 3 locomotivas, a reconstrucgao de uma das pontes e reparos d 

caminho, todo o qual necessita um gasto de nao menos de $100,000. 

Segundo uma correspondencia publicada no " Engi 
Mina de Onro. ... 

neering and Mining Journal" foram descobertas nov 

minas no Districto de Siguia, a uma distancia de 20 milhas ao norte de Rama e?= 

de 80 milhas de Bluefields por agua. Cre-se que este districto provard scr 

muito rico, porque dos ensaios ja feitos d^-se uma produc^ao de $19.50 a §36 

em ouro e de 6 a 10 on9as de prata por tonelada. Os ribeiros das montanhas 

na localidade, onde se encontra o quartzo, fornecem agua em abundancia que se 

pode utilisar como forga motora. Os proprietaries da terra estao abrindo 

galerias e preparando-se a explorar seus prazos em grande escala. 

PERU. 
Os phosphoros que se usam em Lima sao todos impor- 

Oonunercio com Zilma. /• 1 • 

tados da Suecia porque nao ha fabricas de phosphoros 
no Peru. A importa^ao deste artigo 6 muito importante. A illumina^ao da 
cidade a luz electrica est^ sendo adoptada e cre-se que em breve substituiri o 
systema aciual de illumina^So a gaz, quer nos edificios publicos, quer nos par- 
ticulares. Muitas das principaes cidadcs da Republica estao interessadas nestc 
assumpto, pois ha boas opportunidadcs para os fabricantes americanos dc 
apparelhos electricos. A manufactura de mobilia no paiz teve tanto exito 
que a importagao de mobilia estrangeira tornou-se muito insignificante e i 
limitada inteiramente is boas qualidades deste artigo. 

ESTADOS UNIDOS. 

indartriade Tranaporte. A seguinte tabella, que foi compilada de dados submi- 

com a America Latina. nistrados pela Reparti9ao de Estatistica, mostra a impor- 

tancia da industria de transportes entre os Estados Unidos e os diiFerentes paizes 

da America Latina durante o mez de Novembro, assim como a proporgao que 

de dita industria se fez em navios americanos. Segundo a mesma autoridade, 01 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



1385 



avios que levam a bandcira dos Estados Unidos occupam o segundo lugar entre 

s que se dedicam i industria mencionada. Os navios inglezes occupam o 
rimciro lugar, vindo em seguida os navios americanos, e depois os noruegos e 

: allemaes. 



Paizes. 



lerica Central. .. . 

Jcico 

>ubUca Argentina 

ivia 

zil 

le 

lambia 

lador 

aguay 

\x 

»l?uay 

lezuela 



Valor das 
mercadorias. 



$622, 678 

3,156,580 

1,008, 511 

800, 939 

270 

7. 543. 577 
416, 546 

6.59. 326 
"6,455 
524 
176, 533 
310, 301 



Navios 
americanos. 



286, 378 

1,031,242 

148, 889 

863, 811 

270 

616, 402 

88. 531 

223, 587 

"6,455 



55. 584 



Dommercio de Oarrio, 



URUGUAY. 

N*um relatorio remettido ao Ministerio de Estado a 
4 de Dezembro de 1897, o Consul Albert W. Swalm, 
•ncce interessantes dados relativos ao commercio de carvao no Uruguay. O 
rvao que se importa no Uruguay vem na maior parte de Cardiff em Galles, em 
mcurrencia com o dos Estados Unidos. O carvao que as estradas de ferro 
nprcgam 6 livre de direitos, mas todo o outro carvao paga 60 centavos por 
JTiclada. A avaliajao aduaneira do trafico do carvao tem montado a $ 1 ,000,000. 
) pre^o a retalho varia de $8 a $10 (ouro) por tonelada, mas em 1897 houve 
lotavcl diminuigao, tanto na importagao como no negocio em geral, comparado 
•om anno anterior. O Sr. Swalm diz que um representante de uma das 
maiores companhias exportadoras de carvao da costa do Atlantico esteve recente- 
^^^tt cm Montevideo, afim de fazer arranjos para introduzir carvao americano 
cm concurrencia com o de Galles, e elle nao vt a razao por que tal tentativa nao 
^crS bom exito, com a condi^ao de que os carregamentos dos Estados Unidos 
conscrvem o modelo de limpeza estabelecido pelas companhias rivaes; o que nao 
tern succedido at6 agora, sendo esta a causa principal por que o carvao ameri- 
^^0 nao domina o mercado. 

^^P^na^So de L4 e Pelles de ^ exportajao de la do porto de Montevideo, segundo 

Oaniairo. ^ g^.^ Swalm, consul dos Estados Unidos nesse porto, foi, 

^^^de primeiro de Outubro at^ 30 de Novembro de 1897, de 6,705 fardos 

* 500 kilogrammas cada um. Destes, 173 fardos despacharam-se para os 

^^ados Unidos; para a Franja 3,105; Belgica, 883; e Inglaterra, 997. A 

^^^uiafoi tao grande e geralmente de melhor qualidade que a do anno anterior. 

^<lc primeiro de Agosto at6 30 de Novembro de 1897, se exportarem 

7*729 fardos de pelles de carneiro, dos quaes a Franga recebeu a maior parte. 

^^"^^^OMrcio Com OS Estados ^ consul geral Prudencio de Murguiondo, repre- 

unidos «m 1897. sentantc do Uruguay nos Estados Unidos, remetteu a esta 

^^retaria ama rela^ao do commercio entre os dous paizes, no anno commum 

^« 1897. 



1386 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

O valor total das exportagSes para os Estados Unidos foi de $4>39 1,063, ^ 
das importagSes foi de $1,135,679. O total do commercio durante o anno 
no valor de $5,526,742. Segundo este documento, as exporta96es no prim^ia: 
semestre montaram a $3,560,115, c no segundo semestre a $830,948. 
exporta^So de 1§ no primeiro semestre do anno subiu a $1,950,674, e a d 
segundo semestre consistiu em oitenta e cinco fardos, no valor de $14,823 ^ 
qual mostra uma diminuigao de $1,935,849. 

No anno commum de 1896, as importagSes procedentes dos Estados Unrndo; 
foram no valor de $1,452,331. Estes algarismos comparados com os do axinc 
de 1897, mostram uma diminui^SLo, durante este ultimo anno, de $316,652. O 
Sr. MuRGuioNDO attribue a diminugao no commercio is perturbagSes politicras 
do Uruguay durante o anno de 1897. Tendo cessado este cstado de cousas, o 
Sr. MuRcuioNDO espera um prompto restabelecimento do antigo commcrci*' 
existente entre os dous paizes. 



VENEZUELA. 
Esti revogada a concessSo feita em Julho de 1896 

Installa9fto em Oaracas do . . . 

TraxnviaaiTrac^ftoElec- uma companhia para a installagao na cidade de Caracal 

de um systema de tramvias k tracg&o electrica. Isto i 
devido ao facto de que o concessionario deixou de cumprir as condi^des da con- 
cessao. Actualmente Caracas possue um systema muito imperfeito de tramvias 
e a revoga^ao da concessSo ofFerece opportunidades favoraveis a capitalistas 
americanos que estejam interessados em emprezas desta natureza. 

CORRECTION. 

The clause in second paragraph on page 1 265, explaining the 
plan for the payment of the national debt of Guatemala, should 
read : 

For the payment of the debt, 1 5 cents per bottle of spirits sold in the national 
depositories from January 1 to September 30, 1898, and, after that date, 25 
cents per bottle, and 5 per cent of the import on foreign merchandise, shall be 
set aside. 



Bulletin Mensuel 

DU 

Bureau des R^publiques am^ricaines 

Union Internationale des R^pubuques AmiSricaines 

Vol. V. FfiVRIER 1898. No. 8. 



RELATIONS COMMERCIALES EN AMfiRIQUE.— 

VII* 

LES RESSOURCES INTERNES DU MEXIQUE. 

Dans les articles precedents de cette serie, le commerce exte- 

rieurdu Mexique, de I'Amerique Centrale, des Indes Occidentales 

ct de VAmerique du Sud, a ete principalement discute. Nous 

^Uons mair>tenant examiner les ressources internes de ces grandes 

divisions dans I'ordre nomme, et le degre de leur developpement 

comme base de I'accroissement futur de leur commerce exterieur. 

Au Mexique, le progres fait pendant la demiere decade, dans les 

nianufactures, aussi bien que dans I'agriculture, et ^augmentation 

des facilites de transport qui constitue la chose la plus necessaire a 

"utilisation effective des richesses naturelles de tout pays, a ete de 

n^cme rapide et reel. Ce progres est du principalement a Pad- 

niinistration stable et sage, et en meme temps progressive, des 

^ires du pays qui, de tout temps, a marque les difiefents termes 

^u rresidcj^^ Diaz. On ne peut mettre en doute que le Mexique 

oit beaucoup de reconnaissance a Phabile homme d'Etat et sage 

e* du pQuvoir Executif qui, avec la cooperation zelee de la 

*LeT^~~r — ~*" 

JBilJet V^'****' article de cette s6rie a paru dans le Bulletin Mensuel pour le radis de 

1387 



1388 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

meilleure intelligence du pays, a assure une longue periode d< 
paix et de devcloppement tranquille. Heureusement pour 1( 
Mexique, il a ete aide par les conditions economiques, creees ei 
partie par la legislation, qui ont contribue au devcloppement d'in 
dustries* propres au pays et a encourager Tentreprise et Teconomic 
Le Mexique est riche en produits diflferents dont le monde a I 
plus grand besoin, et dont la production jusqu'ici n'est pas asse: 
grande pour surcharger le marche. Le Mexique ne depend pas 
quant a son commerce d'exportation, des dentees principales, telle 
que le ble, le coton, le sucre, et les viandes, qui sont produite: 
en de si enormes quantites dans les zones temperees que de gra 
benefices, sauf en temps de mauvaises recoltes, n'en sont plus rea 
lises. Un courant continuel de richesse afflue dans le pays, pro 
venant de sa production de metaux precieux et autres, qui son 
toujours en demande ; du cafe, des textiles, du tabac, de la vanillc 
et des fruits qui rapportent encore dans les marches du monde de 
prix relatiyement eleves. Pendant 1897, le Mexique a export 
des mineraux d'une valeur de $42,000,000. Dans les neuf pr 
miers mois de 1897, il a vendu a Tetranger du cafe pour ucr 
valeur de $4,574,252, contre $3*335,385 pour la meme periocz 
de 1896. Ses exportations de fibres de hennequen, aux Eta^ 
Unis seulement, pendant les neuf mois, augmenterent de beaucoi^ 
plus de $500,000, et le total des exportations s'eleve a envir^ 
$8,000,000 par an. L'exportation d'oranges s'est developpee ^ 
consequence de la decouverte que les oranges mexicaines po«^ 
raient servir a suppleer au manque dans la recolte aux Eta^' 
Unis. Meme dans les annees d'abondance au dernier pays, 
production au Mexique n'afFecte par les recoltes dela Califomie^ 
de la Floride, a cause des differentes periodes de la maturation 
de la vente du fruit. La vanille rapporte au Mexique un milli ^ 
ou plus de dollars par an. L'exportation du tabac atteint presq^ 
$2,000,000, et la qualite est si pres de celle de la meilleure feui 1 
cubaine que le devcloppement de cette branche d'agriculture ^ 
rait s'assurer completement. Le betail, les cuirs et peaux sc^ 
exportes annuellement pour une somme d'environ $3,ooo,oC5 
Les forets du Mexique sont tres riches en bois de construction, ^ 
bois de teinture, en plantes medicinales et autres plantes d*uX^ 
grande utilite. Les exportations de bois d'ebenisterie et de bc7 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. ^S^Q 

dcteinture selevent a $2,cx)0,ooo ou $3,ooo,ocx) par an, et I'abon- 
dance de ce produit est telle, que I'industrie est capable d'un deve- 
loppement indefini. 

Aune distance d'a peu pres 1,200 milles, s'etendant de TEtat 
de Sonora a TEtat d'Oaxaca dans la direction du nord-ouest au 
sud-est une zone de minerais d'une richesse extraordinaire ofFre 
un vaste champs pour Texploitation miniere avantageuse. L'or, 
I'argent, le mercure, le fer, le charbon, les minerais de plomb 
mou, Pasphalte, Tasbeste, le petrole, le sel, le cuivre, les pierres 
precieuses, Tonyx et les marbres d'une grande variete et beaute 
se trouvent en plus ou moins d'abondance partout dans cette 
region. Le Consul-General britannique a Mexico, dit dans un 
rapport public au mois d'aout 1897, que de nombreuses nouvelles 
mines d'or sont en en voie d'exploitation dans les Etats de Sonora, 
d'Oaxaca et de Mexico et qu'on peut s'attendre a une augmenta- 
tion considerable dans la production. L'Etat de Chihuahua est 
rtconnu comme etant une des grandes regions minieres qui exis- 
tent au monde. Des chemins de fer sont en voie de construction 
^ui foumiront les facilites de transport dont on a besoin, et un 
vaste developpement de I'industrie miniere suivra sans doute. 
^^scapitaux americains ont deja ete places en grand nombre 
^ns les mines mexicaines, et une demande de machines ameri- 
caines et d'appareils pour epargner le travail a ete creee, qui 
^^gnientera d'avantage avec le nombre de placements et I'accroisse- 
roent general des operations minieres. 

Un debouche semblable pour les machines et outils agricoles 
sera effectue par Textension des operations agricoles et de Pame- 
"l^^tion des methodes agricoles que la vente avantageuse a 
'^^anger de tant de produits mexicains doit indubitablement 
^^complir. La plus grande parti e du plateau central mexicain se 
compose de terres fertiles d'une si grande facilite de production, 
?^^ meme, avec I'emploi des methodes les plus primitives de la 
^'^ure, le plateau continue, apres des siecles de production, a 
P^oduire des recoltes abondantes. Une fois que les habitants se 
^Nront compte des economies de temps et de travail efFectuees 
j^f les machines et outils agricoles pour lesquels les Etats-Unis 
J^^issent d'une si juste renommee, et apprendront leurs diflerents 
usages, la production de cette grande region augmentera enorme- 
Bull. No. 8 10 



139^ BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

ment et un vaste debouche sera cree pour I'une des plus i 
tantes classes des manufactures des Etats-Unis. 

En attendant, le Mexique lui meme developpe rapidemi 
industries nationales et avant peu pourra sans doute employ 
grande partie de sa matiere premiere dans certaines classes de 
factures. "La manufacture au Mexique," dit le Ministre 
soM des Etats-Unis dans un rapport date du 26 Septembre 
qui a ete public dans les Rapports Consulaires Speciaux " T/ 
et Les Prix aux Pays Etrangers," "a ete developpee considi 
ment, surtout la manufacture des qualites plus ordinaires de 
nades et de lainages, de toiles blanchies ordinaires, de lainage 
chales, d'indiennes, de calicots et de laine ; aussi la manuf 
des produits de la canne a Sucre, de Talcool, du papier, de c 
et de cigarettes. Beaucoup de personnes instruites croient < 
baisse du prix d'argent est la cause principale du developp 
de ces industries. Jusqu'a un certain point il y a de la verit 
cette supposition, le rabais sur Targent contribue a la dimii 
de rimportation etrangere et a I'encou rage ment de la prod 
nationale. Mais it y a eu d'autres puissantes causes qui or 
tribue a ce changement — une administration habile, sage et 
pendant la presidence du General Diaz, la confiance du | 
mexicain et des etrangers dans la stabilitc du gouvernem 
construction de chemins de fer (tous, a I'exception de celui 
de Vera Cruz a la Cite de Mexico, ayant ete termines i 
1883), Tamelioration des ports, I'accroissement du comme 
liberalitc du gouvernement envers les nouvelles industries; 
les influences generales d'ordre, de paix et de cpmmerce ont 
contribue a ce resultat. 

Ce n'est pas de Texageration de dire que, dans les dix dei 
annees, les Americains du Nord ont place dans les min 
chemins de fer, les terres et dans d'autres enterprises, des sc 
superieures au montant total de I'argent en circulation d 
Republique. Aussi, il ne faut pas ignorer dans cette con; 
tion un fait trcs significatif — que les droits douaniers sur le 
cles fabriqucs de coton, de laine, de papier, de tabac et sur h 
duits alcooliques sont tres eleves et que les droits sur les 
nades furent imposes des 1830 et augmentes constamment j 
1 887. Depuis lors, ils sont restes presque stationnaires. S\ 
sieurs classes de cotonnades et de lainages, ces droits ont et 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. I39I 

hibitifs et Ton peut dire que sur les qualites ordinaires, les droits 
pendant les dix et quinze dernieres annees ont range de 40 a 75 
ct a 85 pour cent. En vue de cette assertion, je cite d'un rapport 
fait par un ecrivain eminent dans un ouvrage intitule " Les 
Finances des Etats-Unis Mexicains," d'apres " Documents Offi- 
ciels"par Prosper Gloner, publics en 1895. II dit: "L'industrie 
cotonniere au Mexique doit son dcveloppement surtout aux 
droits douaniers qui, par Timposition de droits eleves, empechent 
I'importation des cotonnades ordinaires. Cinq pour cent de ces 
droits furent imposes en 1830 et jusqu'a 1887 il y ^i^ a eu une 
augmentation continuelle." 

M. Crittenden, consul-general des Etats-Unis, dans un rap- 
port date de la Cite de Mexico, le 7 septembre 1896, public dans 
les Relations Commerciales des Etats-Unis 1895-96, Tome I, dit: 
'^Depuis que les taux du change ont ete si changeants et si defa- 
vorables entre le Mexique et les gouvemements etrangers et que 
des tarife eleves de protection ont ete imposes sur presque tous les 
articles qui entrent dans la consommation mexicaine, beaucoup 
d'articles jusqu'ici importes, tels que couvertures de lits, tapis, 
etoffes de toutes sortes pour habillement d'hommes, indiennes, 
vetements de dessous de toutes sortes, chapeaux, chaussures et 
autres articles, sont necessairement fabriques dans la Republique 
Ju Mexique. Les Mexicans ont ete assez intelligents et actifs 
pour profiter de ces courants adverses et ont eleve avec une 
rapidite etonnante pour le Mexique, une serie de grandes ou 
petites fabriques de presque toutes les classes de marchandises, se 
servant de machines modemes qui peuvent etre comparees favora- 
Wement a beaucoup de machines employees par d'autres pays. 
Quelques-unes des marchandises ainsi fabriquees au Mexique 
^nt excellentes, quant a la chaine, a la trame et au fini, et aujour- 
^hui on en voit plus dans Tusage joumalier qu'autrefois. Les 
'^nufecturiers au Mexique possedent un grand avantage — le bas 
Prixdu travail et Tusage libre de Texcellente force hydraulique 
^u'on trouve en beaucoup de localites du Mexique, et cette force 
est souvent situee tout pres des chemins de fer qui penetrent dans 
'cs differentes parties de la Republique. 

"Les ouvriers ordinaires sans metier sont places sous la direc- 
^*on d'etrangers experimentes qui les instruisent facilement dans le 
'^l^ur necessaire et les difRcultes du travail. Je suis informe que 



139^ BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

ces filatures de coton rapportent de 20 a 40 pour cent de divi- 
dendes annuels. Avant peu le Mexique, vu les causes encovi- 
rageantes ici citees, aura ses industries manufacturieres etablies 
dans tous les Etats d'acces facile et avantageux, avec des produitis 
ameliores se vendant a des prix qui excluiront de ses marches les 
articles ordinaires. Et meme aujourd'hui des chaussures sont 
expediees de quelques Etats du Mexique du Nord aux Etats- 
Unis. J'ai vu des draps d'un beau fini pour confections d'homm^s, 
coutant, faits dans les meilleurs magasins, de $20 a $30 par cos- 
tume, monnaie mexicaine. II y a une abondance de laine au 
Mexique. Le coton aussi est cultive dans quelques parties de la 
Republique, mais pas en quantites suffisantes pour suppleer a la 
demande, le reste, rangeant de 75,000 a 100,000 balles par ^.n, 
est importe de Texas, au prix de 21 a 22 cents, 'monnaie me:xi- 
caine ' par livre, livre aux filatures." 

Le Consul-General britannique a la Cite de Mexico, M. Cardh:^^'' 
est d'accord avec les representants des Etats-Unis dans cette vil ^^^ 
quant au developpement des entreprises industrielles dans le pa^^^* 
"On peut se rendre compte de la grande activite constatee da*^^^' 
rindustrie de la manufacture du coton," dit M. Garden dans sc:^^ 
rapport d'aout 1897, "quand on considere que malgre la bontr ^ 
recolte de 1896, les importations de la matiere premiere dep 
serent celles de I'annee precedente de plus de 10 pour cent, 
ceci en depit de I'elevation considerable du prix du coton." 
attribue la diminution dans les importations de lainages, de pr 
de 12 pour cent "a la grande amelioration dans la qualite d 
manufactures locales." L'augmentation dans les importations 
fer et d'acier, de pres de soixante-dix pour cent, est expliquee p 
" I'activite extraordinaire dans la construction et Tamelioration 
travaux d'une utilite permanente au pays." 

La croissance industrielle du Mexique a ete accompagnee d' 
developpement remarquable dans ses facilites de transport, 
ler juillet 1897, la Republique avait en operation 7,365 milles 
chemins de fer, et I'on peut raisonnablement s'attendre, vu 
progres de ces demieres annees et les ressources qui attendent 
debouche dans les marches du monde, a Pexpansion prochai 
dans la construction de chemins de fer. " Aujourd'hui," dit '' 
Consul-General Crittenden dans son rapport du 7 septemh^^^ 
1896, "on peut traverser par chemins de fer presque toute ^ 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



1393 



cpublique et arriver au Mexique des Etats-Unis par n'lmporte 
quelle des trois routes postales, ou via New- York par des bateaux 
lagnifiques allant a Tampico ou a Vera-Cruz et de la par chemin 
e fer a la Cite de Mexico. Ces routes, toutefois, ont ete cons- 
uites presque entierement du cote de TAtlantique et par conse- 
uent le cote de I'Ocean Pacifique est presque inaccessible, ou 
i faut prendre un chemin detourne. Toutefois cet etat de choses 
'ameliore rapidement, et aujourd'hui il y a en construction trois 
i^oies ferrees se dirigeant rapidement aux ports de POcean Pacifique. 
Bientot on pourra dire que le Mexique entier est traverse par la 
locomotive. Ces nouvelles voies sont aidees et assistees materielle- 
ment par le Gouvemement." 

Depuis la date du rapport de M. Crittenden, le chemin de fer a 
travers Tlsthme de Tehuantepec reliant TAtlantique et le Pacifique 
a cte termine et promet de devenir un facteur important du com- 
merce international, en plus de fournir les moyens de communica- 
tions faciles entre les cotes est et ouest de la Republique et se 
joignant aux grands reseaux du plateau central. 

Le commerce maritime du Mexique du cote de PAtlantique 
est controle en grande partie par la New York and Cuba Mail 
Steamship Company, connue aussi sous le nom de " Ward Line," 
4^i possede une flotte de beaux bateaux qui font le service entre 
*^ew York et les principaux ports de la cote mexicaine du Golfe, 
y compris Progreso, Vera Cruz, Tampico, Campeche etc., via la 
Havana. Du cote du Pacifique les vapeurs de la Pacific Mail 
Company toucheqt aux differents ports, parmi lesquels sont Salina 
Cruz, Acapuico, Manzanillo et Mazatlan. 

L'amelioration des principaux ports mexicains a ete pendant 
<luelques annees Pobjet de la soUicitude et de I'efFort special de la 
part du Gouvemement mexicain ; et aux deux ports importants de 
Tampico et de Vera Cruz sur le Golfe, des travaux grandioses ont 
^te faits pour assurer aux vaisseaux un mouillage sur. A Salina 
Cruz et a Coatzacoalcos, les ports respectifs du Pacifique et du 
Colfe sur risthme de Tehuantepec, des travaux semblables sont 
^n voie de construction, et avec le developpement des industries 
^t du commerce mexicain les points importants echelonnes sur les 
^otes maritimes de Pest et de Pouest seront pourvus peu a peu de 
toutes les facilites modernes necessaires au trafic. 

En plus des chemins de fer, le Mexique possede des facilites de 



^394 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

transport par les rivieres et par les lacs qui sont susceptibles d'un 
developpement considerable, bien que les conditions topographi- 
ques et de climat soient telles que la navigation continue des 
rivieres pendant toute Tannee est impraticable pour des distances 
considerables. Le Consul-General des Etats-Unis, dans un 
rapport public en 1895 dans les rapports consulaires speciaux, 
"Highways of Commerce" (Les Grandes Routes de Commerce), 
dit, relativement a ce sujet : " La configuration du pays et le 
caractere des saisons sont tels que de grandes rivieres navigables 
sont une impossibilite. Les seules rivieres qui admettent du trafic 
par de petits bateaux sont quelques-unes au niveau de la cote, 
mais elles ne sont navigables qu'a une distance de 1 25 milles du 
Golfe et de 62 milles de la cote du Pacifique. Les nombreuses 
cimes qui ont une hauteur de 10,000 et 17,000 milles au-dessus 
du niveau de la mer sont peu couvertes de neige, et la quantite de 
neige qui y tombe est insuffisante pour former de gros volumes 
d'eau ou de grandes rivieres. Sur les plateaux du centre, il y a 
quelques lacs dont les eaux sont utilisees jusqu'a un certain point 
par les Indiens dans le trafic qu'ils font dans leurs petits et primitite 
canots. Des canaux sont impraticables a cause de la topographic, 
sauf sur la cote du Golfe et les plaines des Etats du Centre et de 
la frontiere du Nord; mais le plus grand obstacle a la navigation 
interieure est du au dessechement, pendant certaines periodes de 
I'annee, surtout pendant la saison des secheresses, des cours d'eau, 
soit par I'evaporation naturelle, soit par Pemploi injudicieux des 
eaux pour Tarrosement, de sorte que meme les plus petits bateaux 
ne peuvent pas flotter. Tot ou tard, on portera remede a cette 
depense d'eau, puisque les autorites sont vigilantes pour la protec- 
tion de tous les elements qui contribuent a Tavancement du 
Mexique. Jusqu'a un certain point on pourrait porter remede a 
ce manque de moyens de navigation par la canalisation et le 
drainage des eaux existantes dans les bassins naturels dans les dif- 
ferentes parties de la Republique par le detoumement de leurs 
cours par interval les pendant certaines saisons de Tannee, vers les 
rivieres ou les canaux qui sont navigables, afin de maintenir cons- 
tamment la profondeur requise." 

Le Gouvernement mexicain a deja temoigne son appreciation 
de la valeur de ces entreprises en faisant des contrats pour la cons- 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 1395 

action de plusieurs canaux importants, y inclus le Canal de 
hijol entre Tampico et Tuxpan, qui aura une longueur de 250 
lilies, et la canalisation de la riviere Tempoal qui se jette dans 

Panaco pres de Tampico. II y a beaucoup d'autres rivieres et 
3urs d'eau qu'on pourra utiliser par le moyen d'ameliorations 
lus ou moins extensives, et quand le Mexique sera pourvu d'un 
ysteme efBcace de routes maritimes, Petat du commerce interne 
era grandement ameliore. " Les efforts du President Diaz et sa 
iberalite envers Texploitation de chemins de fer et de lignes de 
^apeurs,"dit le Consul Crittenden, " ont contribue principalement 
i I'etablissement dans la Republique de voies de communications, 
ccomplissant ainsi ce qu'aucun de ses predecesseurs n'a pu faire — 
est-a-dire, faisant de ce pays, le plus prospere des contrees de 
Vmerique-Espagnole." On peut supposer que la meme politi- 
le sera poursuivie dans Tamelioration des rivieres et des routes, 
^c des resultats avantageux correspondants. 

te developpement interne du Mexique et de ses industries, ainsi 
ic du commerce national, a, pour le peuple des Etats-Unis, une 
tportance et un interet particuliers, non-seulement par rapport a 
tccroissement general du commerce, mais en aidant a creer les 
^illeures conditions pour I'emploi du capital, de Tentreprise et du 
avail de metier des Etats-Unis, et pour la vente de machines, 
outils, de quincaillerie, et d'une variete d'autres produits manu- 
tctures, dans la manufacture desquels les Etats-Unis surpassent 
^ns les autres pays. Le capital des Etats-Unis est deja interesse 
^rgement dans les chemins de fer mexicains et les exploitations 
"ninieres, et Ton peut s'attendre a ce que les entreprises agricoles 
^t manufacturieres attirent aussi le capital libre et Phabilete de la 
g^nde Republique du nord. Heureusement, les articles offerts 
pour echange par chaque pays sont, avec peu d'exceptions, ceux 
9^1 ne font pas concurrence aux industries nationales de I'autre, et 
^niesure que les ressources internes du Mexique seront developpees, 
'^s liens de rapport commercial devront se multiplier et se raffer- 
^ir constamment a Pavantage reciproque des deux Republiques. 



j^^STf^yC^ (jT^L^^^UZ^ 



139^ BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



REPUBLIQUE ARGENTINE. 

RAPPORT SUR L'IMMIGRATION. 

Les donnees suivantes relatives a I'immigration dans la F 
blique Argentine sont tirees d'un recent rapport ofRciel. 

On ne connait pas exactement la superficie de la Republ 
mais on Testime a environ 1,172,000 milles carres. Le totj 
la population, selon le recensement de 1895, est de 4,000,000 
tants approximativement, ce qui represente 1.33 habitants 
kilometre. Par rapport a la population de la France, a si 
73 personnes par kilometre carre, le pays est capable de sou 
plus de 200,000,000 habitants. Malgre les changements i 
breux et subits du climat le pays est eminemment salub 
convient aux habitants des zones temperees. La mortalit 
pays se borne principalement aux enfants, due a Tignorance 
part des parents des principes de I'hygiene. 

Le climat attrayant, la fertilite du sol, la facilite pour la 
truction de chemins de fer, due a la topographie du pays, les 
breux coursd'eaua Pinterieur, et I'extensive cote maritime, devr 
attirer une immigration nombreuse et desirable. Dans les sp 
legitimes du travail, il y a de la place pour une augment 
annuelle de la population de 90,000 a 100,000 habitants. ] 
migrant qui possede quelques connaissances et du capital, et q 
propose a son arrivee dans le pays d'y acheter du terrain et bati 
maison confortable, de travailler la terre et d'elever une famill 
le desideratum du pays. Pour cette classe, il y a de la place 
un nombre illimite. Partout dans la Republique, on peut ac 
a des prix tres moderes des terres qui ne demandent que peu dc 
paration pour les rendre convenables a la culture, a Televag 
betail, etc. 

Ce qui jusqu'ici a caracterise ^immigrant, c'est son pench 
s'etablir dans les grandes villes au lieu de tenter sa fortune oi 
serait plus avancee par Tachat et le developpement de terres 
les campagnes. 

Le type le plus nombreux et le meilleur qui jusqu'ici est 
s'6tablir dans la Republique est PItalien. Ce sont les seuls q 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



1397 



r^pandus dans tout le pays et qui aient profit^ de leurs 



unites. 



tableaux suivants montrent rimmigration pendant les quatre 
li derniers ans et la nationalit6 et les professions des immi- 
dans les annees 1894-96. 



Ann^. 



imier semestre. 



Nombre d'arri- 
v4es. 



52,067 

54. 720 

61, 266 

102, 673 

35.734 



Nationality. 



ins du Nord 



IS . . 
tns. 
ens 



s 

IS 



ais 

IS. 



ids 



yens 
ns.. . 

is . . . 

QS.. . 



)lS 



irens, 



otal 

itation annuelle 



Premier 
semestre de 

1897. 



37 

5 

143 



I. 



003 
96 



553 
264 

17 

47 

4 



I. 



23, 



7. 



652 

436 

13 

303 

25 
2 

I 

76 

18 

301 

198 

22 

162 

251 
105 



35, 734 



1896. 



79 
12 

290 

53 

963 
318 



58 
429 

3 
126 

61 

8 

3,486 

1.039 

3 

75. 204 

212 



212 
20 

575 
18,051 

• 52 
679 
724 

13 



102, 673 
41.447 



1895. 



46 

II 

316 



549 
211 

I 

91 

329 

2 

115 
36 



2,448 

1,067 

12 

41, 203 

27 

5 
I 

178 

6 

2,336 

11,288 

62 

465 

369 

52 



61, 226 
6, 506 



1894. 



79 

269 



440 
248 



128 

385 



99 
18 



2,107 
971 

7 

37,699 

117 



200 

2 

3.132 
8, 122 

42 
516 
122 

17 



54. 720 
2.653 



1398 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



Professions. 



Agriculteurs , 

Apothicaires 

Architectes 

Boulangers , 

Barbiers 

Forgerons 

Relieurs 

Ma9ons h briqueterie , 

Eb^nistes ." 

Caltats , 

Charpentiers 

Clercs 

Cochers 

Cuisiniers 

Tonneliers 

Vendciirs 

Journaliers 

Inventeurs 

M6decins 

Teinturiers 

Ingenieurs 

Machinistes 

Graveurs 

Pecheurs , 

Ouvricrs en bois pour meubles. 

Jaidiniers 

Dofeurs 

Gantiers , 

Chapclicrs , 

Menuisiers , 

Lithographes , 

M6caniciens , 

Meuniers 

Mineurs 

Musiciens 

Peintrcs en b^timents , 

Pharmaciens 

Photographes 

Imprimeurs , 

Selliers 

Scieurs 

Marins , 

Couturi^res 

Institutrices 

Cordonniers 

Boutiquiers 

Chantcurs 

Chauffeurs 

Tailleurs de pierres , 

Magons 

Arpenteurs 

Tailleurs , 

Tanneurs 

Drouineurs 

Ferblantiers 

Tourneurs 

Compositeurs 

Vignerons 

Horlogers , 

Tisserands 

Sans professions 



Total 



1896. 



58. 388 
II 

3 

74 

527 
26 

2.243 

158 

59 
23 

886 

1.572 

49 
461 

87 
581 

15.983 
22 

21 
27 
9 
87 
16 

59 

34 

246 

44 
38 
64 
28 
16 
80 

85 
418 

226 

42 

19 
32 
18 

53 

67 

165 

2,983 



687 

2, 128 

86 

307 

496 

19 

9 
582 

161 



62 
42 



150 



105 
II. 717 

102, 673 



1895. 



32.941 
16 

6 

66 

322 

19 

917 

46 

43 

19 

634 

839 

46 

308 

74 
204 

8.9S8 

II 

9 
19 

5 

75 
8 

34 

17 
102 

36 
17 
31 
19 
4 
64 
52 
309 
81 

29 
10 

16 

II 

. 47 
32 
96 

1.498 



276 

1, 12*? 

96 

211 

141 

15 

5 

218 

147 
17 

87 

38 



124 



87 
10,467 

61, 226 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. ^399 



BRfiSIL. . 

L'IMMIGRATION EN 1896. 

Le dernier rapport du consul general des Pays-Bas a Rio de 
Janeiro constate que, pendant I'annee 1896, 99,379 immigrants 
ontdebarque a Rio et 58,579 a Santos, soit un total de 157,948 
indivividus appartenant aux nationalites suivantes: 

ItilicDs 96, 324 

Espagnols 24, 153 

Portugais 22, 299 

Autrichiens 8, 365 

Allemands , i, 070 

Russes 562 

Am^ricains du Nord 471 

Fran^ai? 328 

Suisses 153 

Anglais 63 

Danois 55 

^Iges 22 

Hollandais 7 

Naiionalitfes diverses i, 046 

Ce rapport se refere seulement aux Ports de Rio de Janeiro et 
dc Santos ; il ne compute pas les entrees aux autres ports du Bresil, 
notamment ceux de la riviere de TAmazone, oii recemment on a 
^tabli un service regulier d'immigration. 

CHEMIN DE PER DU SUD DU BRfiSIL. 

On lit dans Le Bresil de Paris du 26 decembre dernier : 
'^Ona inaugure le 15 novembre la station de Carasinho, de la 
^gnede Santa Maria a TUruguay, appartenant a la Compagnie des 
^hemins de fer sud-ouest bresiliens. Cette ligne fait partie de la 
concession d'ltarare a Santa Maria da Bocca do Monte et embranche- 
^^nts, repartie entre deux compagnies : Tune bresilienne, c'est celle 
^^ Sao Paulo e Rio Grande, qui construit les lignes de I'Etat de 
"^rana, et I'autre beige, les chemins de fer sud-ouest bresiliens, qui 
^nstruit celles du Rio Grande du Sud. Des lignes de cette 
^crniere compagnie, il a ete livre au trafic 299 kilometres, dont 
^^de Santa Maria a Cruz Alta, et 139 de ce dernier point a la 
Qouvelle station de Carasinho. D'ici a la fin de Pannee sera 



1400 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

inauguree la station de Passo Fundo, a 54^ kilom. d^ cette dei 
niere, ce qui elevera la longueur de lignes en trafic a 353^ kilon 

" De leur cote, les lignes de la Compagnie Sslo Paulo et Ri 
Grande sont tres avancees. Les travaux de terrassement sor 
presque termines sur une etendue de 96 kilometres au nord d 
Ponta Grossa, et tresavances sur une longueur de 150 kilometre 
au sud de ce point. La pose des rails progresse rapidement 

"La concession d'ltarare est une de celles qui ont donne Ic 
meilleurs resultats pratiques. Les travaux ont ete commences ei 
1890 et il a ete construit jusqu'a present pres de 560 kilometres 
soit 80 kilometres par an." 



NOUVELLE CAPITALE DE MINAS GERAES. 

La ville de Bello Horizonte a ete inauguree comme capita, 
de Minas Geraes, le 12 decembre dernier, avec toutes les forma.1 
tes dues a Pevenement. Les fonctionnaires et les personnes 1* 
plus importantes de PEtat assisterent a la ceremonie: le Go 
verneur signa ofRciellement le decret transferant la capitale d'On. 
Preto a Bello Horizonte. 

La courte description suivante de lanouvelle capitale est extra i 
du Jomal do Comercio de Rio: "La ville de Bello Horizon 
est situee dans une vaste et belle plaine, bornee par quatre coUin 
basses, et a moitie entouree par la chaine de montagnes de Cun 
d'EI Rei, et elle est divisee par une petite riviere du nom de ArrucJ 
et par ses affluents. La ville posscde trente-huit edifices publi- 
les plus remarquables desquels sont le Capitole, qui n'est ^ 
encore fini, les quatre departerhents de Tlnterieur, du Tresor, 
P Agriculture et de la Police, Tlmprimerie du Gouvemement^ 
Tribunal, le Gymnase et I'edifice pour la production d'electrici 
TEglise du Rosaire, les residences des Secretaires et Chefs 
Bureaux, la Gare, et un grand nombre de maisons modernes. 
population totale de la ville compte actuellement environ 12, 
habitants. 

La ville possede un pare central magnifique de 1 78 acres, 
rues sont droites et ont une largeur de 65 pieds, et sont entree^ 
pees d'avenues ayant une largeur de 1 1 4 pieds. L'avenue prin* 
pale est celle d'AfFonso Penna, de 162 pieds de largeur et de i^ 
verges en longueur. La ville possede une abondance d'eau 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. I4OI 

)tables et est eclairee a I'electricite, le systeme ayant ete inau- 
ire le 1 1 decembre. 

Les depenses faites par TEtat pour le transfert de la capitale de 
m ancienne situation a Pactuelle, et le cout des nouveaux bati- 
lents avec la construction de rembranchement du chemin de fer, 
esigne sous le nom de Bello Horizonte, se sont jusqu'a present 
levees a 1 1,000,000 de dollars." 



CHILI. 

STATISTIQUES COMMERCIALES POUR 1896. 

L'Estadistica Commercial publiant ofRciellement le commerce 
*xterieur et de cabotage du Chili pour Tannee 1896, vient d'etre 
e^u par le Bureau. De ce rapport important et etendu le som- 
iiaire suivant a ete fait. Dans les supputations, le dollar est 
-Value a 38 pence (76 cents en or). Les importations soumises 
lux droits sont basees sur I'evaluation etablie par le tarif douanier, 
andis que celles admises en franchise sont evaluees d'apres les 
^aleurs etablies dans la facture. La valeur des exportations est 
^see sur les prix courants. 

Les statistiques sont divisees en deux designations generales, 
*Comercio General" et "Comercio Especial." Sous la pre- 
miere designation sont comprises toutes les marchandises impor- 
'^es dans le pays, soit pour la consommation nationale, soit pour 
^^expedition, et tous les articles exportes, y compris ceux en tran- 

• 

^^t Sous la seconde designation sont classees toutes les importa- 

• 

^lons destinees a la consommation nationale, et les manufactures 
^'origine etrangere qui sont retirees de Tentrepot pour reexpedition. 
Le premier tableau ci-dessous donne, celui du " Comercio Gene- 
^V' montre la valeur totale des importations et des exportations 
^e la Republique en 1896, comparee a celle pour 1895, avec 
'augmentation et la diminution correspondantes. De ce tableau 
^ verra qu'il y a une diminution nette du commerce exterieur 
^'^levant a $ 1 3,278,000. 

Le second tableau donne les chiflres du " Comercio Especial " 
^t montre un gain de $6,315,785 pour 1896, la plus grande aug- 
mentation qui ait jamais ete rapportee dans les annales statis- 
^ques de la Republique. 



1402 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 





1S95. 


Z896. 


1S96. 




Augmenta- 
tion. 


DirtStovXic:^ 


Comercio General : 

Importations 

Exnortations 


$83, 856. 789 
76, 244, 441 


$68,464,717 
78,358,612 




$15, 302, ^ 


$2,114,171 








Totaux 


160, loi, 230 


146, 823, 229 


2, 114, 171 


15, 392, ■ 


Comercio Especial : 

Importations 


69, 206, 552 
72, 919, 882 


74, 082, 805 
74, 359. 414 


4. 876, 253 
1,439.532 




ExDortations 








Totaux ----. 


142. 126, 434 


148, 442, 219 


6, 315, 785 









Le "Comercio de Transitu," ou commerce de reexportatic 
montre un gain de $514,639 pour 1896. Par centre, le commen 
de cabotage presente une diminution considerable de $36,219,20 
en comparaison de 1895. 

La valeur des importations par pays de provenance est publi. 
dans le tableau ci-dessous, dans lequel on verra que les impon 
tions provenant des Etats-Unis ont augmente de $2,227,551. 



Fays de provenance. 



Grande Bretagne. , 

Allemagne 

EtatS'Unis 

P6rou 

Argentine 

France 

Australie 

Uruguay , 

Italic 

Inde 

Espagne 

Belgique 

Chine 

Equateur 

Brtsil 

Paraguay 

Polyn6sie 

Colombie 

Costa Rica 

Suede 

Guatemala 

Hollande 

Bolivie . . : 

Portugal 

Suisse 

PSche de Baleine 



1895- 



$32, 
17, 
4. 
4, 
5. 
I, 



Totaux 



086. 959 
299, 039 

579.614 
456, 388 
141,351 
644, C59 
680, 479 

498, 443 
539. 790 
593, 575 
361,438 
208, 283 

157,538 
172,685 
301,006 
230, 141 
3,108 

99.307 
80,064 



1896. 



1896. 



Aug^mentation. Diminnti«: 



3,854 
48 

18 

250 

4,610 

64, 405 



$30, <249, 002 
20, 080, 943 
6, 807, 165 
4, 397, 230 
4, 105, 244 
2,' 834, 216 
I, 522, 293 
711. 641 
692, 534 
557, 530 
469, 753 
330, 925 
284, 668 
197, 388 
186, 622 
182, 450 
168, 024 
130, 092 

97, 213 
20, 360 
10, 391 

570 
250 

130 



69, 206, 552 





$2, 781, 

2, 227, 


904 
551 




1,190. 
841, 
213, 
152, 


157 
814 

198 

744 


108, 

122, 

127, 

24. 


316 
542 
130 
703 





$1, 837^ 



46, 171 



74, 082, 805 



164, 916 

30, 785 

17,149 
20, 360 

6,537 
522 

232 



59- 
1, 036* 



3^- 



114^ 

47 



4^ 
18, 



8, 030, 559 



3. I54» 



Augmentation en 1896, $4,876,253. 



J. o» 

2. 05 



ant les donnees ci-dessus publiees, la valeur totale des ex- 
>ns,en dehors du commerce in transitu, s'eleva a $74,359,414, 
*es sous les denominations generales suivantes : 

des mines $6i, 322, 833 

agricoles 11, 124, 379 

nanufactur^s 54, 922 

105, 409 

768,012 

tal 73. 385. 645 

>oumis aux droits Strangers 412, 827 

[rangere 560, 942 

tal 74. 359. 424 

comparaison avec Pannee anterieure, il y a un benefice de 
,532. Une analyse des differents articles montre une aug- 
lon de $1,146,342 dans les produits des mines, de 
,226 dans les produits agricoles, et de $1,964 dans les arti- 
mufactures. Les articles suivants accusent une diminution 
5 par comparaison de 1895: Divers, $105,188; espece, 
78; articles etrangers soumis aux droits, $147,790; et 
etrangere, $521,544. Le nitrate accuse une diminution de 
,843, le charbon de $126,667, et I'or de $98,758. 
tome des Statistiques Commerciales actuellement sous 
1 contient, en plus du commerce general pour 1896, un abrege 
nmerce de la Republique pour le premier semestre de 
1897 en comparaison avec la periode correspondante de 
La valeur totale du commerce pour le premier semestre 
7 s'eleva a $59,003,284 comparee a $77,099,201 pendant la 



1404 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



COSTA RICA. 

DfiVELOPPEMENT FINANCIER ET COMMERCIAL. 

Le Bureau doit a Pamabilite du Senor Manuel Aragon, Directeui 
General de la Statistique, plusieurs copies de documents officiel 
ayant rapport au developpement des interets commerciaux d 
Costa Rica. Les faits suivants relatifs a cette Republique en son 
empruntes. 

La population a augmente constamment pendant ces quatorz 
dernieres annees. Le recensement officiel de 1882-83 constate qa 
le nombre d'habitants etait de 182,528, et celui de 1895-96 eta 
de 285,003. Le rapport sur la population, fait le 31 mars 189' 
la place a 294,941 ; ces chifFres accusent une augmentation pendai 
les quatorze demieres annees de 112,413. Pendant Texercice c 
1895-96 la circulation du papier-monnaie national a baisse a $2,7^ 
et celle des certificats de guerre a $98,669 ; cette circulation a e 
encore reduite, de sorte qu'au 31 mars 1897, il ne circulait auci^ 
papier-monnaie national et les certificats de guerre avaient bais 
a $79,115.75. A la meme date la dette interieure s'elevait 
$1,117,000. 

La monnaie en circulation dans* le pays, a la fin de I'exercE 
1895-96, s'elevait a $20.08 per capita. L'unite monetaire ^ 
actuellement le "colon," piece de monnaie en or de 778 mil 
grammes, contenant 900 milliemes de metal precieux, et s^ 
equivalent en or des Etats-Unis vaut 46^ cents. Depuis Tfe 
blissement de Tetalon d'or par decret du 24 octobre 1896, on s'^ 
servi de la monnaie argent seulement comme monnaie subsidiam 

La production et Texportation du cafe constituent le comme'* 
principal de la Republique; les rapports re9us du Departem^ 
de la Statistique nationale constatent que pendant les six premi ^ 
mois de 1897, Pexportation totale de cette denree s'eleva a vm 
valeur de $4,666,160 en or. Les exportations de bananes pC3 
la meme periode s'eleverent a la somme de $225,267.50; de \^ 
a $262,862.64; et d'autres articles a la somme de $47,676.1 
De ces exportations totales, la Grande-Bretagne en a pris poi 
$2,770,196, les Etats-Unis pour $1,359,470, I'AUemagne pou 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



1405 



$924,3CX5 et les autres pays pour $148,000. Les importations 
totales pour cette periode s'eleverent a $2,252,970. 
Les importations par pays de provenance etaient ainsi reparties: 



Pays, 



Etats-Unis 

Ailemagne 

Angleierre 

France , 

Italic 

Espagne 

Belgique 

Amtrique du Sud , 

St. Thomas 

Cuba , 

Nicaragua 

Guaifemala , 

Sah*ador , 

Colispostaux 

je parti cu Her. 



Total 



Valeur en or. 


Pour cent 


$871,646.91 


38,69 


357.652.02 


15.87 


518,833.37 


23. 02 


167. 303. 77 


7.43 


83, 070. 50 


3.68 


55.154.48 


2.45 


4. 893. 50 


0.22 


94. 571- 90 


4. 20 


445- 00 


0. 02 


20, 543. 78 


0. 91 


10. 739. 90 


0.48 


288.06 


0. 01 


21, 334. 50 


0.95 


44. 999. 30 


2. 00 


I. 493. 40 


0.07 


2, 252, 970. 39 


100.00 



La distribution des exportations de cafe etait comme suit : 



Sacs. 



A Londres 133, 646 

A Hambourg 24, 833 

A New York 33. 887 

'^^ Californie 19, 946 

A Bremen I2, 373 

A Bordeaux 5, 827 

Attx autres pays i, 362 



GUATEMALA. 



de 



MESURES FINANCIERES. 

Le Departement d'Etat vient de recevoir de la Legation de 
^^temala, copies de deux decrets relatife a la situation financiere 
cette Republique. Le premier decret est en efFet comme suit: 
^'^partirdu ler Janvier de I'annee courante, toutes les obligations 
^onnuespar le Gouvernement seront consolidees, et pourgarantir 
^^ crediteurs, des bons sur la dette interieure seront emis echangea- 
*^s pour les bons actuels de la dette flottante, pour ceux de trois 
^^Uions, pour ceux de I'Exposition, pour ceux de I'emprunt des 
Cliques en mai, pour Temprunt de septembre, et pour les docu- 
ments garantis par I'Exposition de PAmerique Centrale. 
BuU. No. 8 11 



1406 BiJR£AU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Les bons de la dette interieure seront de 100, 500 et de 1,0c 
dollars et porteront un interet de 1 2 pour cent par an. Ces boi 
seront amortis au moyen de paiements trimestriels commen9ai 
en mars 1899 et ces sommes seront determinees par le Budge 
L'interet sera paye par la Banque de Guatemala a la fin de chaqi 
mois a partir de Janvier 1898. Les bons de la dette flottante seroi 
echanges pour ceux de la dette interieure avec un rabais de 
moitie de I'interet accumule a la date. Des fractions de moi- 
de 100 dollars ne porteront pas d'interet et le Directeur-Genei 
des Comptes emettra des certificats a cet efFet Les bons de 
dette interieure destines au rachat de I'emprunt de guerre de se 
tembre seront tenus par le Directeur-General des Comptes, 
seront livres aux teneurs des billets acquittes a leur presentatic 

Pour le paiement de cette dette, seront reserves 15 sous 
la taxe sur chaque bouteille de spiritueux vendue dans 
depositaires nationaux depuis le ler Janvier au 30 septembre 18c 
et apres cette date, 25 sous de la taxe, et 5 pour cent des drcj 
d'importation sur les marchandises etrangeres seront reserv- 
L'administration de la dette interieure est confiee a la Banque 
Guatemala. 

Le second decret pourvoit au rachat graduel en argent de to 
les billets emis par les banques de la Republique. Ce deci 
declare en substance que le President, considerant que la perm 
sion accordee aux banques pour la suspension des paiements < 
metal expire le ler Janvier 1898, a decide ce qui suit: 

Aux mois de Janvier et de fevrier 1898 seront echanges U 
billets de 1 et de 5 dollars; en mars ceux de 1, 5, et de 50 dollari 
en avril ceux de 1, 5, 10, 20, 25 et de 100 dollars; et le ler m^ 
les paiements generaux en argent seront retablis. 

Les sommes re9ues par les banques apres le ler Janvier scror 
payees dans la meme espece de monnaie qu'elles ont ete re9ue 
soit en billets ou en monnaie. Le decret du 2 1 mai est amend 
en ce qui relate aux billets non compris dans le changemei 
graduel deja mentionne, qui continueront a etre monnaie Icga 
jusqu'au 30 avril 1898. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. M^? 



MEXIQUE. 

PRIX DES TERRES PUBLIQUES PENDANT L'ANNfiE FISCALE DE 

1898-99. 

Conformement aux dispositions de la loi sur la vente des terres 
publiques, le Gouvemement mexicain a public les prix auxquels 
ces terres pourront etre achtees dans les differents Etats, dans le Dis- 
trict Federal et dans les Territoires nationaux, pendant Tannee fiscale 
ci-dessus mentionnee : 

Prix par 
hectare. 

Eut d'Aguascalientes $2. 00 

Etat de Campeche i. 75 

Eat de Chiapas 2. 50 

Eut de Chuhuahua i. 00 

Etat de Coahuila .^ i. cx) 

Eut de Colima i. 00 

Etat de Durango i. cx> 

Etat de Guanajuato 2. 00 

Etat de Guerrero i. 10 

Etat d'Hidalgo ' 2. 25 

Etat de Jalisco '. 2. 00 

Etat de Mexico 2. 50 

Etat de Michoacan 2. 75 

Etat de Morelos 4. 00 

Etat de Nuevo Leon i. 00 

Etat d'Oaxaca. i . 10 

Etat de Puebla 3. 00 

Etat de Queretaro 2. 00 

Etat de San Luis Potosi : 2. 25 

Etat de Sinaloa i. 00 

Etat de Sonora i. 00 

Etat de Tabasco 3. 00 

Etat de Tamaulipas i. 00 

Etat de Tlaxacala 2. 00 

Etat de Vera Cruz 2. 50 

Etat de YucaUn 2. 00 

Etat de Zacatecas 2. 00 

I>iarict Ffedferal 5. 60 

Tcnitoire de Tepic 2. 25 

Tcmtoire de la Basse Californie o. 50 

Note,— -L'ann^e fiscale mexicaine de 1898-99 commence le i" juillet 1898, et finit 
^e3ojuini8g9. 

LTiectare 6quivaut k 2.471 1 acres am6ricaines. 



1408 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



NICARAGUA. 

NOUVELLE LOI RELATIVE A L'EXPORTATION DU 

CAOUTCHOUC. 

Ci-dessous se trouve une traduction du decret reglant Texport 
tion du caoutchouc de TEtat de Zelaya. 

Le President de PEtat, en vertu de ses pouvoirs legaux, decret 

1. A partir de la date de la promulgation de ce d6cret, I'exportation 
caoutchouc cultiv6 par des particuliers est permise, soit que les arbres soie 
plant^s ou que la production soit spontan^e, conform^ment aux lois du i/mj 
1883 et du 23 du meme mois de 1897. 

2. Le droit d'exportation sur ledit article est r6duit a dix cents par li^ 
(quatre cents monnaie des Etats-Unis). 

3. La defense d'extraire le caoutchouc des arbres sur les terres national 
pendant une p6riode de 10 ans, reste en pleine force et vigueur; et tous 
violateurs de la loi scront poursuivis et punis comme contrebandiers. 

4. Toutes les autres lois en contravention de la pr6sente loi sont, par ce fs 
r6voqu6es. 

Fait a Managua le 2 d^cemlye 1^97. (Sign6) J. S. Zelaya; Enrique 
Lopez, Ministre des Finances. 

M. M. J. Clancy, agent consulaire des Etats-Unis a Bluefiel^ 
foumit au Bureau la traduction suivante d'un decret executif d* 
du 7 decembre 1897. M. Clancy remarque que ce decret 
s'applique qu'au port de Bluefields, et qu'aucun impot d'impor 
tion n'est per9u sur les expeditions de caoutchouc de Greytov 

Au Gouverneur et a I'Jntendant, 

Le President de I'Etat d^crfete : 

Que le decret du 22 septembre 1896, autorisant I'exportation du caoutch< 
extrait des forets nationales, qui payait autrefois dix cents par livre, s'appliqa 
uniquement au D^partement de Zelaya. 

Le Ministre des Finances: Lopez. 

Managua, le 7 decembre i8gj, 

DOCKET RELATJF AUX PLANTATIONS CAFfilfeRES. 

M. Weisike, Consul des Etats-Unis a Managua, informe 
Departement d'Etat, sous date du 29 novembre 1897, que 
Gouvernement du Nicaragua a promulgue un decret accord* 
des droits differentiels aux personnes qui feront des prets d'arg< 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



1409 



afin de permettre aux planteurs de preparer leurs recoltes. Les 
articles principaux du decret sont les suivants : 

Le planteur ne peut pas disposer du produit sur lequel Pargent 
a etc prete sans avoir d'abord rembourse le preteur ou sans avoir 
recu son consentement pour en disposer. Tous les contrats 
d'argent prete pour la preparation des recoltes devront etre enre- 
gistres et publics dans le Diario Oficial. Le taux de Tinteret sur 
CCS prets d'argent ne doit pas depasser 2 pour cent par mois. 

MONOPOLE SUR LES EXPLOSIFS. 

Le consul Weisike transmet au Departement d'Etat le decret 
suivant du Gouvernement du Nicaragua, date du 4 decembre 
1897, etablissant un monopole de la vente du plomb, des capsujes 
ct des cartouches. 

Le President de TEtat, pour des raisons d'ordre public, et en 
consideration de la necessite d'augmenter les revenus afin de faire 
&CC a I'augmentation dans les depenses du service public, pro- 
n^ulgue, en vertu des pouvoirs dont il est revetu, le decret suivant: 

Section Ire, Le plomb en masse et en barres ou manufacture, de meme que 
'« capsules et cartouches employees pour les fusils de chasse et revolvers, seront 
•monopolisms. Par consequent, lesdits articles ne peuvent fetre vend us que dans 
ittmagasins qui en seront autoris^s par le Gouvernement. 

Sec. 2. Les marchands ayant dans leurs magasins du plomb, des capsules et 
<^K cartouches, doivent faire I'inventaire, inscrivant le genre d'article, son poids 
ft sa quantity. Cet inventaire doit etre pr6sent6 au pr6fet respectif dans les 
"^'^ jours suivant la publication du present decret, et ce fonctionnaire devra 
•*ife des arrangements pour la livraison immediate de ces articles, en sa presence, 
^" pcrcepteur des revenus internes de la province. 

Sec. 3. Le pr6fet devra dresser un document de la livraison des articles, fait 
^onform6ment au paragraphe precedent. Ce document, qui devra etre sign^ 
411SS1 par Ic marchand et le percepteur, lui (le marchand) servira de garant de 
^^valeur (16pos6e, dans le compte qui sera ouvert a cet efFet; des copies authen- 
^^jucsen seront envoy^es au Ministfere des Finances, au bureau de I'auditeur, et 
3 cclui du controleur. 

Sec. 4. A Tavenir, le percepteur des revenus internes sqja pourvu desdits 
^rncles de marchandises au moyen des approvisionnements que I'intendant 
"cl entrepot du Gouvernement fournira, dans la forme et sous les conditions 
2ccoutumecs pour les provisions de poudre. 

^^. 5. Aucun particulier ne peut garder plus de 2 livres de poudre, 5 livres 
^c plomb, 500 capsules et 200 cartouches, mfeme s*il gardait ces objets en 
"iui^rcnts endroits; mais les propri6taires de deux ou plusieurs plantations ou 



1410 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

entreprises peuvent garder en chacune d'elles les quantit6s desdits articles fix6c 
dans ce paragraphe. 

Sec. 6. Ceux qui violeront le paragraphe ci-dessus, et les marchands qui n 
se conformeront pas aux ordres donnas dans la section 2 de cette loi, seroc 
poursuivis et punis comme contrebandiers. 

Sec 7. Les mineurs et autres industriels qui sont obliges de garder dans Icl 
travail plus de poudre que ne le permet le paragraphe 6, doivent obtenir ur 
autorisation sp^ciale du Mjnist^re des Finances, qui sera accord^e ou refuse 
selon les m^rites de Tinformation relative au cas. 

Sec. 8. Le Gouvernement remboursera les marchands du plomb et des capsul 

qu'ils ont livr6s, au prix 6tabli dans la facture et des d^penses et 5 pour cent « 

plus, j^uant a ceci, le Ministre des Finances, aid6 par deux commeryants digrs 

de foi, feront une liquidation correspondante, afin de r^gler le prix, qui scr 

public dans le Diario Oficial. 

Fait a Managua, le 4 d6cembre 1897. 

J. S. Zelaya* 
Enrique Lopez, Ministre des Finances. 



LA COMPAGNIE DE VAPEURS DE BLUEFIELDS. 

Le Bureau est informe que la* Compagnie Weinberger < 
vapeurs, la Carribean Fruit Company de la Nouvelle Orleans 
la Orr and Laubenheiner Steamship Company, se sont entenduj 
pour Porganisation d'une nouvelle compagnie, qui a etc enreg 
tree conformement aux lois de TEtat de Louisiane sous le nci: 
de Bluefields Steamship Company, avec un capital de $150,0^ 
Le bureau principal sera a la Nouvelle Orleans sous la direct i 
de Jacob Weinberger, comme directeur general, associe a H. ^ 
Brown, directeur a Bluefields, Nicaragua. 

La nouvelle compagnie aura quatre vaisseaux, designes conx 1 
suit: Horam, Suldal, Sunniva et Alabama; tous vaisseaux nor^" 
giens. Le prix du voyage entre la Nouvelle Orleans et Bl 1 
fields ou Rama, sera de $30, premiere classe, et de $20, troisifei 
classe, sauf a bord de 1' Alabama, qui demandera $40, premi^ 
classe, et $25, troisieme classe. Les raisons donnees pour cet 
augmentation de tarif par 1' Alabama sont que le vaisseau est nei 
et plus grand que les autres, et qu'il est pourvu de tous les conforts t 
emmenagements modernes de service pour passagers; ce vaissea^ 
fera le trajet (1210 milles) entre la Nouvelle Orleans et Bluefield 
en quatre jours, tandis que les trois autres vaisseaux exigeront d( 
5 jours et demi a 6 jours. Le service direct entre les ports d\ 
Nicaragua et Mobile sera, par ce nouvel arrangement, suspendt 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



1411 



Cette Compagnie, de meme que ses predecesseurs, continuera 
Vachat et Tcxpedition de bananes sur la riviere Escondido et ses 
affluents. 

RfiCOLTE DE BANANES A BLUEFIELDS. 

Les faits suivants relativement a la recolte de bananes a Blue- 
fields pendant le mois de novembre 1897, ^^"^ extraits d'un rap- 
port officiel adresse au Departement d'Etat. 

Le nombre de bananes exportees en novembre 1 897 et novem- 
bre 1896 a ete: 



Annte. 


Grappes. 


Prix. 


1897 A 


Nombre 

32,000 

45.000 

8,500 

II, 500 


Ptsos* 

.50 

.40 
.20 
. 10 


Cents. 
20.6 
16.5 
8.4 




4.1 




97,000 






V 






1896 , 


11,000 

29,000 

4,000 


.35 
.30 
.15 


16.05 

13.75 
6.88 








44,000 






V 







* Peso aicarag^uan. 



C>n a paye aux planteurs, en novembre, la somme de 36,850 pesos 

($^5^227.27), et pour le fret 30,487.59 pesos ($12,598.17). Dans 

le meme mois de Tannee precedente 13,150 pesos ($6,032.12) ont 

cte payes aux planteurs, et 14,936.60 pesos ($6,851.65) pour le 

fr^^- Done, un total pour le mois de 1897 de 67,337.59 pesos 

($27,82544), contre 28,086.60 pesos ($12,883.77) pour novembre 

1896. 

En novembre 1897, cinq cargaisons ont ete expediees a la Nou- 
velle Orleans, composees de 45,000 entiers, 8,500 moities et 1 1,500 
l^rts, et deux a Mobile de 32,000 entiers. En novembre 1896, 
d^ux cargaisons ont ete expediees a la Nouvelle Orleans (17,000 
entiers et 4,000 moities) et deux a Mobile (23,000 entiers). En 
novembre 1896 il n'y avait que deux lignes de vapeurs, aujourd'hui 
^ y en a trois, et une compagnie possede deux vapeurs. L'aug- 
Qientation de prix, dit I'agent consulaire, est due a la rivalite entre 
Jcs exportateurs. 



1412 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



PARAGUAY. 

LE PARAGUAY A L'EXPOSITION DE BRUXELLES. 

Le Bureau a re9u de PHonorable John Stewart, Consul-Gem 
ral du Paraguay aux Etats-Unis, la mention suivante preparee pj 
Senor Don Josi Decond, Ministre'des Relations Etrangeres, c 
la part prise par cette Republique a TExposition International 
qui a eu lieu a Bruxelles en 1895. 

La part prise par le Paraguay dans la grande exposition intc 
nationale qui a eu lieu recemment a Bruxelles, malgre les prepar. 
tifs hatifs qu'il a du faire a cause du peu de temps a sa dispositioi 
a demontre d'une maniere convaincante les grands progres qu 
fait ce pays pendant les dernieres annees. 

Le Paraguay, dont le passe a tant contribue a son avilissemei 
aux yeux des etrangers, n'est plus une mysterieuse region c 
tyrannie sinistre, mais plutot une communaute virile et entrepr 
nante, qui repond aux impulsions modernes, et ou I'immigra 
honnete et le riche capitaliste trouveront un vaste champs po 
leur energie, proteges par des lois les plus avantageuses et p 
Tun des plus liberaux des gouvernements de TAmerique du Su 

A la suite de la guerre avec la triple alliance, composee 
P Argentine, le Bresil et 1' Uruguay, qui epuisa presque toutes s 
energies, le Paraguay s'est releve sans aucun secours, par £ 
propres efforts, et dans vingt-cinq ans de travail constant, scz 
Tegide bienfaisante d'une paix presque sans interruption, est parve 
a obtenir parmi ses Republiques soeurs une place honorable 
enviable. 

La preuve se voit dans le succes qu*il a obtenu a I'expositfi 
recente a Bruxelles. 

Les arts et industries nationaux, Tagriculture et la bibliograpl 
y furent dignement representes, comme il a ete demontre par 
prix re9us, qui sont tres superieurs a ceux accordes auparavant 
des occasions semblables et avec un nombre plus consideral 
d'exposants. Si les dfficultes, dues aux vacances des Chambi 
Legislatives, n'ctaient pas survenues pour empecher le pays * 
faire des preparatifs dignes de Tevenement, il se serait sureme 
distingue parmi les autres nations avec un eclat inattendu. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. H^3 

L'impression produite par la section paraguayenne n'a ete toute- 
)is disproportionnee a ses merites, a en juger par les extraits 
suivants tires du rapport de M. Oostendorp. 

La section paraguayenne a 6t6 una des premieres visit^es, et j'ai eu Phonneur 
c'accompagner Sa Majest6, ayant a mes c6t6s Sefior Hemeleers TiEvf, Consul de 
laR^publique a Bruxelles. 

La vue du palais national a Asuncion, pr6sent6e par le grand tableau d^coratif 

JurlcqucI j'ai inform^ Votre Excellence, a int6rcss6 Sa Majcst6 et il en demanda 

dfs details. Sc tournant alors vers le Ministre de I'lndustrie et de Travail, il a 

^it la bien aimable observation qu'on pourrait aller au Paraguay y chercher de 

^'inspiration pour T^rection de grands Edifices. 

L'ameublement en bois du pays a aussi attir6 I'attention du Roi et il demanda 
si les articles 6taient faits en Europe; a cette question j*ai pu r6pondre avec 
grand plais\r qu'ils 6taient faits au Paraguay. 

On pcut dire que pour beaucoup de visiteurs la section est unc veritable legon 
de r^tat avanc6 de la culture au Paraguay, comme d6montr6 par les productions 
envoy^cs, ct la collection nombreuse et int6ressante de vues photographiques de 
la capiiale et du pays. 

Les prix obtenus par les exposants paraguayens sont les 
su i \ants : 

Quatre diplomes, grand prix. 

Deux diplomes d'honneur. 

Kuit diplomes, medaille d'or. 

Seize diplomes, medaille d'argent. 

Quinze diplomes, medailles de bronze. 

Cinq diplomes, mention honorable. 

IJn total de cinquante prix pour quarante exposants. II merite 
^'^tre remarque qu'a TExposition Universelle de Paris en 1889, 
*^ Paraguay obtint cinquante-quatre distinctions et seulement 
^^^x grands prix, tandis que le nombre des exposants etait bien 
plus grand. 

U majeure partie des prix enumeres a ete accordee aux 

^^ciustries nationales et a I'agriculture ; Tenorme richesse vegetale 

^^ sol attira beaucoup d'attention, de meme que les qualites 

^^niarquables du yerba-mate (the paraguayen), dont Pusage est 

^^venu si general dans la partie australe de TAmerique du Sud 

^^ qui commence a se repandre dans les regions du Nord. 



1414 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



SAINT DOMINIQUE. 

NOTES COMMERCIAL ES. 

Le Bureau doit a I'amabilite de M. E. D. Yorke, Secretaire 
de la "San Domingo Improvement Company," des copies de 
trois decrets executifs ayant rapport a I'exportation de betail, au 
commerce exterieur avec Haiti, et aux concessions de petrolea 
La Romana. 

Selon le premier decret, I'exportation des betes a comes et 
des chevaux est limitee aux animaux males, celle des animauie 
femelles etant formellement interdite. Le droit d'exportation sult 
chaque animal sera de 2 dollars en or. Les ports de Barahona ^t 
de Romana sont ouverts a cette classe de commerce, mais L^s 
vaisseaux venant de I'etranger pour se charger de betail dxus 
lesdits ports sont obliges de faire demande au port de la capitale 
pour Tautorisation necessaire, d'ou ils seront envoyes par rAdmi- 
nistrateur de Hacienda, lorsqu'ils sont en route pour Barahona, et 
par le Commissaire du Gouvernement, lorsqu'ils sont en route pour 
Romana. 

Le second decret exige que toute marchandise etrangere impor- 
tee dans la Republique par la frontiere sera soumise aux memes 
droits que ceux per9us sur le commerce venant des pays etrangcrs, 
et aux memes formalites exigees par la douane. Toutefois, l^^ 
produits nationaux manufactures d'Haiti, importes dans le pays^o-^ 
seront soumis a aucun droit. 

Le troisieme decret autorise I'installation a La Romana d'u*^^ 
raffinerie de petrole qui doit produire du petrole d'une qualite ^^ 
150°. Le decret exige en plus que tout le petrole importe da-^^" 
le pays de I'etranger doit etre soumis a un essai, et celui qui s^^^ 
trouve au-dessous de la qualite requise (150°) 'sera confisque; *^ 
droit per9u sur cette denree sera de 40 cents en or par gallon. 

Le tableau suivant montre les importations de marchandi^^^ 
domestiques a Saint Dominique provenant des Etats-Unispend^^^ 
les douze mois terminant le 30 juin 1896, et pour la periode coT' 
respondante de 1897. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



1415 



Articled. 



Michines agricoles 

Litres, canes g^ographiques et autres imprimis 
artales: 

Mais 

B16 de farine 

Voiiures, wagons 

Charbon de terre et coke * . . 

Cotonnades 

Autres manufactures de coton 

Bicyclettes 

Fruits et noix 

Houblon 

Fer et acier et leurs manufactures 

Machines ^ coudre 

Autres machines 

Cuir et ses manufactures 

Articles k Tusage des na vires : 

Resine, goudron, t6r6benthine ct poix . . . 

Essence de t6r6benthine 

Huiies : 

Min^rales 

Vtgfetales 

Produits alimentaires : 

Bctuf, conserve 

Bobuf, sal6 ou en saumure 

Soif 

Lard fum6 

]>nibons 

Pore... 

Lard 

Beurre , 

Fromage 

Semences 

^cre et m^lasse 

«>is de construction 

Ais : 

^istravaiil^s 



Valcurs, 


Valcum, 


1896. 


1897. 


$2,981 


$1,428 


i»477 


1.336 


1,131 


389 


135, 9S0 


163, 078 


10, 764 


20, 588 


15, 160 


26,211 


114,749 


92. 831 


xo, 199 


31,012 


266 


4.908 


2,234 


2,388 


249 


287 


12,967 


11,283 


1,380 


1,798 


115.427 


106, 252 


721 


I. 177 


4.990 


5.036 


221 


312 


45. 807 


52, 486 


15.389 


15,616 


56 


72 


1,961 


2, 6l2 


32. 590 


21, 037 


1,905 


2,706 


6,460 


7,316 


9,192 


4.357 


37. 247 


23. 077 


5.464 


7.331 


4.798 


4,7" 


613 


538 


2,885 


2,332 


69,099 


65,512 


2,958 


9.544 


15, 166 


20, 692 



VENEZUELA. 

COMMERCE AMfiRICAIN AVEC LE VENEZUELA. 

M. pRosKAUER, Consul des Etats-Unis a Puerto Cabello, a recem- 

"i^nt transmis au Departement d'Etat un article detaille et interes- 

^tsurlesopportunitespourrentreprise et le commerce americains 

2u Venezuela. 11 dit que le commerce de coutellerie, de tuiles 

^ntaience, de verrerie et d'articles semblables, peut etre tres aug- 

nicnte, un genre moyen et ordinaire trouvant un n\arche facile. A 

cause du tarif eleve sur tons les tabacs et le consequent developpe- 

^^nt de la manufacture et de la production nationale, importation 

d^ cet article a diminue beaucoup et on croit que le Venezuela 

acviendra sous peu un pays exportateur. 



1416 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

A six milles de distance de Puerto Cabello, du marbre d*un 
qualite tres fine a ete d^couvert, et une usine coutant plus d 
$50,000 a ete elevee pour rexploitation des carrieres. 

Le charbon dent se servent les chemins de fer vient principalc 
ment de I'Angleterre, mais M. Proskauer croit que si I'on faisai 
les efforts necessaires, le charbon des regions de ['Alabama et de 1; 
V^irginie pourrait etre avantageusement introduit dans le pays, e 
mcme supplanter les charbons anglais. Cette suggestion parai 
tres a propos et praticable en vue de la proximite des mines amer 
caines, et le penchant des commer9ants et manufacturiers americair 
a developper et monopoliser le commerce du Venezuela. 

L'extrait suivant du rapport relatif au commerce entre les Etati 
Unisqui contient des indications d'une valeur pratique a ete public 

Notre commerce avec ce pays est tr^s restreint par le manque de maisons, 
banques am^ricaines, etc. II est presque inutile de dire que toutes les granc2 
maisons ont leurs correspondants en Am^rique, mais ils ne supplecnt pas a 
communications directes entre les maisons americaines aux Etats-Unis ct Icfc- 
succursales ici. 

Une de nos plus grandes difficult6s commercials pourrait etre renduc p- 
connue et mieux comprise. J^e fais r^f^rcnce au syst^me de credit de six, 
ncnf ou de meme douze mois qu*on accorde afin de permettre au marchand 
r6aliser sur les produits a la p6riode des r6coltes. Les banques 4tant peu nc^ 
brcuses et manquant meme en quelques endroits, les commergants sont L 
merci des preteurs d'argent, s'il leur faut r6gler leurs comptes au bout de soixa :i 
ou quatre-vingt-dix jours, comme il est d*usage chez nous, ce qui entrainc 
int^ret au taux de 1 ou i^ pour cent par mois, et trhs fr6quemmcnt meme pi 
Le cours du change, qui pourrait etre ainsi plus facilement controle, quoic^ 
jamais on6reux, atteint quelquefois un chiffre deraisonnablcment ^lev^. j 
circulation est en pratique basde sur T^talon d'or, Targent et Tor nc pouva 
etre 6chang6s Tun pour Tautre. L'^mission du papier-monnaie par Ic Got 
vernement 6tant encore interdite, les seuls billets en circulation sont ceux de 1 
Banque de Venezuela et de la Banque de Caracas, limit6s a I'usage national. 

CONTRAT POUR L'fiTABLISSEMENT D'ENTREP6TS. 

Dans une communication adressee au Departement d'Etat 1( 
Ministre Loomis transmet les termes du contrat signe par I 
Gouvernement ^ie Venezuela et Jose Rafael Nunez, sujet venc 
zuclien, pour Tetablissement dans la Republique d'un system 
d'entrepots. Cette entreprise est d'un interet special pour Ic 
Americains ayant des relations commercials avec le Venezuela. 

On remarquera que la concession peut etre accordee a d< 



ins ou entrepots afin de faciliter les operations commer- 
marchands et de garantir la conservation de leurs 
ses. 

cle. La Compagnie des Entrepots recevra dans ses 
toute la marchandise importee ou destinee a I'exporta- 
:s proprietaires desireront mettre en entrepot; elle paiera 
res frais tous les droits de douane, de transport, etc., etc., 
les marchandises ci-dessus mentionnees et les tiendra a 
ion de leurs proprietaires, sujettes aux conditions sui- 

> proprietaires des marchandises pourront retirer des 
es marchandises dont ils auront besoin, apres avoir paye 

> legitimes de la Compagnie. 

; proprietaires de marchandises telles que, cotonnades, 
: et quincaillerie, paieront a la Compagnie des Entre- 
lus de neuf pour cent par an de la somme totale tjui a 
pour les droits de douane, de transport, etc., etc. Les 
es de comestibles paieront dix pour cent par an. 
Compagnie des Entrepots pent demander comme droits 
sinage la somme de cinq bolivars par mois par mille 
*n depot dans les entrepots ventiles, et dix bolivars par 
nille kilogrammes mis en depot dans les entrepots her- 
ent clos. 

Compagnie des Entrepots demandera deux bolivars 
kilogrammes d'articles mis en depot et destines a I'ex- 



1418 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS, 

(/) La Compagnie des Entrepots s'oblige a remettre les ma 
chandises dans la meme condition qu'elles ont ete re9ues et sera ten^ 
responsable pour toute avarie que souffriront les marchandises 
cause de force majeure ou toute autre cause fortuite; mais < 
aucun cas la Compagnie ne sera tenue responsable des paqu« 
dont le contenu n'a pas ete verifie par les proprietaires ou par 
Compagnie, ou qui sont sujets a la decomposition spontanee < 
naturelle, ni de la perte en poids; et 

i^g) La Compagnie des Entrepots devra avoir un corps co: 

ft 

plet d'employes, et les charrettes ou vehicules recessaires 
maniement des marchandises avec toute la securite et les preci 
tions necessaires. 

3e Article. La Compagnie des Entrepots foumira aux prop'r 
taires des marchandises en depot, de I'argent pour un tiers du p^ 
d'achat des marchandises en depot. Ces emprunts peuvent av^ 
un cours d'un an tout au plus, au taux d'interet de huit pour c:< 
par an. Si a la fin du terme fixe ni la somme pretee, ni Tint^ 
sur la meme n'a ete paye, la Compagnie des Entrepots peut veim.* 
aux encheres les marchandises qui ont ete tenues en garantier 
la somme pretee. Du resultat de la vente seront payees 
sommes dues et les autres depenses encourues, et s'il reste unsoX 
celui-ci sera remis aux proprietaires des marchandises, qui devf^ 
etre a la vente ou s'y faire representee Si a Pexpiration du ter" 
convenu, Tinteret seul de la somme pretee est remis, le propi 
tairc peut choisir entre la vente de ses marchandises aux enchei 
ou Textension du pret pour une periode de six mois ou plus, ^ 
de les regagner; il est bien compris que pendant les six moisacJ 
tionnels le proprietaire est soumis aux memes conditions <g 
celles en vigueur pendant le premier terme ecoule. La Co 
pagnie devra, en calculant Tinteret, compter comme un in 
entier, toute fiaction de mois. 

4e Article. Les marchandises qui restent en depot dans les eni 
pots de la Compagnie seront considerees comme garantic ^ 
sommes placees pour le paiement des droits de douanes et aut: 
depenses, aussi bien que pour les sommes que les proprietaires c 
marchandises auront re9ues comme emprunts, et pour ces raiso 
lesdites marchandises ne peuvent etre vendues, saisies ou soumi- 
a aucune contribution autre que celles deja mentionnees. L* 



' BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. H^9 

[ reclamations de la Compagnie des Entrepots auront la priorite sur 

! toute autre reclamation sur les marchandiscs mises en depot dans 

scs entrepots. La Compagnie informera le public tous les trois 

mois par la presse, de la quantitc de marchandiscs en depot ct des 

noms des depositaires. 

je Article. La Compagnie des Entrepots devra payer les droits 

de douanc sur toute marchandiscs delivree pour etre mise en depot 

a la meme douane oii les marchandiscs ont etc re9ues. Paiement 

devra etre fait aussitot que les agents de commission auront verifie 

ia iacture contenant la liquidation des droits a payer, presentee par 

«. Douane. Ceci n'annulera pas les droits que le Gouvemement 

P^ut faire valoir contre les proprietaires des marchandiscs ou contre 

^^s marchandiscs memes en paiement des droits d'importation. 

^ Article. Le Gouvemement des Etats-Unis de Venezuela 
^'^ngage : 

^i) A accorder en franchise de droits de douane, Timportation 
"^ tout materiel requis pour la construction complete des batiments, 
"^vissi bien que de I'ameublement, jusqu'a Petablissement definitif 
1^ la Compagnie, se conformant toujours aux stipulations du Code 
*^ Finance sur les marchandiscs importees sous contrat en franchise 
l^ droit 

(2) A exempter la Compagnie de toutes contributions natio- 
^ales. 

(3) A ne pas accorder une concession semblable a aucune autre 
^^Tsonne, compagnie ou corporation pendant le temps que durera 
'^ contrat, soit vingt-cinq ans. 

ye Article. Dans deux ans, comptes de la date de Tapproba- 
-iCDn de ce contrat par le Congres National, la Compagnie des 
Entrepots doit etablir ses magasins a Caracas, a La Guayra, a 
f^ijerto Cabello, a Maracaibo et a Ciudad Bolivar; et dans trois 
^-ris, comptant de la mene date, dans les autres ports de la Repu- 
t^lique. 

PRESIDENT IGNACIO ANDRADE. 

Le General Ignacio Andrade, le nouveau President de Vene- 
^^cla, naquit en 1839 a Merida, et appartient a une famille illustre 
Q\i pays, son pere etant le General Josfe Escolastico Andrade, et 
^ndeses freres, le Sefior Don Jose Andrade, le present et dis- 
tingue Ministre aux Etats-Unis. 



1420 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Le President Andrade a ete intimement lie aux affaires pubL 
ques du Venezuela et a occupe plusieurs positions de dignite c 
de responsabilite. Sa carriere publique n'a pas ete bomee am. 
affaires politiques ; il est aussi un soldat distingue, ayant une fo 
commande un corps d'armee, et il a pris une part tres active a 1 
revolution de 1892, qui a eu pour resultatde placer Tanci en Pres 
dent, le General Joaquin Crespo, a la tete de TEtat. 

Le nouveau President a beaucoup voyage et il est tout-a-foii 
d'accord avec les idees moderhes de notre epoque. II a reside 
pendant plusieurs annees en Europe, et a visite les Etats-Unisa 
plusieurs reprises. Son election a la presidence au mois de sep- 
tembre dernier a ete pratiquement unanime, ayant re9u 406,000 
votes d'un total de 490,000. 

L'Honorable Francis B. Loomis, Ministre des Etats-Unis au 
Venezuela, a present dans ce pays, park de Pavenement du nou- 
veau President comme une promesse faVorable a la continuation 
des sentiments d'amitie entre les deux pays et a la croissance di 
trafic. M. LooMis dit que le Venezuela a besoin de capitaux ei 
que le President Andrade desire encourager les placemenc 
etrangers et Pimmigration, specialement des Etats-Unis. 



VENEZUELA. 

TARIF DOUANIER DE 1897-1898. 

Troisieme Edition, Fascicule 30. 

Article premier. — Les marchandises provenant de I'^tranger, qui sont intro- 
duites par les douanes de la R6publique, se divisent en neuf classes, savoir: 

1° Les marchandises exemptes de droits; 

2° Les marchandises payant 10 centimes de bolivar* par kilogramme. 
3° Les marchandises payant 25 centimes de bolivar par kilogramme. 
4° Les marchandises payant 75 centimes de bolivar par kilogramme. 
5° Les marchandises payant 1 bolivar 25 centimes par kilogramme. 
6° Les marchandises payant 2 bolivars ^o centimes par kilogramme. 
7° Les marchandises payant 5 bolivars par kilogramme. 
8° Les marchandises payant 10 bolivars par kilogramme. 
9° Les marchandises payant 20 bolivars par kilogramme. 

* Le bolivar vaut i franc tvaleiir nominalc) et se divise en loo centimes. Pour les poids et mesure 
le V6n6zu61a a adopts le syst^me m^trique. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. I42I 

§ 1. — Classe 1. 

Marchandises exemptes de droits. 

in^rales. 

a vivantSy except^ les sangsues. 

s, fonds ou chaudiferes en fer, grilles, cylindres et appareils a broycr 

linsi que leurs axes et armatures, fer native et vieux fer hors d'usage, 

la fonte. 

s et socs de charrues, houes, beches, faucilles, serpes et faux, sarcloirs, 

lies, pics, tasits et lames a essarter, avec ou sans manche en bois, et 

>our 61aguer. 

mport^s par ordre du Gouvernement. 

Is et machines pour l'6clairage au gaz ou pour sa fabrication, ainsi que 

ses artificielles et les appareils destines a fournir de la vapeur avec les 

p^trole. 

ns et HI m^tallique pour clotures, avec ronces artificielles ou dans la 

lie par I'ordonnance du 13 juin 1894, y compris les crochfets pour 

a incendie. 

I de terre et charbon pour l'6clairage ^lectrique. 

romain. 

s, accessoires et mat^riaux, exclusivement destines aux chemins de 

de bois et marc de raisin pour engrais. 

Tusage des ministres et des agents diplomatiques Strangers accr6dit6s 

Gouvernement de I'Union, apport6s par eux, et ceux des agents 
ues de la R6publique a leur retour au V6n6zu61a. 
, effets et meublcs ayani servi, des V6n6zu61iens qui ont r6sid6 plus 
is en Europe ou aux Etats-Unis du Nord et qui veulent revenir au 
, moyennant toutefois I'accomplissement des formalit6s prescrites a 
'8 de la loi XVI du Code des Finances, et ceux des Strangers domi- 
le pays, pourvu qu'ils se trouvent dans les memes conditions qui font 
de cette franchise les V6n6zu61iens. 

des voyageurs, a I'exception des objets qui n'ont pas servi et des 
ui seront tax6s d'apr^s la classe a laquelle ils appartiennent. Les 
•licables aux objets n'ayant pas servi et import6s dans les bagages 
mentis de 20%. 

ou globes e^lestes ou terrestres, cartes hydrographiques et marines, 
^raphiques de toute sorte et plans topographiques des mines, litho- 
1 imprimis. 

ainsi que la glace import^e dans les localit^s o5 il n'existe pas de 
[e glace 6tablies moyennant autorisation du Gouvernement. 

11. Xo. 8 12 



1422 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Livres, imprimis, en fcuilles ou broch^s, traitant dcs sciences, des arts ct d 
metiers, catalogues, journaux et modules d'6criture a Tusage des 6coles primair* 

Bois pr6par6s pour constructions navales, billes de pin, de pitchpin, de chc 
ou d'autres bois ordinairess, propres a etre converties en planches, en pouti 
ou en toutes autres formes de bois, ainsi que poutres de pitchpin ayant plus 
25 centimetres d'6paisseur. 

Machines ^ imprimer et accessoires de typographie, tels que caractfcres, ligi* 
encre pr6par6e et papier blanc d'impression ni coll6 ni gomm^, ainsi que la |> 
de papier pour faire les cliches et Talliage de plomb et d'aluminium emplc 
dans la st^r^otypie. 

Machines destinies a I'agriculture et a Texploitation des mines, au tissage, s 
scieries et aux fonderies, non d6nomm6es dans les autres classes, ainsi que cc 
destinies aux arts et m6tiers, quand les industriels memes les importent, ap 
avoir justifi6 I'usage qu'ils veulent en faire et avoir obtenu Tautorisation pr6al£ 
du Gouvcrnement. 

Machines et appareils pour t616graphes ^lectriques, moyennant Tautorisa-* 
pr^alable du Gouvcrnement. 

Moteurs a vapeur, de tout genre et moulins a vent, avec tous leurs accessoi 
moyennant I'autorisation pr6alable du Gouvcrnement. 

Echantillons de tissus en petits coupons, en quantity ne d6passant pas 25 ic 
grammes, 6chantillons de papier de tenture dont la longueur ne d^passes pa.s 
centimetres, ainsi .qu'6chantillons de tous autres objets, pourvu que par \< 
dimensions ou pour toute autre raison ils ne soient pas susceptibles d'etre 
en vente. » 

CEuvres d'art d'un caract^re monumental, moyennant Tautorisation pr^ala 
du Gouvernement. 

Platine, or et argent, bruts, ainsi que Tor en monnaie legale. 

Plantes vivantes de toute esp^ce, herbiers ou collections de plantes shch 
autres que m6dicinales et graines pour semer et petites pommes de tcrre 
pouvant servir que comme semence, pourvu que l'autorit6 competence les co 
sid6re comme impoit6es pour etre sem6es, mais a I'exception des graines • 
pommes de terre. 

Produits originaires de la Colombie, introduits par les frontiferes de ce pay*^ 
condition qu'il y ait reciprocity. 

Ponts avec leurs chaines, tabliers et autres accessoires, s'ils sont destines 
I'usage public ou a des entreprises agricoles; dans le cas contraire, ils ser(^ 
soumis a la taxe de la mati^re qui les compose. 

Horloges publiques import^es par le Gouvernement Federal. 

Ressorts, essieux, jantes et planches pour la construction des charrettcs 
voitures dans le pays. 

Si les objets dans lesquels sont importes les articles exempts, tels que malic 
sacs de nuit, sacoches, couvertures ou toiles, n*ont pas perdu leur valeur, : 
seront peses a part et suivront le regime qui leur est applicable suivant la clas 
a laquelle ils appartiennent. 



r gal vanish, non ouvre. 

, craie, ocre, blanc d'Espagne, argile, caput mortuum et toutes terrcs 

■uction. 

I min6ral ou v6g6tal, asphalte, p^trolc brut ct bitumes de tout genre, 

rirage. 

le fcr ou de bois, pour futailles, boucauts et tamis. 

rains. 

: fer (comme outils). 

s ordinaires, en verre noir ou blanc, commun, pour liqueurs; dames- 
boutillons vides et flacons carr^s, de meme verre, dans lesquels on 
i6ralement le genifevre. 

lydrauliques avec leurs tuyaux, souspapes et autres pieces accessoires. 
t chaloupes, months ou en pieces s6par6es, ainsi que leurs avirons, 
cres. 

le ou noir. 

v'draulique, chaux ordinaire et tous autres mat6riaux de construction 
non d6nomm6s. 

>, debris et d^chets de peaux, ainsi que les boyaux sees de moutons, 
iteries. 

ou 6toupe en masses ou tordue, pour calfater, ^toupe goudronn^e et 
coton pour Tentretien des machines, 
ou conduits en fer ou en plomb. . 
n pate. 

[nperm^able pour couverture de toits et pour autres usages, 
raux, charrettes et voitures a bras, 
grains. 

froment en grains. 

, caliches, coupes, omnibus, phaetons et toute esp^ce de v6hicules 
m6s. 

e chene, de rouvre ou d'autres arbres, pour tanner, 
'orge, de pois-chiches ou Revalesci^re du Barry et autres farines non 



1424 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

mati&re, pour dallages, n 'ay ant pas plus de 60 centimetres; tuiles en terre ouen 
ardoises et pierres ordinaires brutes de tout genre. 

Bois a bTOler et charbon de bois en morceaux. 

bois communs, tels que planches, poutres et solives de pin, de pitchpin et 
d'autres bois, ni rabot^es ni bouvet^es ayant moins d'e 25 centimetres d'6paisseur, 
et pin non d^nomm^s, quelles que soient leurs dimensions. 

Mais en grains. 

Pommes, raisins, poires et tous autres fruits frais, y compris les cocos m£me s«!cs. 

Machines, reservoirs en fer galvanis^ et appareils non d^nomm^s dans laclasse 
I, dont le poids total d^passe 1,000 kilogrammes, ainsi que les glaci^res. 

Musique 6crite. 

Manioc. 

Paille ou herbes s^ches, telles que foin et similaires, pour nourrir les animaux, 
\ Texception des herbes m6dicinales. 

Poix commune, blanche, noire ou jaune. 

Bois de campdche, gaiac, br^sillet, milrier, santal rouge et autres bois semblables, 
en copeaux. 

Papier a cigarettes. 

Pianos, meme muets, pour I'exercice du doigt6, sans accessoires. 

Ardoises encadr^es ou non, livres et crayons d'ardoise et ardoises pour billards. 

R6sine de pin. 

Roues pour voitures, chariots et charrettes, boites d'essieux en fer pour lesdits 
v^hiculcs et roues en acier mont6es sur essieux en acier. 

Sel d'Epsom. 

Sel de Glauber et silicate de soude. 

Terre de Sienne et terre noire a nettoyer. 

Tombes et tombeaux, en marbre, granit ou toute autre mati^re, si Tautorit^ * 
comp^tente estime que ces ouvrages ne sont pas des ceuvres d'art d'un caract^re 
monumental. 

Lattes en bois pour couvrir les toits (teja-mani). 

Craie blanche en morceaux ou en poudre et poudre de marbre et de verre. 

Platre en pierres ou en poudre et platre a mouler. 

§ 3. — Classe III. 

Droits, — 2j centimes de bolivar, 

Huile comestible. 

Huilcs de colza et toutes autres huiles a brOler non d6nomm6es, huile d'os et 
huile dite esperma de cristal pour machines. 

Acides st6arique et ol^ique, st^arine pure non ouvr^e et st^arine m^lang^e avrc 
de la paraifine, connue sous le nom de st^arine du commerce. 

Acides ac6tique, hydrochlorique ou muriatiquc. 

Acide nitrique ou eau-forte. 

Huile de k^rosfen^. 

Acier, bronze, laiton, cuivre, 6tain pur ou avec alliagc, plomb et zinc en 
masses ou bruts, en barres, cubes, rognures ou feuilles perc6es ou ajour^es. 

Eau de fleurs d'oranger, limonades et eaux gazeuses. 

Eau-rase ou essence de t6r6benthine. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. H^5 

Aiguilles a tricoter, en acier bois, os, caoutchouc ou autre mati^re similaire. 
Colon. 
Lavande. 

Alun non calcin6 en morceaux. 

Jaune anglais ou chromate de plomb, minium^ litharge, manganese mineral, 
ruse ou carbonate de plomb et abestine. 
Animaux empaill^s.' 

Annonces sous forme d'almanachs, relatives a des produits m^dicinaux ou i 
autres industries. ./ 

Piltres et appareils a filtrer Teau. 

Harnais et colliers pour voitures de toute sorte et pour caliches, coupes, 
nnibus, pha6tons et pour toute sorte de voitures, chariots et charrettes. 
Riz moulu, sagou, salep, tapioca et mais broy6. 
Sucre brut ou non raffing. 
Soufre en fleur ou en pate. 

Balances, romaines et dynamomitres, autres que ceux en cuivre ou ceux oil 
cuivre domine, plomb de chasse, chevrotines et balles. 
Laine de bois (barba dt paid) et fibre v^g^tale semblable au sparte. 
Barils, pipes et boucauts, months ou non, et douves import6es s^par^ment. 
Vrilles et tariires pour perforer les pierres ou les troncs. 
Poterie varniss^e ou non, sous toutes formes, non d6nomm6e. 
Blanc de zinc et bol blanc. 

Lianes, joncs, massette, palmes, paille non d^nomm^e, osier non ouvr6 et 6pis 
: trifle pour la fabrication des balais. 
Marc d*huile. 
Cables, agrfts et cordages. 

Fourncaux de pipes, fume-cigares et pipes en terre ou en faience ordinaire, 
>on combines avec d'autres matiires. 
Pieces d*artillerie de toute matifere. 

"aricots de toute sorte, pois-chiches, lentilles, fives et toute espice de 
^umincuses, plantes potagires et racines alimentaires ou comestibles, non 
f^par^s. 

Toilc 6crue ou grossiire et toile dite coleta 6crue du n** 3 ; toiles d'cmballage 
^inaircs, g6n6ralement employ6es pour les sacs de cacao et de caft et pour les 
iiballages, dont la couleur, naturellement fonc6e, n'a pas M modifi^e par les 
"Cparations destinies a les blanchir, meme lorqu'elles ont des raies ou des 
"caux de couleur. 
^I^^rbon de bois en poussiire, charbon animal et noir de fum6e. 

'aj^dc sal6e, en saumure ou fum6e, jambons et jambonneaux non en boites, 

^^ ^angues fum^es ou salves, a Texception de la viande sal6e dite tasajo dont 
'JJf^''^ation est prohib^e. 

^'*^ d'emballage doubl^e de papier ; carton fin ou papier 6pais pour bureaux, 

^^ries de visite et autres usages, y compris le papier impermeable pour 
esses, 

y^^ons. 

^^^is en fil de fer. 
""^n v6g6tal et similaires. 



1426 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Poix pour cordonnicrs. 

Bi&re ct cidre. 

Chlorure de chaux, cr6oline et d6sinfectants liquides ou en poudre, non 
d^nomm^s. 

Vicux cuivrc en debris. 

Cuisines portatives en fer ou en autres m6tal. 

Corbillards, y compris les lanternes (viarios), plumets ou panaches et tous 
autres articles accessoires de la voiture, quand mdme ils payeraient s6par6nient 
un droit plus 61ev6, pourvu qu'ils arrivent avec le char, dans le meme ou dans 
un autre colis. 

Craie blanche ou rouge, en morceaux ou en poudre. 

Creuset de toute sorte. 

Conserves au vinaigre, autres que les olives et les capres de toute sorte. 

Baies de geni^vre. 

fimeri en morceaux ou en poudre. 

Sparte brut. 

fitoupilles et m^ches pour mines. 

Clous a ma\ig^re, en cuivre. 

Fontaines ou bassins, en fer, en marbrc ou en toute autre matifere, et statues, 
bustes, vases, urnes, en marbre, albatre, granit ou autre pierre semblable. 

Fleur dg sagou. 

Biscuits de toute sorte, non m^lang^s de confiseries. 

Gaz fluide {gasjluido), 

Gomme arabique. 

Farine de froment et semoule pr6par6e pour la fabrication des pjltes. 

Outils et instruments, tels que marteaux, maillets de calfat, hachettes, cabes- 
tans, forges, soufflets de toute sorte, cries pour lever des charges, tnolejones, 
grands clous a vis pour forgerons. bigornes, enclumes et tous autres outils ou 
instruments semblables. 

Fer ouvr6 : fil de fer autre que le fil galvanis6 non ouvr6 ct toile m^tallique 
en fil de fer pour fonds de lit ; ancres et chaines pour navires, coffrcs-forts, 
mortiers, meubles, presses a copier et a timbrer le papier, clous, broqueties, 
caboches, rivets et clous a maug^re ; constrnctions d6mont6es ou leurs parties, 
telles que balcons, portes, balustres, grilles, colonnes, toits, m6me import6s s^pa- 
r^ment; statues, urnes, pots a fleurs, bustes et tous autres ornements de ce 
genre, pour maisons et jardins; poids pour balances, fers a repasser, poteaux 
pour clotures; fourneaux ou r6chauds, budares, chaudrons, grils, marmites, 
ponies a frire, bruloirs et autres ustensiles de manage, 6tam6s ou non, ^maill^s 
ou non, except^ les memes objets en tole de fer ou fer-Jjlanc qui acquittent les 
droits de la classe IV. Sont 6galement ranges dans cette classe les clous en fer 
galvanis^ avec rondelles 6galement en fer galvanis^. 

Fer-blanc non ouvr^. 

Os, comes et onglons bruts. 

Hollandille bleue de coton. 

Jouets d'enfants, de tout genre et de n'importe quelle matifere, y compris les 
wetras, 

Livres imprimis, eit feuilles ou broch^s, non compris dans la classe 1» brochures. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. l^ZJ 

cahiers et livres destines a Tinstruction primaire, import^s sous la mdme forme 

ou en dcmi-rcliure {media-pasta), 

Emeri sur toile ou sur papier. 

Graines ou farine de lin et graines de colza. 

Lin brut. 

Faience commune et faience verniss^e ou non, en objets de toute forme, non 

d^nomm^c. 

Bois de noyer. 

Bois fin pour luthiers, 6b6nistes, etc. 

Bois en feuilles ou en lames, pour placage. 

Bois sci6, rabot6 ou bouvet^. 

5aindoux, a I'exception de toute autre graisse m^lang^e, et beurre. 

Machines, reservoirs en fer galvanis^ et appareils non denomm^s ant^rieure- 

in«it, dont le poids ne d^passe pas 1,000 kilogrammes. Si Ics machines sont 

import^es avec des pieces de rechange qui, prises s^par^ment, payent un droit 

plus 6lev6, le tout sera tax6 comme machine, pourvu que ces pieces arriventdans 

Ic mcme colis. 

Nioulins de toute sorte, non compris dans la classe I. 

"Mineral de fer, de cuivre, d*6tain, mine de plomb, et amiante ou asbeste. 

t^ommes de terre. 

Papier de tout genre, non d6nomm6, et serpentins ou rubans de papier. 

Poisson press6, sal6 ou fum6, non en boites de fer-blanc. 

Pierrcs lithographiques, pierre ponce, pierres de tout genre et de toute forme 

* moudre ou a aiguiser, pierres r^fractaires pour fourneaux m^tallurgiques, 

V^^rrcs a filtrer et autres similaires. 

^ovilcurs ordinaires a I'huile. 
p 

'^ot^sse commune et potasse calcin^e. 
5alp>^tre et sel de nitre. 
Sar^^ucs. 

^^*"^ines press^es, a Thuile, aux tomates ou autrement pr6par6es. 
"^"^ ^ pr^par^ pour la fabrication des bougies st6ariques ou st^arine. 
Sovi^c commune ou calcin^e. 
C^-^tonate de soude cristallis^. 
SuXfatc de fer ou couperose verte. 
Sulfate de cuivre ou couperose blcue. 
^•^^Ics ou tissus en fil de fer, non d6nomm6s. 
^^^^benthine commune de Venise. 
"oison pour conserver les peaux. 

^*"re a vitres et glaces unies, non 6tam^s. 

^'^^igre ordinaire et vinaigre empyreumatique et eau-de-vie de marc de raisin. 

^'^s de toute sorte, en pipes, barils on barriques et vins rouges quel que soit 

•n ^^ ^^ production ou de provenance, import^s en futs, barriques, barils, bou- 

. ^» boutillons ou tous autres contenants. Si le vin de Porto, meme rouge, 

^Port6 en boutillons ou bouteilles, il sera class6 d'aprfts la classe IV. 

**^s pour nettoyer le caf(6 (venteadores). 
^^c pulv6ris6 ou non. . 

[A suivre dans la Bulletin du mois de mars.] 



1428 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



CHEMIN DE PER INTEROCfiANIQUE. 

On recommence a agiter dans toute TAmerique du Sud Pidec 
de resserrer les relations commerciales et politiques des diverses 
republiques, premierement au moyen de voies de communications 
plus rapides, qui acceleraient Techange des productions de ces 
pays, tout en reduisant la distance, les dangers et les depenses de 
transport resultant de la longue navigation par la voie de Magellan 
et des eaux turbulentes du Cap Horn. 

Tout le monde reconnait, principalement au Bresil, au Perou, en 
Bolivie, et au Chili, Purgente necessite de la construction d'un 
chemin de fer interoceanique sud-americain, lequel partant d'un 
des ports du Bresil, Rio-de-Janeiro, par exemple, traverserait, au 
moyen d'un tunnel, la Cordillere des Andes, et mettrait en com- 
munication directe avec I'ancien empire des Bragance, et par la 
avec I'Europe, les quatre republiques de la cote du Pacifique, si 
riches en productions naturelles. 

La partie technique du travail, telle que I'arpentage des routes, 
etc., a deja ete etudiee et les plans dresses; le grand obstacle qui 
s'opposait a la realisation de cette entreprise etait le manque de 
capital. II parait cependant que la question vient d'entrer dans une 
nouvelle phase pratique, et qu'un accord est intervenu entre les rep- 
resentants des quatre republiques interessees, qui ont approuve le 
projet en vue de garantir les interets du capital qui devra etre 
engage dans cette vaste entreprise. Toutefois, on doit dire que 
I'Equateur ne fait pas encore partie des conventions qui ont etc 
negociees. 

On dit qu'au Bresil le courant de I'opinion favorable a ce pro- 
jet est tres puissant et que I'oeuvre excite beaucoup d'enthousiasme. 
Une conference a eu lieu recemment au Club des Ingenieurs a 
Rio, le Dr. Oliveira Bulhoes etant I'esprit promoteur, a laquelle 
ont assiste beaucoup de capitalistes et de notabilites les plus 
connues de la politique. Les gouvernements de la Bolivie et du 
Chili y furent representes par M. Palavicino et le Dr. Errazuri, 
leurs representants respectifs au Bresil. 

A cette reunion les causes qui paralysent principalement le 
commerce entre les nations sud-americaines ont ete discutees, de 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. I429 

leme que les immerises richesses naturelles inexploitees qui n'at- 
mdent que Tentreprise et Penergie que necessitera raccomplisse- 
lent de ce grand projet international. 

La longueur de la ligne transcontinentale de Rio a un port 
vantageux sur la cote du Pacifique ne depassera pas, pour ainsi 
lire, 2,600 kilometres. Sur foi des personnes interessees a cette 
iffaire, il est assure que les capitaux necessaires au commencement 
des travaux preliminaires ont ete deja ofFerts, et que Tinauguration 
des travaux de construction n'attend que la cooperation de PEqua- 
tcur avec les autres Republiques. 



MISSION ANGLAISE SPfiCIALE A L'AMERIQUE 

DU SUD. 

Le South American Journal du 8 Janvier ecrit, a propos des 
nesures prises par le Gouvernement anglais pour conserver et 
'tendre d'avantage son commerce actuel avec I'Amerique du Sud, 
'Omme suit : 

Nous apprenons que le Gouvernement a nomme M. Worth- 
^^GTON de Manchester pour partir en mission spcciale a TAmerique 
iu Sud en vue de s'informer des conditions des marches locaux 
pour rinformatioh du Conseil de Commerce qui considere Putilite 
de I'etablissement d'un Bureau d'Information Commerciale. M. 
WoRTHiNGTON sera accompagne de Sir Vincent Barrington, qui 
^st envoye de la part des Chambres- Associees de Commerce. On 
^'attend au depart des deux commissaires pour P Amerique du Sud 
^ la fin du mois courant. 

Le journal Daily Mail en publiant cette nouvelle observe: 

Les pr61iminaires de Tentreprise, annonc6c pour la premiere fois par Sir- 
^<^URTNEY Boyle a Nottingham, continuent de faire des progrfes constants. 
^^n seulcment on a obtenu d'un nombrc de Chambres de Commerce des 
^^moignages convaincants, mais on a aussi recueilli nombre d 'informations de 
^aucoup de valeur. Cette information toutefois ne suffit pas pour indiquer 
^ocl sera le caract^re final de Tentreprise propos6e. Cela ne peut etre assur6 
^^^ lorsquc les membres du Comit6 D6partemental, nomm^s pour consid6rer 
^^proposition, soumettront leur rapport au President du Conseil de Commerce, 
^ui, a son tour le soumettra, accompagn^ de ses recommandations, au Cabinet, 
^uquel est confix la decision finale. 



1430 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



CODE DE LA NOMENCLATURE COMMERCIALE 

Le Departement du Tresor vient de publier la lettre circulair 

suivante, annon9ant Tadoption dans les differentes douanes, d 
Code de la Nomenclature Commerciale, compile et public par 1 
Bureau, comme livre de reference : 

[Circiilaire Departementale No. i6. Division des Douanes.] 

DEPARTEMENT DU TrEsOR., BuREAU DU SECRETAIRE, 

Washington, D. C, le 22 Janvier iSpS, 

Aux Collecteurs et autres Agents de la Douane: 

Selon unc resolution de la Conf(Erence Internationale Am6ricaine, qui recoi 

mande aux gouvernements qui en font partie Tadoption d'line nomencIat%j 

commune pour la designation, en ordre alphab^tique et en termes 6quivalcri 

en anglais, en portugais et en espagnol, des articles sur lesquels sont per^us <: 

droits d'importation, pour I'usage par toutes les nations am6ricaines dans ri.i 

position des droits de douane qui sont 6tablis ou qui seront d^sormais etab>] 

de meme que dans les manifestes maritimes, factures consulaires, entries, perT 

de sortie de vaisseaux et autres documents douaniers, le Bureau des R6publicj^i 

Am6ricaines a publi6 un ouvrage, en trois volumes, intitul6 "Code de Noin< 

clature Commerciale," qui contient 28,000 termes commerciaux, arranges 

fa^on a assurer de la facility de reference dans n'importe laquelle des trois !.□ 

gues, a savoir, Tanglais, le portugais, et I'espagnol. Cette publication est d6sc 

mais accept^e comme livre de reference pour la traduction* des phrases et mc 

commerciaux, par ce D6partement et par les priseurs de marchandises. Tou 

crreur ou faute qu'on trouvera dans cet ouvrage devra etre signal^e a 

Departement. 

W. B. Howell, Sous- Secretaire. 



MISCELLANEES COMMERCIALES. 

RfiPUBLIQUE ARGENTINE. 

Importation de Oharbon ^n repr^sentant d'une maison importantc de charboi 
Amtfricain. ^ Philadelphie est actuellem'ent a Buenos Ay res en vu 

d'y trouver un march^ pour le charbon Pocahontas. Ce charbon a iii employ 
quelque temps dans l'Am6rique Centrale et les Indes Occidentalcs et a donn 
des rcsultats trfes satisfaisants. Le commerce en charbon cntre les Etats-Uni 
et la R^publique Argentine est peu considerable et peut etre devcloppe consid^ 
rablement si Tattention necessaire y est pretee et des efforts sont faits poi 
Tavancer. La valeur totale du charbon expedie aux pays sud-americains, pei 
dant Tannee fiscale terminee le 30 juin 1897, ne s'est eievee qu'a $145,000. Li 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. I43I 

es houill^res de Virginie, poss^dant un port accessible a tout le monde a 
folk, devraient etre mises en communication immediate avec les contr^es 
Indes Occidentales et de I'Am^rique du Centre et du Sud. 
imb^age d'Apporeiis ^^^ imporiateurs de Buenos Ayres r6clament contre la 
Bieciriqnea. manifere d6fectueuse de Temballage des appareils ^lectri- 

isqui leur sont exp6di6s. On cite comme exemple une compagnie am^ricaine 
exp6dia a ce march6 un grand nombre de lampes incandescentes qui ont 6i6 
uv^es a leur arriv^e avoir subies un dommage considerable. En meme temps 
: cette reclamation, on rapporte qu'unc expedition semblable venant de TAn- 
errc est arrivee en bien meilleur ^tat. L'importance de cette suggestion doit 
bier evidente aux parties interess^es dans ce genre de commerce. 

La moisson du bl6 dans la Republique Argentine qui 
:olte de BU i Santa r«. . / • 

s est poursuivie pendant le mois passe est pratiquement 
e. Les informations regues du D^partement de Santa F^, le centre des dis- 
ts producteurs du bie dans la R^publique, rapportent que la recolte est la 
» grande qu'on ait vue pendant quelques ann^es. On dit que la r^colte est 
seulement exceptionnelle quant a la quantity mais aussi que la quality de la 
ine est excellente, tant en poids qu'en couleur. 

BRfiSIL. 
Le cable de la ** Western and Brazilian Company " 

Oible Sona-Marln. 

entre Pernambuco et Ceard, et le Cable Amazonien, 
cndant de I'embouchure de la riviere a Manios, qui ont ^t^ hors d*usage pen- 
it quelque temps, ont ^t^ r^par^s et les d6peches sont de nouveau transmises 
uli^rcment. 
Enortations de ^^^ exportations de caoutchouc de Pari pendant le 

GaontchoQc. j^^jg d*octobre dernier se sont eiev^es a 2,074,644 kilo- 

mmcs, dont 1,061,573 kilos ont ^t^ exp^di^s en Europe et 1,013,071 aux 
its-Unis. 

La Compaenie ** Sa6 Bento Gold Mining" qui com- 

Md'ordeMinea aeraea. . e ^ 

. men^a ses travaux il y a un an dans I'Etat de Minas, 

sssMe environ 10,000 acres de terrain. On calculait sur une production 
240 grains d'or par tonne en moyenne, mais le minerai s'est montr^ bien 

IS riche en quelques endroits qu'on ne s'y attendait, la quantity d'or s'^levant 

1 once 72 grains. Le minerai est si friable que les bocards ne sont pas 

«ssaircs pour le r^du ire en poudre; il est simplement pass^ par les cylindres 
tout de suite plong6 dans les cuves a cyanure. La compagnie a un capital de 

^300,000 en or. 

"■'^Fabriqne de Oha- ^^ nouvelle fabrique de chapeaux, r^cemment ^tablie 
'"*"'• dans la ville de Rio de Janeiro, emploie 120 ouvriers et 

ibrique 1,000 chapeaux par jour. Toutefois la fabrique a une capacity pour la 

roduction de 5,000 chapeaux et on dit qu'elle emploiera 600 ouvriers. 

*»iiioiu de Obarbon de ^^ Jomal do Commercio fait autorit6 pour la nouvelle 
^"'•* que la Brazilian Financial Company a Londres a sign^ un 

''^'^atpour I'approvisionnement du charbon a I'usage du Chemin de Fer Cen- 



143^ BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

tral pendant I'ann^e prochaine. Le prix stipule dans le contrat est de $6.25 
par tonne livr^e au port de Rio de Janeiro ; un quart de la quantity peut, selon 
le contrat, etrc livr6 a Santos a un prix additionnel de 75 cents par tonne. 

Le South American Journal publie la nouvelle qu'un 

Vente de FlantatioiM. . , 

syndicat anglais a 6t6 organist en vue de I'achat de plu- 
sieurs plantations caf^i^res dans le D^partement de Sao Paulo, entre Sarandy et 
Batataes; le montant du prix a payer s'^lfeve a 18,000,000 milreis. II est rap- 
port^ qu'un autre syndicat s'organise a Londres avec un capital de fonds hol- 
landais et am^ricains deux fois plus grand, pour I'achat de plantations a I'ouest 
et au nord de Sao Paulo. 

CHILI. 

Exportation de Viandee ^^^ compagnie a 6t6 form6e a Valparaiso pour I'expor- 
aeitfea. tation en Europe de viandes gel^es de Punta Arena, dans 

le d6troit de Magellan. On dit qu'une exp6rience sera bientot tent^e avec une 
expedition de 20,000 moutons. 

GUATEMALA. 

Droits enr lea AppareUe ^^ Gouvernement de Guatemala vient de promulgucr 
fiiectriques. ^^ d^cret pour Tentr^e en franchise de droits, des bat- 

teries eiectriques, non charg^cs, pour Tusage public. Le fil de fer galvanis6 et 
lefil de cuivre isol6, de meme que les appareils 61ectriqucs, sont sujets aux droits, 
suivant le poids brut. Le Guatemala, comme les autres pays, installe dans ses 
villes principales le systfeme de I'^clairage 61ectrique. 
Paiements en Argent des ^^^ informations ofHcielles regues du Guatemala an- 
Droits de Doaane. noncent qu'a partir du ler juillet les droits d*importation 
et d'exportation seront payables en argent. 

MEXIQUE. 

Un nouveau d^veloppement industriel sera bientot 

Fabriqne de Fer-Blanc. -km > n* 

entrepris au Mexique avec 1 mauguration d'une fabriqufc 

de fer-blanc et la demande a 6t€ faite au Gouvernement mexicain pour la con — 

cession respective. On pense qu'en vue du grand commerce en aliments con — 

serves, notamment en fruits et legumes, que la R6publique d^veloppe, la nouvelle 

industrie propos^e lui sera d'un immense avantage et I'action du Gouverncmen "• 

est attendue avec beaucoup d*int^ret. 

Fabriqne de Bicyciettes et de ^^^^ concession a €t€ obtenue du Gouvemement mexL - 
Oaoutchoac. ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ fabricant am^ricain pour la construction ^ 

Top^ration au Mexique d*unc fabrique de bicyclettes et de caoutchouc. C'es- 

Tintention du concessionnaire d*utiliser I'excellente force hydraulique qu'il 

obtenue pour la production de la force 61ectrique et de faire concurrence au: 

fabricants de bicyclettes aux Etats-Unis. Un autre point sur lequel on compt- 

pour faire r6ussir Tentreprise, est le bas prix pay^ pour le travail au Mexique. 

Un 6v6nement important et int6ressant qui marque 1 
Inaugnration dn Chemin de . . . 

Fer de Mexico. Cuema- d6veloppement interieur et Pesprit progressif du Mexique 

▼aca et du Paciflque. . . 

a 6t6 rinauguration officielle, au mois de d^cembre der- 
nier, du chemin de fer de Mexico, Cuernavaca et du Pacifique, qui s'^tend de h 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 1433 

• 

i€ de Mexico a Cuernavaca. La c^r^monie a 6t6 honor^e par la presence du 
6sident de la R^publique et de son cabinet, et aussi des membres du corps diplo- 
itique et autres residents distingu6s de la R^publique. La distance entre les 
ux termini de la la ligne est de 75 milles, mais I'importance attach^e a cette 
treprise se trouve dans le projet de continuer la ligne jusqu'a Acapulco, sur la 
te du Pacifique, et la construction se poursuivra avec la meme ^nergie qui a 
arqu6 les travaux jusqu'a present. 

Jusqu'au 27 d6cenibre 1897, vingt-neuf series de plans 

iUiM pour 1h Oonstriictlon \ ^ ■ ... 

dn KouTean Palais Ltfcis- et specifications pour le nouveau Palais L^gislatif, qui sera 

construit dans la Cit6 de Mexico, ont 6t6 revues pour etre 
'Zainin6e3. Quelquesuns de ces plans ont ^t^ pr6sent6s par des Mexicains, 
I'autrcs par des £urop6ens, mais la majeure partie est le travail des architectes 
Jn6ricains. 
ijgm^M^mm EiaciriqiMc ^^ syndicat qui controle les tramways de la ville de 

anMexiqne. Mexico fait des pr^paratifs pour Tintroduction de T^lec- 

icit^ comme force motrice. La campagnie possftde environ 1 40 milles de ligne, 
: on se propose de fournir de la force motrice electrique a toutes les lignes, y com- 
ris celle qui met en communication Guadaloupe avec San Angel. Les d6penses 
>talcs de I'installation du nouveau service sont estim^es a environ $5,000,000 
^ l*opportunite sera ouverte a tous les fabricants d'appareils 61ectriques de 
>umcttre leurs propositions. 

Le d6veloppement de I'industrie de tissus de coton au 

L'lndastrie Textile. . 

Mexique attire I'attention des pays Strangers et les chifFres 

viivants sont donnas comme preuve de ce d^veloppement et aussi de la produc- 

ion croissante de la matifere premiere dans la R^publique. Pendant les dix 

>remicrs mois de 1897, la Grande- B ret agne a export^ au Mexique 34,301,600 

'crgcs de tissus fabriqu^s, compares a 42,164,200 verges pour la p6riode corres- 

E>ondante de 1896. Les importations provenant des Etats-Unis pendant les 

Jicuf premiers mois de 1896 et 1897 ont 6t6 de 6,034,908 verges et de 4,503,773 

verges respectivement. Les importations de mati^res premieres provenant des 

Htats-Unis pour les memes p^riodes correspondantes ont diminu6 de 12,146,161 

^vres a 5,128,429 livres. II est affirm^ sur la foi d'une autorit6 ind6niable que 

les trois-quarts du coton employ^ dans les filatures de coton mexicaines sont de 

production nationale et que tous les ans une plus grande quantit6 en est cultiv6e. 

Plusieurs nouvelles filatures de coton ont €t€ install^es pendant ces derni^res 

^n6es et plusieurs autres sont sous contrat de construction dans le voisinage de 

Pwbia, Les profits retires du commerce sont trfes satisfaisants, s'^levant en 

quclqucs cas a 20 et 30 pour cent du capital employ^. 

0-.^ , Une concession vient d'etre obtenue du Gouvernement 

^?^*»i«oAeoofdtepoar la 

^JjhTBctton d'nne N<m- mexicain par des residents de Kansas City, Mo., pour la 

construction a Villa del Carmen, dans TEtat de Coahuila, 
^ ^^^ fonderie pour le traitement de toutes sortes de minerals. Conform6ment 
^^^ tcnnes de la concession, la fonderie doit avoir au minimum une capacity 
'uffisantc pour le traitement de 25 tonnes de minerals par jour. Les travaux 
« construction de la fonderie et de toutes ses appartenances devront commencer 
dans deux ans, a partir du 30 d^cembre 1897, et devront etre terminus au plus 



1434 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



tard huit mois apr^s cette date. Les machines ec le materiel requis seront admji 
•en franchise dc droits. 

Bndget pour rExercice ^^"s Ic rappo|-t soumis au Congrfes par le Scfior ]osi 
1898-1899. j^gg LiMANTouR, Ministre des Finances, les d^pcnscs dtt 

budget pour Texercice 1898-1899 sont 6valu6es a $52,089,000, et les rcccttcsi 
$52,109,000. Au compte des revcnus, les recettes des douanes sont pontes 
pour $423,847,000, et celles des taxes int^rieures pour $23,092,000; Icsautrcs 
sources de revenu compl^tent la somme anticip6e. 

AnnuiationdeiaOoncoMion ^^ ^ Tinex^cution des conditions de la concession par 
de Ohemin de Fer. j^ Mexican Southeastern Company, le contrat a 6t6an- 
nul6 par le Gouvernement mexicain. L'annulation est bas6e sur I'inaccoinplissc- 
ment par les concessionnaires des termes de Tarticle 2, qui stipule que looidlo- 
mfetres de la ligne de San G6ronimo a la Frontifere de Guatemala devront etn 
termin6s dans un an a partir de la promulgation de la concession (30 decembr 
1896). L'annulation du contrat entralne la confiscation de la somme de 50,00 
dollars d6pos6e avec le Gouvernement comme garantie de I'accomplissement d 
contrat. 

NICARAGUA. 

Dans le Bulletin pour le mois de d^cembre, r^ftrcncc 
Ohemin de Fer National. 

6t6 faite au projet de loi, alors en discussion au CrongH 

de Nicaragua, autorisant la vente du Chemin de Fer National et des vapeiE 

sur le lac de Managua, qui font le service en connexion avec le chemin dc fc 

M. Paul Wiesike, Consul des Etats-Unis a Managua, sous date du 19 octoi> 

1897, informe le D^partement d'Etat que la loi a 6t6 mise en vigueur et qu't 

commissaire, nomm6 par le Gouvernement et ayant le pouvoir de fairc 1 

n6gociations pour la vente ou TafFermage de la ligne, viendra d'abord faire visi. 

aux Etats-Unis. L*6quipement complet de la ligne, selon M. Wiesike, entra 

nera Tachat de 100 trains de marchandises, trois locomotives, la reconstructic 

de I'un des ponts et la reparation de la voie, n6cessitant un d6boursement d'- 

moins $100,000. 

Un correspondant 6crivant dans le EnMneerine aa 

Minead'Or. ^ . i- • . «- 

Mining Journal dit qu'un nouveau district minier a fc 

d^couvert dans le district de Siguia, situ6 a environ 20 milles au-dessus de B\m 

fields, par eau. On pense que ce district sera trouv6 tr^s riche, puisq'uun csfi 

fait sur les premieres veines a rapport6 de $19.50 a $36 d'or et de 6 a 10 one 

d'argent par tonne. Les ruisseaux des montagnes dans Tendroit ou se trouve 

quartz fournissent en abondance la force hydraulique; les propri^taires du tc 

rain font construire des tunnels et se pr^parent pour Texploitation dc leu 

placements sur une grande 6che]le. 

PfiROU. 
Les allumettes chimiques en usage sont toutes impo 

Ooaunerce aTec Ziima. 

t6es de la Su^de, il n'en existe aucune fabrique au P6roi 
rimportation de cet article est trhs importante. Le systfeme de r^clairagc 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. H35 

Pflectricit^ dc la villc commence a Stre adopts, et on croit qu'en peu de temps 
11 remplacera enti^rement le syst^me actuel d'^clairage au gaz tant pour I'^clai- 
rage particulier que pour l'6clairage public. Plusieurs des autres villes princi- 
palcs dc la R6publique s'int^ressent a ce sujet, et I'opportunit^ qui se pr^sentc 
pour les fabricants am6ricains d*appareils d'6clairage 61ectrique est tr^s favorable. 
L'indQscrie d'ameublement a fait tant de progr^s dans le pays que les importa- 
tions dc meubles Strangers sont devenues insignifiantes et se bornent uniquement 
aux ameublements de luxe. 

SALVADOR. 

Rtdodion dn Droits rar les Grace a I'intervention du consul des Etats-Unis et 
Spiritnsux. d'autrcs repr6sentants de gouvernemcnts Strangers dans 

cepays, depuis le 21 octobre 1897 le droit d'entr^e au Salvador sur les spiritueux 
enboutcilles a 6t6 r6duit par 100 kilos bruts et jusqu*a 50° a $17.60 or et $21. 10 
Jttgcnt. Les droits sur les spiritueux en futs jusqu*a 50° restcnt les memes que 
sousrancien tarif. 

La presse salvadorienne se montre alarm^e de Texpor- 

Hcsozes Fiiumciires. . * * 

tation continue de 1 argent, qui contribue a aggraver la 
situation 6conomique du pays. II est probable que les banques se mettront 
^'accord pour adopter un meme type de change en rapport avec le prix du m^tal 
blanc a Londres. 

M. Salvador Reyes, qui avait 6t6 envoy6 au Guatemala en qualit6 de mi- 
nistrc de la Difete, est de retour apr^s avoir accompli sa mission avec succfes. 

En raison de la crise 6conomique que traverse en ce moment le pays, le Gou- 
vcrncment fait tous ses efforts pour restreindre les depenses publiques. La plus 
^virc Economic a 6t6 introduite dans toutes les branches de Tadministration et 
Ic personnel en a 6t6 r^duit au strict n6cessaire. Ces mcsures sont accueillies 
«v'orabicmcnt par I'opinion publique. 

URUGUAY. 

Conaneree en oharbon de Dans un rapport au D6partement d'Etat, fait le 4 d6- 

*"*• cembre 1897, le consul Albert W. Swalm, donne des 

«atistiqucsint6ressantes relatives au commerce de charbon de terre al'Uruguay. 

^majeure partie du charbon import^ dans I'Uruguay vient de Cardiff, Galles, 

*n concurrence avec les Etats-Unis. Les charbons employes par les chemins 

"^'Cr sont admis en franchise de droits d'importation, mais tous les autres char- 

00ns paicnt un tarif de 60 cents par tonne. L*6valuation douani^re du com- 

"iicrcc dc charbon a atteint 1,000,000 de dollars; le prix de vente du charbon 

^^nedeSa 10 dollars par tonne, mais en 1898 il y aeu une diminution marqu6e en 

<^oniparaison avec l'ann6e ant^rieure, tant dans Timportation que dans le com- 

^erccgcn6ral. M. SwaliSi rapporte qu'un repr^sentant de Tune des plus impor- 

^^Dtcs m;usons d*exportation de charbon de la cote de TAtlantique a 6ti r^cem- 

/JJcnt a Montevideo afin de faire des arrangements pour placer le charbon am6ri- 

^m en concurrence plus active avec le produit gallois. Le consul ne voit 



I 



143^ BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

aucune raison pourquoi I'entreprise ne rdussirait pas, pourvu que les cargaisons 
provenant des Etats-Unis conservent l'6tat de propret^ ^cabli par les compagnies 
rivales. Jusqu'ici cela n'a pas €t€ la r^gle, et a cet ^tat de choses est dO en 
grande partie I'insucc^s du charbon am^ricain a dominer le marchd. 
EzportationB de Laine et de L'exportation de laine du port de Mont^vid^o, selon 
FeanxdeMontons. jyj g^^j^^ consul a ce port, du ler octobrc au 30 novcm- 
bre 1897, a atteint 6,705 ballots, d'un poids moyen de 5CX5 kilogrammes chaque- 
De ce nombre 173 ballots ont €t6 exp^di^s aux Etats-Unis; les expeditions aux 
autres pays ont ^t^ comme suit: France, 3,105 ; Belgique, 883 ; et I'Anglcicrre, 
997. La tonte a 6t6 grande et d'une meilleure qualit^ en g^n^ral que celle dc 
I'annde dernifere. On a export^ du ler aoflt au 30 novembre 1897 7,729 bal- 
lots de peaux de moutons, desqucls la France a pris la majeure partie. 

« 

VENEZUELA. 

Xnetallation de Tramways ^* concession accord^e au mois de juillct 1896 a unc 
£iectriqaea i Caracas. compagnie pour Tinstallation de tramways 61ectriqucs 
dans la ville de Caracas a ^t^ r^voqu^e, faute de I'accomplissement par le con- 
cessionnaire des conditions de la concession. A present le service des tramways 
a Caracas est tr^s d6fectueux et la revocation de la concession ouvre aux capita- 
listes am^rieains interess^s dans ces entreprises une opportunity favorable. 



^ ;c 2: 



tobre 

il 



Monthly Bulletin 



OF THE 



>re 






Parte, 






Bureau of American Republic 

International Union op American Republics. 



Vol. V. 



MARCH, 1898. 



No. 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE BUREAU. 

POLICY OF THE LATE DIRECTOR, MR. JOSEPH P. SMITH PROCEI 

IXGS OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE APPOINTMENT OF A PI 

VISIONAL DIRECTOR. 

A meeting of the Executive Committee of the Intematioi 
Union of American Republics was held at the State Departme 
on Monday, February 28, 1898, at 11 a. m., pursuant to the c 
of the Secretary of State. 

Present: Secretary of State, Chairman ; Mr. Romero, the M 
ister from Mexico; Hon. William R. Day, Assistant Secreta 
of State; Mr. Frederic Emory, Acting Director of the Bure 
of the American Republics. 

Mr- Andrade, the Minister from Venezuela, was unable to 
present, but Mr. Romero had been asked to represent him, th 
making a quorum of the Committee. 

The annual report of the Director of the Bureau was present 
bv the Chairman, and, on motion of Mr. Romero, it was approve 
and its transmittal to the two Houses of the United States Cc 
gress, and to the Governments represented in the Internatior 
Unioij w^as ordered. 

A statement from Mr. Frederic Emory, Acting Director, 
to the condition of the Bureau, was read by the Assistant Sec 

taiy of State. 

1437 



1438 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

A resolution was presented, and, on motion of Mr. Romero, was 
adopted, approving the conclusions and recommendations of the 
Acting Director, and appointing Mr. Frederic Emory Director 
of the Bureau of the American Republics for a period not to 
exceed the current fiscal year ending June 30, 1898. 

The resolution stated that the purpose of the appointment was 
to enable the provisional Director to thoroughly reorganize the 
affairs of the Bureau, to cancel all engagements entered into for 
advertising, canvassing for subscriptions, or other business pur- 
poses which might seem to him to be injurious to the interests 
of the Bureau; and to reorganize the force, making such reduc- 
tions of the said force or of salaries, and readjusting the same, as 
might be deemed expedient, "having always in view the general 
interests of the International Union and the wishes of the Execu- 
tive Committee." 

The Committee instructed the Director to terminate at once the 
existing contracts for soliciting advertisements and subscriptions to 
the publications of the Bureau upon commission, and to discon- 
tinue the New York office of the Bureau. In pursuance to this 
instruction, the Director, on the 28th of February, notified the 
advertising agent of the Bureau of the action of the Executive 
Committee. 

Advertisements will continue to be received for the Monthly 
Bulletin as heretofore. 

ANNUAL REPORT. 

The annual report of the Bureau, with an explanatory note by 
the Acting Director, is as follows : 

Bureau of the American Republics, 
International Union of American Republics, 

Washington^ U. S. y/., February 28^ i8g8, 
Hon. John Sherman, 

Chairman Executive Committee^ 

International Union of American Republics, 
Sir: I have the honor to inclose herewith the annual report of 
the Director of the Bureau of the American Republics. This 
report was prepared in accordance with the instructions of the late 
Director of the Bureau, Mr. Joseph P. Smith, and follows the 
memoranda forwarded by him as the basis for the document. The 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. ^439 

ift was sent to Mr. Smith at Miami, Fla., but reached him 
en he was too ill to take action upon it. I am satisfied, how- 
er, that the report substantially embodies Mr. Smith's views, 
d, as it presents a careful summary of the work of the Bureau 
ider his direction and indicates the general purposes he had in 
ew, I deem it but proper that it should be laid before the Execu- 
te Committee for their action and for transmission to the Congress 
the United States and the Governments of the other Republics 
the International Union as the annual report of the Bureau. 
Respectfully yours, 

Frederic Emory, 

Acting Director. 



Miami, Fla., "January 28^ i8g8. 
e Secretary of State, Chairman^ and the 
ambers of the executive committee of the international 
Union of American Republics. 

Gentlemen: In submitting my first annual report as Director 
the Bureau of the American Republics, I have the pleasure of 
ngratulating you upon a marked advance in the dignity and 
eftilness of the Bureau's work. The wisdom of the creation of 
e Bureau as an international agency for the promotion of trade 
id the extension of fraternal relations among the Republics 
'i the Western Hemisphere has, in my judgment, been amply 
^nfirmed by accomplished results, and the future promises a 
^rge and healthful development of its capabilities for practical 
ood. An undertaking so novel in design and so heavily 
^^ighted with elements of possible friction as an international 
^ion of nineteen distinct and strongly individualized govern- 
ments, must, in the nature of things, be experimental at first and 
^ork of gradual development from year to year. It would be 
'^fficult to find stronger testimony as to the general solidarity 
'* interests of the Republics of the two American continents 
■^^n is provided in the fact that this enterprise, though often 
"featened by hostile criticism from without, has not only survived 
" assaults, but commands even stronger and more united support 
om all the parties to the union than even in the first glow of its 
*nerous inception. The Bureau is indebted for much of its 



1440 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

recent growth to the more active and vigilant participation of the 
representatives in Washington of the various Republics inter- 
ested, and it has just had signal proof of the generous apprecia- 
tion of its work in the United States in the provision recently 
made by the United States Congress for the expenses of the 
current fiscal year. 

Since the date of the last annual report of my predecessor, Jan- 
uary 26, 1897, the following publications have been issued: 

Code of Commercial Nomenclature, in English, Spanish, and 
Portuguese. (Revised edition.) 

Code of Commercial Nomenclature, in Spanish, English, and 
Portuguese. 

Code of Commercial Nomenclature, in Portuguese, Spanish, 
and English. 

Commercial Directory of the American Republics, first volume. 

Diplomatic and Consular Service of the Latin-American 
Republics and Hawaii in the United States. 

Diplomatic and Consular Service of the United States. (Cor- 
rected to July 20, 1897.) 

Handbook or Alaska. 

Handbook of Guatemala (revised). 

Handbook of Hawaii. 

Import Duties of Peru, 1896. 

Import Duties of United States, 1897 (English). 

Import Duties of United States, 1897 (French). 

Import Dutifs of United States, 1897 (Portuguese). 

Import Duties of United States, 1897 (Spanish). 

Monthly Bulletins fi-om February, 1897, to January, 1898, 
inclusive. 

Newspaper Directory of Latin-America. 

Official Mailing List of the Bureau of American Republics. 

Reciprocity and Trade. 

Spanish-American Trade. 

Specifications for New Government Building in City of Mexico. 

Trade Relations in America. 

Copies of these publications accompany this report as Inclo- 
sures I to XX, inclusive. 

The most important work of the year was the preparation of 
the Commercial Directory of the American Republics. Shortly 
after entering upon my duties, I became convinced that one of 
the most effectual means of bringing the manufacturers and mer- 
chants of the various countries into closer relations, and thus pro- 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. I44I 

3ting industries and commerce, was to provide them with a 
liable source of information as to the names of firms engaged in 
irticular lines of trade or production, supplemented with the 
test data procurable as to the resources, commerce, manufactures, 
ade usages, patent and copyright laws, business licenses, cus- 
ms tariffs, passport regulations, etc., of the American Republics 
d the West Indian and Central and South American colonies, 
th which they are so intimately associated in trade intercourse, 
liscovered that such a work was recognized among the business 
n of the United States as one of the most immediate neces- 
es for expansion of trade with the Latin-American countries, 
c: Bureau had previously published commercial directories, 
ich, though serving a useful purpose at the time, had become 
»olete. I felt that what was demanded of the Bureau was a 
.ctical encyclopedia of the industries and trade of the countries 
Tiposing the International Union. Of course, a task of such 
.gnitude implied large expenditures for the collection and com- 
ation of a great mass of data, its translation into Spanish, 
ntuguese, and French, and the classification of many thousands 
names. 

Above all, it seemed to me to be indispensable that the work 
ould be conducted with the most painstaking care, in order that 
e publication should be recognized everywhere as a standard 
ithority. It was an undertaking which, under ordinary condi- 
ons, would have consumed a long period of time, but by enlist- 
^g the active cooperation of the Department of State, and 
vigmenting the force of the Bureau for this special purpose, I 
•ucceeded, with the valued aid of the Governments interested, 
l^rough their representatives in Washington and officials of their 
various administrative departments, in completing and publishing 
the first volume in about eight months from the time of its incep- 
^'on, and about five months after active work had been begun. It 
^as intended at first to complete the work in one volume, but as 
*^ proceeded, it was found that the mass of valuable data was so 
P^at that two volumes would be required. The second volume 
JSin course of preparation, and will be issued by the ist of March. 
In other words, I shall have the satisfaction, during the first year 
01 my incumbency of the office of Director, of having carried 
to a successful conclusion an enterprise which, I trust, will effectu- 



1442 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

ally demonstrate the capabilities of the Bureau for adequat 
fulfilling the purposes for which it was created, and especially 
issuing publications not only of practical value to trade but 
generally recognized importance to economists, financiers, 
legislators all over the world. As to this, I trust I shall 
acquitted of any charge of egotism in praising a work with w 
I have been so closely identified by the testimony submi 
herewith in the form of a large number of unsolicited letters fm 
representative men and business organizations. (InclosureX) 

Among these, will be found words of commendation from t 
former Secretary of State of the United States, Hon. Ricii ^fi 
Olney, who was also the honored chairman of your commi ttt 
and one of the strongest advocates of the system under whiclx th 
Bureau is now governed; Hon. Warner Miller, for years <^od 
spicuousjy identified with the Nicaragua Canal ; Mr. William E 
Curtis, the first Director of the Bureau; Mr. Clinton Furbis* 
my immediate predecessor; Mr. Theodore C. Search, preside "■ 
of the National Association of Manufacturers; a number ^ 
well-known business men who have long been identified wi ^ 
South American trade, and Senators and Representatives — ^ 
the United States Congress. Copies of the first volume ^ 
the Directory were sent to the Presidents of the Republics con^ 
posing the Union on the nth of November, 1897, and on tliC 
same day, a copy was formally presented to the President of th^ 
United States by representatives of the Executive Committee, conr:a 
prising Hon. John Sherman, Secretary of State of the Unite "- 
States; Senor Don MatIas Romero, Minister from Mexico, an -i 
Senor Dr. Don Martin Garcia Merou, Minister from the Arger^ 
tine Republic. A full account of the proceedings is herewith: 
attached. (Inclosure XXII.) Copies were also transmitted v:^ 
the members of the President's Cabinet, who acknowledged tl* 
receipt of them in cordial terms of appreciation, as will appear fror' 
their letters presented herewith. (Inclosure XXII.) While 
is believed that the Directory will stand the test of the most search^ 
ing criticism, it is hoped in future editions to make it still mor" 
valuable to the great interests it was intended to promote. 

The experience of the Bureau in connection with the public^ 
tion of the Code of Commercial Nomenclature, almost the entir* 
edition of which is now in storage awaiting purchasers, led me t^ 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



1443 



)t the methods of successful publishing houses in soliciting 
criptions in advance, with the result that the commercial 
irtment of the Bureau, necessarily located in New York, as 
great business center for such work, succeeded, up to January 
1 selling 3,079 copies of the Commercial Directory, amount- 
to $15,395. The total cost of the Directory, including the 
ipilation and editing of statistical and descriptive matter and 
ranslation into several languages, and the collection and classi- 
tion of more than 100,000 names of business firms, was about 
i,ooo. The proceeds from the Directory will amount to about 
>,ooo, making the net cost $28,000. This outlay, it seems to 
is fully justified by the large results to the common interests 
ch seem to be assured. 

n addition to the Commercial Directory, which, as I have 
cated, has absorbed so much of the time and energies of the 
eau, the Monthly Bulletin, which is the official organ of the 
^rnational Union, has, during the past year, been greatly enlarged 
improved. The edition now numbers 75,000 copies each 
ith, over 40,000 being circulated in the Latin-American coun- 
s, and the receipts from advertising increased from $6,416.14 
ing the fiscal year ended June 30, 1897, to $13,025.24 during 
six months following to December 31, 1897, or more than 
ible the proceeds of the previous year. For the six months 
B January 1 to July 1, 1898, the receipts from this source will 
bably not be less than $30,000. Ultimately, it is hoped, the 
ome from advertisements will make the Monthly Bulletin 
-sustaining. It is not contemplated to make the Bulletin a 
rce of profit to the Bureau, but simply to obtain the means to 
ure the best material for its pages and to extend its circulation 
all those points which are of importance in developing interna- 
fial trade. It will be seen that, if this policy is pursued, the 
LLETiN must eventually become a great agency for promoting 
interests of manufacturers and business men in all of the Repub- 
>. I was disposed, when I first assumed control of the Bureau, to 
w with some doubt the policy of inserting paid advertisements 
the Bulletin, but after having carefully investigated the sub- 
t, I became convinced that, throughout the American Republics, 
a result of the adoption of the system by the conference of rep- 
^ntatives of the International Union in 1896, the benefits to be 



i 



1444 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

secured fully sustained the wisdom of the action taken at that time. 
One of the most important reasons for including advertisemerits 
in such a publication is to be found in the fact that it is only from 
advertisements that people in one country can obtain information 
of a practical character as to the trade offerings, manufactures, a.nd 
business opportunities generally in other countries. This is clearly 
demonstrated by the practical experience of the Bureau in the receipt 
of letters from a large number of manufacturers, merchants, and 
shippers of the United States, informing it of important gains in 
trade as a result of the direct contact between seller and consumer, 
secured by means of advertising in the Bulletin. Attached «=^^ 
this report, will be found a number of letters from leading firnr"^^ 
in the United States, giving specific instances of business obtaine^ ^ 
by this means. (Inclosure XXIII.) The benefits described, ^^^ 
it happens, are those resulting immediately to the United States-- ^ 
and for that reason, I feel that the Bureau is entitled to expec::;^^^^^ 
commensurate support frorn this country; but all the members 
the International Union will indubitably reap their share of proi 
from the enlargement of commercial intercourse which may coi 
fidently be expected to follow. 

The Code of Commercial Nomenclature, which was begur 
under instructions from the International Union by the first Dire( 
tor of the Bureau, was completed and printed in a more conver 
ient form than at first proposed, in three volumes, in Englisl 
Spanish, and Portuguese, with the equivalents in each case vt n 
the other languages, within three months after my appointme^mt 
as Director. The value of this work, carried on for a period ^::3f 
seven years, is generally recognized among those engaged in 
Latin-American trade, and it will no doubt be possible, in cour^=^ 
of time, as it ih analyzed in practical use, to add to and perfect it: — 

During the past summer, the Bureau issued special Handboofc?^^^ 
of Alaska and Hawaii, because of the popular interest excit^^^ 
by the discovery of gold in the former and the proposed annexe -=^' 
tion to the United States of the latter, and the general deman^^ 
for information which it was thought this Bureau should suppl ^' 
The Hawaiian Islands, it may be recalled, though not formally ^ 
member of the Union, were included in the original programrr"*^ 

*See February Bulletin, page 1312 — Code of Commercial Nomenclature, adopt ^^ 
by United States Treasury Department as standard for use in custom-houses. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. ^44$ 

its operktions, and their peculiar relation to the United States 
ms to me to warrant their inclusion in the general scope of the 
ireau's work. For the same reason, Hawaii was incorporated 

Volume I of the Commercial Directory. The work of 
^mptly publishing changes in the customs tariffs of the various 
untries comprising the International Union was carried on dur- 
g the year, and special editions of new tariff laws of Peru and 
e United States were issued, the latter being printed in Spanish, 
ortuguese, and French, as well as in English. Revised editions 
I the Handbooks of Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Mexico, and 
enezuela are being prepared, and will be issued as soon as possible 
1 enlarged form and with the latest statistical information. 

In addition to the work of publication which has been described, 
le Bureau has extended its duties by creating a division of infor- 
lation, with the view to answering with the least delay and as 
curately and fully as possible the many requests for specific data 
mceming the Latin-American Republics which reach it from 
y to day. Since September i, nearly 400 communications of 
is character have been received and answered promptly, after 
e proper investigation had been made, with the result of adding 
rgcly to the knowledge of the business communities of the 
^xintries interested as to the conditions of a wider exchange of 
'oducts among themselves. The work of the Bureau having 
^en so greatly increased, it was found necessary to largely aug- 
ment the force to meet the special exigency of the speedy publi- 
*tion of the Commercial Directory. After the emergency had 
'^ssed, the force was reduced more nearly to normal conditions; 
^t I may say frankly that, if the work of the Bureau is to corre- 
^ond to the necessities of trade development among the Repub- 
'S of the Western Hemisphere, it must necessarily employ a 
■ge and expensive staff. Besides a considerable clerical force, it 
absolutely indispensable that it should be provided witli effi- 
-nt translators, able to render the great mass of data prepared 

publication promptly into. Spanish, Portuguese, and French. 
In addition to these, it should have at its command the services 

specially qualified writers on the economic conditions which lie 

the base of any successful expansion of trade among the Ameri- 

ti Republics. The work, which, with the approval of the Exec- 

ive Committee, it would afford me the greatest pleasure to 



1446 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

prosecute with unrelaxing energy, requires the highest class o{ 
ability, and it would be idle to conceal the fact that the great erkds 
of the International Union can not be successfully subserved wi^th- 
out a much larger outlay than the meager resources heretofore: at 
the command of the Bureau. This is the more evident when ^^t 
consider the fact that even what has been accomplished — imf:>crr- 
fectly and unsatisfactorily as it must have been to my predec^es- 
sors, though reflectiug great credit upon them in view of Xihit 
disadvantages under which they labored — could not have b^^n 
secured without funds largely in excess of the appropriation ne^r^cr 
more than $36,000 per annum. Investigation will show that thie 
former Directors of the Bureau were compelled to resort to varioiis 
expedients to enable them to print the publications which h3.^e 
been issued from time to time. It would have been impossible- to 
do this from the funds at their command. It was done only" by 
means of authority obtained from the Congress of the United 
States to print the various Handbooks and other publications as 
Congressional documents, to be paid for out of, the general print- 
ing fund. Notwithstanding this, deficiencies were incurred in tlie 
account with the Public Printer, and the fact has recently dev sl- 
oped that these amount to a considerable sum. As I did not ha "^^ 
the advantage enjoyed by my predecessors of the Congressior^-^l 
authority indicated, I was greatly embarrassed to determine hc^w 
the difficulty could be remedied. However, I hope that th^^s 
matter will be satifactorily adjusted by the Congress of the Unit^^" 
States. 

The temporary addition of a number of persons to the workir:::*6 
force of the Bureau necessarily increased the expenses, and th"^^^ 
demands of the work since then have laid a heavy tax on rir""^^ 
Bureau's resources from advertising, besides exhausting the regult^^=^ 
appropriation. Under these circumstances, I called the attentio-^^ 
of the Secretary of State of the United States to the matter, an 
the Congress of the United States was asked to make an urgei 
deficiency appropriation of $41,972 to meet the expenses of th 
Bureau for the six months ending June 30, 1898. This appn 
priation was made without objection — a fact which demonstrate: 
the appreciation by Congress of the practical value of the Bureau': 
work. The recommendation has also been made to Congress t< 
appropriate the full sum of $36,000 for the expenses of th^^ 




BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. ^447 

Bureau for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1899. 1 wish to say, 
biowever, that this amount, in my judgment, is far from being 
commensurate with the prospective needs of the Bureau, and I 
'cspectfully suggest to the representatives of the countries com- 
Dosing the International Union that steps be taken to secure to 
Jhe Bureau the use of the amounts contributed by the other 
Republics, which amounts, at present, are paid into the United 
States Treasury to reimburse the latter to the extent of the quotas 
3f the different countries. This would make the revenue of the 
Bureau from such sources about $45,000 or $50,000. Even this 
»^ould be wholly inadequate to the actual requirements, and it is 
loped that means will be taken to secure to the Bureau an income 
^rresponding to the dignity and practical value of its work. 
One of the objects which I have had in mind from the moment 
became familiar with the capabilities of the Bureau has been 
he active cooperation of all of the members of the International 
> nion — not merelv the Governments of those countries to which I 
ni indebted for valuable support and encouragement, but the 
idustrial and trade interests of every kind. It has seemed to me 
hat this object might be best served by the appointment of com- 
nissioners representing the Bureau to serve without pay in the 
eading industrial and commercial centers of the different countries, 
tt would be the special duty of the Bureau to keep such repre- 
sentatives fully informed from its various sources of intelligence 
IS to trade developments and opportunities, the market conditions, 
'^quirements of consumers, etc., in the other countries, and the 
'Ornmissioners, in their turn, would contribute to the Bureau a 
jTeat mass of valuable data from their respective localities, besides 
'Erecting the attention of others in their immediate neighborhood 
^ the work of the Bureau. I trust that this idea will commend 
fself to the Executive Committee, and that I may have the benefit 
^* its cooperation in what seems to me to be a practical and 
''3.1 liable means of extending trade relations. 

I have the pleasure of informing the Executive Committee that 

^^e Bureau, in pursuance to the committee's recommendation and 

^^rough the good offices of the representatives of the Latin- 

^^erican countries in the United States, and of the ministers 

^^credited by the United States to those Republics, has obtained 

^c Valuable privilege of sending its mail matter for distribution 



1448 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

free in the Republics of Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Haiti, 
Honduras, Nicaragua, and Venezuela. The importance to th^ 
Bureau of this concession was impressed upon me shortly after 
took charge of its affairs, and I have to express my appreciation ca 
the promptitude with which my request was acceded to by tim, 
various Republics. Previous to that time, Mexico was the onL 
country in the International Union which had extended the priv 
lege to the publications and correspondence of the Bureau, 
trust that, in course of time, all of the members of the Interna 
tional Union will be included in this arrangement, which greatl 
economizes the outlay of the Bureau for miscellaneous expense- 
One of the most encouraging of the evidences of the growin^ 
appreciation of the Bureau's work which have come to my atter" 
tion has been the active interest shown by great organize - 
trade bodies of the United States, such as the National Associs 
tion of Manufacturers, the Philadelphia Museum, the expo 
associations of New York, the Spanish Club of St. Louis, ana 
others. These various organizations have, for some time, macz: 
special efforts to cultivate and develop trade relations between th~ 
United States and its southern neighbors. The Philadelph 
Museum gave striking evidence of its liberality and enterprise :i 
this direction in the tour of Latin-American business men throug 
the United States last summer, which was the result of its speci - 
efforts, and the National Association of Manufacturers has recent 1 
taken a practical step of great importance in the establishment ^ 
a sample warehouse at Caracas. All of these organizations re::^ 
ognize the fact that this Bureau could be made a potent instr ^ 
mentality, not of anticipating or superseding their work, but ^ 
assisting in intelligent and well-directed efforts. My conceptic 
of the mission of the Bureau is that of a broad agency for poi* 
ing out the way and removing obstacles to individual ar' 
corporate enterprises. The business features which have be^ 
introduced in the management of the Bureau have been onll 
those which, it seemed to me, were useful to this end. It wouB 
be unfortunate, in my judgment, if tht- Bureau were to confli* 
unnecessarily in matters of detail with any organized agency fS 
promoting trade. All such agencies, it seems to me, should t 
developed and encouraged, and I am confident that their interes- 
will be best promoted by cooperation with the Bureau in its effor' 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



1449 



to infiise intelligence and energy into the general course of trade 
between the different countries. Whatever tends to the increase 
€>{ the Bureau's resources and to improving its efficiency must, in 
the end, redound to the advantage of all who are endeavoring to 
obtain a larger share of the commerce among the various Repub- 
lics. For the same reason, the Bureau is obviously interested in 
tiie various enterprises for holding expositions of the industries 
and commerce of the different members of the union, for estab- 
lishing museums of manufactured goods and other products, for 
e:xtending the agencies of commercial intelligence, and kindred 
undertakings. 

In this connection, 1 wish to call particular attention to the 
Trans-Mississippi Exposition at Omaha during the coming sum- 
mer, the Pan-American Exposition in 1899 in Buffalo, which 
appeals especially to the International Union for the most gen- 
erous measure of support, and to the Paris Exposition in 1900, as 
^ell as to contemplated expositions in the various countries of the 
l^nion. In my judgment, the Bureau of the American Republics 
should be adequately represented at all of thc;;5e expositions, and 
4e necessity creates an additional reason for a large increase of 
4e Bureau's resources. I respectfully commend this subject to 
^c special attention of the Executive Committee, and would be 
S^d to have a formal declaration of its approval of the policy 
indicated. 

Another subject which has engaged my earnest attention, and 

^'^'chhas interested me more and more as I have familiarized 

'^ysclf with the practical conditions of trade among the different 

^^ntries of this Hemisphere, is the absolute necessity of efficient 

^'procity agreements for the proper development of American 

^^^ among Americans. This subject, as the Executive Com- 

/^tee is aware, is receiving the attention of a Special Commis- 

^tr Plenipotentiary of the United States, and 1 sincerely trust 

^-^ his labors will be fruitful of practical results for all the coun- 

^^ of the International Union. There can be no question, it 

^^rus to me, that the manufacturers of the United States are 

.^P'y anxious to conclude arrangements of this character which 

^^t enable them to dispose of their products among the Latin 

^^erican countries, and that their influence will tend most power- 

^lly toward such concessions as will secure those countries broader 



1450 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

outlets for their products in the United States. It seems to me 
to be my special duty to aid such a movement in every way in 
my power, and it is particularly gratifying to me to observe th^ 
many indications of a similar spirit, not only in the United State3-» 
but in the Republics with which it is associated in the Intcf 
national Union. 

It is a source of deep regret to me that the condition of my healtf^ 
during the past six months has been such as to prevent me froir"^ 
carrying out the plans I had proposed for myself with the energy^ 
which my constant presence on the spot would have permitted mer^ 
to exert. 1 trust, however, that none of the interests of the 
Bureau have suffered, but that, on the contrary, they will be found 
to have been substantially advanced. With restored health, it 
will be a source of great pleasure to me to resume my duties, with 
the consciousness of having earned your approval, and to feel that 
I may count upon your cooperation in enlarging the work of the 
Bureau and directing it into such channels as will lead it finally 
to the full fruition of the wise and liberal plans of the International 
Union at its creation. 

Attached hereto is a statement of the receipts and expendi- 
tures of the Bureau to January 1, 1898. (Inclosure XXIV.) 

With grateful acknowledgments to the honorable Chairman of 
the Executive Committee, and to the distinguished ministers com- 
posing it, for guidance and advice at various critical states of the 
Bureau's affairs during the past year, 

I have the honor to be, your obedient servant, 

Joseph P. Smith, 

Director* 

[Inclosures.] 

I-XX. Publications of the Bureau of the American Republics. 

XXI. Letters commending the Commercial Directory. 
XXII. Account of the presentation of the Commercial Directory to the Presi- 
lent of the United States, with letter of transmittal, and letters from 
the Members of the Cabinet regarding it. 

XX I I I. Letters from business men in regard to advertisements in the Monthly 

Bulletin. 

XXIV. Receipts and expenditures of the Bureau. 

These inclosures are omitted here on account of their length. 

*Mr. Smith was too ill when the above report was submitted to him to formally 
approve it. As previously explained, it was prepared in accordance with ntemoranda 
written bv him. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. I45I 



ADVERTISEMENTS IN THE BULLETIN. 

"he following circular letter, explanatory of the action of the 
icutive Committee in terminating the contract with Mr. 
t\RLES E. Locke, late advertising agent of the Bureau, has 
n sent to advertisers in the Monthly Bulletin, organized 
le bodies, trade newspapers, prominent business men, etc.: 

Bureau of the American Republics, 
International Union of American Republics, 

Washington, U, S, A,, March j, iSpS, 

in: You are informed that at a meeting of the Executive Committee of the 
cmational Union of American Republics, on the 28th of February, I was 
•ointed Director of the Bureau of the American Republics for a period not 
:xceed the fiscal year ending June 30, 1898, in order that the affairs of the 
rcau might be reorganized. zAt this meeting I was instructed to terminate 

contract with Mr. Charles E. Locke for obtaining advertisements and sub- 
piions to publications of the Bureau on commission, it having been found 
t this method of conducting the business of the Bureau entailed expenditures 
;ely in excess of the returns, and also brought the Bureau into conflict with 

interests of the trade newspapers and publishing houses of the United States. 
The original purpose of the Executive Committee, which, as you know, is 
^posed of representatives of Latin American Republics as well as the United 
tcs, was to obtain a revenue from advertisements, which would increase the 
fulness of the Bureau without entailing additional expense upon the Govern- 
^ts interested. 

^t is believed that this purpose can be subserved without injury to private 
Crests in this country, by continuing to accept advertisements for the Monthly 
LLETiN of the Bureau, and making that publication so valuable that it will 
rit the support not only of firms seeking markets in Latin American coun- 
ts and of exporters in the latter who wish to sell their goods in the United 
atcs, but of the trade newspapers and all other interests that would be bene- 
cd by an increase in the volume of Latin American trade. 

The details of this feature of the Bureau's work have not yet been perfected, 
^^ in the meantime I respectfully request your careful consideration of the 
'iDjcct, and would be glad to have the benefit of your support in my efforts to 
arry out what I personally know was the earnest wish of the late Director, 

"•Joseph P. Smith, by putting the work of this Bureau upon a dignified and 
proper plane and making it an active agency for the promotion of trade among 
•^e American Republics. 

°cspectf\illy, yours, Frederic Emory, 

Director', 



1452 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



TRADE RELATIONS IN AMERICA.— IX* 

INTERNAL RESOURCES OF CENTRAL AMERICA. 

In the February number of the Monthly Bulletin, the intern 
resources of Mexico were treated of We are now to take up tl 
resources of Central America, which is one of the three gre 
sections into which our Continent is divided. With a territori 
area almost equal to that of France, Central America has a pop 
lation less than that of Belgium, whose territory is much small 
than that of the Republic of Costa Rica. Endowed with tl 
richest soil, supplying in abundance all the products of the tro 
ical zone, viith an unrivaled geographical position, enjoying ami 
and healthful climate, with an immense coast line on both ocean 
and with the prospect of an interoceanic canal across its territjr 
Central America has a brilliant future before her, and she is de 
tined to become one of the grand emporiums for the commerce • 
the universe. The want of adequate means of communicatic 
between the five States has impeded, up to a certain point, rf 
development of that beautiful land. But for the past few year 
activity has been noticeable in the construction of railroads, an< 
although up to the present day, they are devoted to the interic 
traffic of each section, later on they will unite the sections and thi 
give a great impulse to industry, agriculture, and commerce. 

The principal railroads in Central America at present are tt 
following: In Guatemala, the Southern Railroad, which star 
from the port of San Jose, on the Pacific, passes through Escuint 
and terminates at the capital after traversinga distance of 7 5 mile 
the Western Railroad, 41 miles in length, which unites San Felif 
with the port of Champerico ; a branch of the Southern Railroa« 
connecting Escuintlaand Patulul; a line from Iztapa to the static 
of Naranjo, on the Southern or Central Railroad, and a section * 
1 29 miles of the Northern Railroad, from Puerto Barrios to Rand 
de San Agustin. In Salvador, there is the line from the port 
Acajutla to the city of Santa Ana; that from Armenia to Ceib 
and that from Santa Tecla to the capital. Honduras has a railro; 

* The first article of this series, by the late Joseph P. Smith, Director, was publish 
in the Monthly Bllletin for July, 1897. The series will be continued by various c( 
tributors on the lines laid down bv Mr. Smith. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. H53 

cting Puerto Cortez with San Pedro Sula. In Nicaragua, 
is an excellent railroad line divided into two sections. The 
xtending from Corinto to Momotombo, on Lake Managua, a 
ice of 58 miles; the other, 32 miles in length,- extends from 
ida to the capital, situated on the shore of the same lake, 
nunication between this latter point and Momotombo is 
ained by means of small, but very commodious and well- 
"ucted, steamers. 

sta Rica has two railroads open to traffic ; one running toward 
tlantic, the other toward the Pacific. The first is the more 
tant of the two, since it unites the capital with its port of 
»n, the principal port of the Republic, and one of the best in 
al America. This line has a length of 1 17 miles, and termi- 
at Alajuela. The other line runs from Esparta to the port 
mtarenas, being only 14^^ miles long. Among the railroads 
inder construction in Central America, the following ought 
mentioned: In Guatemala, the Northern Railway, between 
o Barrios and the capital of the Republic, a part of which is 
ly completed, as has been stated ; in Salvador, a railroad from 
art of Union to the capital, which will have a length of more 
loo kilometers (124 miles), passing the principal cities of the 
is now about completed. The section between Ceiba and 
L Tecla is also being constructed. In Nicaragua, the work 
e railway from Masaya to Diriamba, traversing one of the 
)ns of the country where coffee is best produced, is far 
iced. In Costa Rica, the construction of the railroad to the 
ic has been commenced. 

le principal products of Central America are coffee, sugar, 
•, indigo, corn, tobacco, rubber, hides, lumber, dyewoods, and 
e tropical fruits, among which the foremost is the banana. 
Central American coffee is famed in all the markets of the 
l. Its cultivation has developed marvelously of late years, 
:ontinues on the increase, despite the fact that the price of the 
nodity has decreased considerably. In Guatemala and Costa 
, the coffee crop represents the major part of the domestic pro- 
on. In the first-named Republic, in 1892, there were devoted 
! cultivation of coffee something over 964 caballeruis (about 
>44 acres), and the number of trees was at that time 64, 186,922. 

yield in that year amounted to 36,999,464 pounds. 
Bull. No. 9-:— 2 



• 



1454 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Coffee is the great product of Costa Rica, where it was first 
introduced in 1796, and the article produced in that country is of a 
superior quality, as is demonstrated by the high prices it has 
obtained in the markets of Europe, principally in England. 
The annual exports amount to nearly 40,000,000 pounds. At 
the Chicago Exposition, there were 75 exhibitors of Costa Rican 
coffee, of which 55 received awards, a proportion which none of 
the other countries which figured in that great exhibition succeeded 
in attaining. Coffee is produced in all the departments of the 
Republic of Salvador. On the uplands, in the interior of Hon- 
duras, the coffee produced is excellent in quality, and, although 
up to the present time the production has been limited, the indi- 
cations all point to a notable increase in the near future. In a 
report addressed to the Department of State, under date of Feb- 
ruary 6, 1897, treating of the cultivation of coffee in Nicaragua, 
Minister Baker expresses himself as follows: 

"As going to illustrate the growth of this industry in that sec- 
tion. I note that when I came here four years ago there were but 
28 Americans — men, women, and children; there are now in the 
colony 90 Americans. * * * In 1893, the number of coffee 
trees, but few in bearing, was reported to be less than 50,000; at 
this time the number exceeds 7,000,000. With a good season, it 
is estimated that the crop next year will, owing to the young trees 
coming into bearing, reach the amount of 4,000,000 pounds^ 
The American capital represented about Matagalpa in 1893 did — 
not exceed $50,000 (United States currency). At the presencn 
time, the investments in coffee culture of American companie^= 
aggregate $405,000, and individual investments $ 1 5^,000, making 
a total of $560,000 (gold)." 

According to data furnished by the Bureau of Statistics of th 
Treasury Department of the United States, the exports of coffc 
from Central America to this country were, in 1897, as follows: 

From Costa Rica $3»439»3! 

From Guatemala 1,862,51 

From Honduras ^47»2; 

From Nicaragua 1 ,262,7* 

From Salvador i , 1 1 2,5 

All these amounts are in United States gold. 

The cacao of Central America is deservedly renowned, an 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. H5>5 

: of Guatemala is the best in the world, but nearly all of it is 
sumed in the country; hence, it does not constitute an impor- 
: article of exportation. Cattle raising is one of the great 
ustries of Central America, and of all the five States, Hondu- 
is probably the one which combines the greatest advantages 
this occupation, although Guatemala and Nicaragua also otFer 
n on a large scale. The Central American tobacco is as good 
hat of Mexico, and Salvadorean cigars enjoy a great and well- 
ited reputation. The plantain, or banana, is one of the most 
)ortant products of Central America. It is one of the most 
ly cultivated plants and yields the largest returns with the 
htest efforts. The export of this article from various points of 
Central American coast on the Atlantic, has largely increased 
[ is growing year by year. The whole crop is shipped to the 
ited States, and there are steamship lines devoted almost exclu- 
*ly to this trade. 

Central America is one of the sections of the New World 
lest in minerals; gold, silver, iron, copper, lead, quicksilver, 
il, etc., are found almost everywhere. The exploitation of gold 
nes constitutes a great industry, many foreign companies being 
^ed therein. Honduras is perhaps the Central American 
antry which contains the largest number of mines, and its 
neral wealth is incalculable; but Guatemala, Nicaragua, and 
)sta Rica also occupy a very prominent place by reason of their 
posits of gold and other metals. The working of these deposits 
s not yet reached a full state of development, and everything 
-ms to indicate that what is known up to the present time of 

* great metalliferous wealth of Central America will appear as 
ry meager when what is still to be disclosed shall have been 
d bare. To detail one by one the products of the privileged 
il of Central America would be an onerous task, but what is 
-orded above demonstrates how rich is that land which inhab- 
d to-day by scarcely more than 3,000,000 of people, although 
could amply accommodate 30,000,000, yields, in proportion 
its population, as much as the most productive countries of 

* globe. 

The trade of the United States with the Central American 
mtries has largely increased of late years. According to data 



1456 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

furnished by the Bureau of Statistics of the Treasury Depart- 
ment of the United States, the exports of the latter country to 
Central America during the fiscal year 1896-97 were as follows: 

To Costa Rica $1,292,709 

To Guatemala 2,992, 1 1 ^ 

To Honduras 669,63 ; 

To Nicaragua 1 ,038,66 ^ 

To Salvador 1,596,861 

The imports into the United States from those countries dur- 
ing the same period were as follows : 

From Costa Rica $3>439»374 

From Guatemala 1,862,589 

From Honduras 847,230 

From Nicaragua . . 1 ,262,701 

From Salvador 1 , 1 1 2, 5 34 

Central America offers a vast field for the enterprising spirit of 
the American people. Its ports are in constant communication 
with those of the United States on the Atlantic and on the Pacific. 
The principal lines of navigation between this country and the 
Central American States are the Pacific Mail Steamship Company, 
whose steamers leave -San Francisco, Cal., and touch at all the 
Pacific ports of Central America; the Atlas Line, whose steamers 
run to Limon, in Costa Rica, Puerto Barrios, in Guatemala, and 
to San Juan del Norte, in Nicaragua; the Panama Railroad 
Steamship Line, which makes regular trips between New York 
and Colon, in Colombia, and the vessels of which connect with 
those of the Pacific Mail plying between Panama and Central 
American ports; the New York and Central American Steam- 
ship Company, plying between New York and Puerto Barrios: 
the New Orleans, Belize Royal Mail and Central American 
Steamship Company (Limited), running between New Orleans 
and Puerto Barrios; the Royal Mail Steamship Company, whose 
vessels run weekly from New Orleans to Puerto Cortez, besides 
other lines. 

Owing to its proximity to the United States, Central America 
must naturally, daily, more closely bind its commercial relations 
with this country, since the articles which the five States consume, 
being produced here as well or better than in Europe, there seems 
to exist no reason whatever for their seeking them on the farther 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. H57 

de of the Atlantic. If, up to this time, the trade of those coun- 
ies with the United States has not assumed the importance 
^hich ought to characterize it, and will distinguish it at no very 
jture day, this is due, in great part, to the fact that in some points 
f Central America the value of the industries of the United 
tates is not well appreciated. The manufacturers of this country 
ave, perhaps, not exerted themselves sufficiently in making 
nown their products to the Central American merchants, and it 
not strange, therefore, that the latter, accustomed for many 
ears to trade with Europe, still continue to do so on a consider- 
ble scale, notwithstanding the distance separating Central America 
-om the markets of the Old World. 

When a commercial current has once been established, to 
ieviate it is a difficult task ; and this can only be accomplished 
chrough great and constant efforts, which shall make patent to 
consumers the advantages which a new market offers over the old 
one. Moreover, trade being a question of interest and not of sen- 
timent, reciprocity is indispensable to its development, for every 
country always seeks to supply its needs from that which in turn 
takes its products in exchange. The day when the Central 
American merchants shall become convinced that the articles they 
export can be sold more advantageously in the United States than 
in Europe, and that they can purchase in this country, at the same 
price and under like conditions, commodities as good as or even 
'^tter than those they buy in France, England, and Germany, for 
example, all the Central American trade will be carried on with 
^is country, for the reason that the distance which separates the 
Central American ports from the great industrial centers of Europe 
^ould render impossible the competition of the latter. 

From New York to the port of Limon, in Costa Rica, is 2,025 

'^iles, and from New Orleans to the same point only 1,340. 

^^om San Francisco to Puntarenas, Costa Rica, is 2,793 miles; 

^^i this being the most southern Central American Republic, it 

^^ is apparent that its ports are somewhat more distant from the 

United States than those of Guatemala, Salvador, Honduras, 

^nd Nicaragua. Nevertheless, compare these distances with those 

ving between the Atlantic coast of Central America and the 

Ports of England, France, and Germany, and the advantageous 

Position of the United States with respect to the Central Amer- 



1458 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

ican trade will be noticeable at once. The establishment of 
perrrianent exhibition of American manufactures in Centn 
America, like that which has been opened at the capital of Ver 
ezuela, would notably contribute to the object in view. Th 
sending of competent commercial travelers, acquainted with th 
country, its tastes, and language, who would demonstrate to th 
Central American people in a practical manner that the Unite 
States can furnish them all the articles now provided by Europe 
would also be of great utility. 

But there is one point which can not be too strongly dwelt upor 
and that is the matter of credits, which are the basis of the trad 
between the , Latin- American and the European nations. Unti 
the merchants of Central America obtain in the United States th 
same terms granted them in Europe for making payments th 
desired object will not be accomplished. And it were well the 
this should always be borne in mind, for it is the starting point « 
the whole question. It is evident that, despite the obstacles it h:: 
encountered, the development of trade between the United Star 
and Central America is daily becoming more noticeable; but 
United States markets were better known there; if the bankir 
facilities were greater; if the United States manufacturers woi»> 
exert themselves to cater to the special taste of the people, ofFeri« 
them the articles to which they are accustomed ; and, above alU 
they would sell at the prices that Europe offers them and unc5 
identical conditions, the time when the merchants of the Unit! 
States will control the trade from Guatemala to Costa Rica wi^ 
out encountering competition worthy of consideration will not 
long in coming. 

Central America has always awakened great sympathy amoi 
the people of the United States, and prominent statesmen, writ^ 
and economists of this country have devoted special attention 
it. The great Republic can not be indifferent to the developm^ 
of nations to which it is bound by historical traditions as well 
political and commercial interests, a land for which, as we hat' 
said above, the future holds so brilliant a promise. That portion * 
the American continent which serves as a bond of union for tl 
two great sections of the North and of the South has attracted t 
it the eyes of the world, and referring to it a distinguised AmericaJ 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. H59 

traveller, E. G. Squier, more than forty years ago wrote these 
lines, which reveal his penetrating mind : 

" The natural relations of Central America, as indicated by the 
physical hcts already pointed out, are clearly with the Pacific and 
the States which now exist or may spring into existence upon that 
coast. To California and the greater part of Mexico, as also to 
some of the States of South America, it must come sooner or 
later to sustain a position corresponding with that which the West 
Indies have held toward the United States and Europe, with the 
important addition of being an established route of travel, and 
perhaps ultimately of commerce between the Eastern and Western 
Hemispheres. Its destiny is plainly written in the outlines of its 
coast, and it is printed on its surface not less than demonstrated 
by its geographical position." 




ARGENTINA-^PERU. 

OPPORTUNITIES FOR TRADE BETWEEN THE TWO REPUBLICS. 

Seiior Guesalga, Minister of the Argentine Republic to Peru, 
has recently written an extended article on the subject of com- 
merce between his country and Peru, setting forth the great pos- 
sibilities and opportunities which exist for the development of a 
^arge intertrade. He makes the remarkable statement that at 
present there is not one dollar's worth of commerce between Peru 
3nd the Argentine Republic. Peru produces and manufactures 
Petroleum and salt on a large scale. It also produces wines, etc. 
1^ consequence of the increase of the import duty imposed on 
^^rious Argentine products by the present United States tariff, 
^d a corresponding advance in the Argentine tariff on petroleum 
from the United States, Senor Guesalga argues that this is a pro- 



1460 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

pitious time for the introduction of the Peruvian article into his 
country. 

According to statistics, the importation of petroleum into the 
Argentine Republic figures for about $905,000 (gold) annually. 
The production of salt in Peru, which is a Government monopoly, 
is also of great importance. The Argentine Republic imports 
from Europe, annually, salt to the amount of $400,000, gold. 
Spain alone imported into the Republic in 1895, 635,235 hecto- 
liters, valued at $380,000, gold. 

There are two lines of steamers plying regularly between 
Callao and Buenos Ayres — the "Kosmos" (German) and the 
Pacific Steam Navigation Company (British), whose rates of 
fi*eight are relatively low. 

Sefior GuESALGA advocates, in his article, a commercial treaty 
between the two countries, under which Argentine wheat and 
flour might be admitted into Peru free of duty, with a reciprocal 
clause applicable to Peruvian petroleum and salt. 

Peru imports wheat from Chile, New Zealand, and Califomi 
the consumption amounting annually to about 70,000,000 kil 
grams. The Argentine live stock, jerked meat, etc^ could al 
go to Peru. 

The present production of petroleum in Peru is approximate 
500,000 barrels, of 160 liters (42 gallons) each, annually, dra 
fi"om forty-four wells. 

The exportation of salt is very considerable. For the first ni 
months of 1896 it was — 





Tot 

Colombia IS« ooo 

Chile 5S,ooo 

Ecuador ^ 13-800 

Total 83- 8a> 

Domestic consumption 7^' ^•♦S 

Industrial consumption "7 , oc» 

Total i6^S.945 

The production of wheat in the Argentine Republic for the 
five years ending 1895 is given below: 

1891 •. 39^ • ^^^ 

1S92 470,110 

1 893 j,io3»'37 

1894 i,6o3.m 

1895 I, oia ^ 



L 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



1461 



BRAZIL. 

RAILWAY MILEAGE AND CONSTRUCTION.* 

The Department of State has received from Mr. Frank D. 
Hill United States Consul at Santos, under date of 20th Decem- 
beM897, a general report on the railways of Brazil, their mileage, 
gauge, equipment, etc. The following facts, taken from the report, 
arc published as being of general interest. 

The railways open to traffic and under construction on Decem- 
ber 31, 1896, were : 



Railways. 



Open to traffic. 



In course of con.struc- 
tion. 



f^ieral Government li 



Subv 



ncs, 



tntioned lines (subject to Govern- 



."'t-ni inspection) 
/"cs not subventioned 



^ine 



s operated by the Slate, 
Total 



Kilometers. 
3.190 

3.912 

1.593 
5.246 



13.941 



Miles. Kilometers. 

1,982 



2.430 ! 
990 

3.260 



8,662 



5.953 
619 

1,416 



7,988 



Miles. 



3.699 
384 
880 



4.963 



^^f the first class, or railways belonging to the Federal Government, the total 
^*sion of 3,190 kilometers (1,982 miles) represents an effective capital of 
^^» 733,121 milreis ($45,462,637), divided as follows: 



Lines. 



Mileage open to traffic. 



Capital. 



^*^iral of Brazil 

^^^ri,6.. ..;... .:::;:: :: 

^ *^ Francisco 

p^'^tral of Pernambuco 

j>^*JloAfronso 

tv^^o Alegre to Uruguay 

{}»^dcOro . 

*^^ccounted for by the consul 

Total 



Kilometers. 
1,217 

215 
267 

451 
179 

116 

458 

87 
200 



3.190 



Miles. 

756 

134 
166 

280 

112 

72 

285 

54 
124 




• 

Milreis. 




178.978,486 


$25,056,988 


9,323,328 


I, 306, 526 


14.387.941 


2, 014, 876 


20, 410, 045 


2, 857, 406 


32, 520. 352 


4, 692, 285 


6,821,449 


955.003 


27,432,449 


3. 840, 543 


2, 465, 020 


345. 103 


31.385.051 


4. 393. 907 



324, 733, 121 



45, 462, 637 



H 



* he railways subventioned by Federal Government are : Barao de Araruama, 
^5ias a Cajazerias, do Conde d'Eu, de Minas e Rio, Mogyana, Norte do 
''azil, do Norte, Ouro Prcto a Pe^anha, Pe^anha, ao Araxa, Petrolina ao 

In this report, the paper milreis is valued at 14 cents in United Slates currency. 
^^ kilometer is equivalent to 0.6214 mile. 



1462 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS^ 

Piauhy, Cruzeiro a Santo Cruz, Rio Grande a 6ag6, Cachoeiro de Itaperim, d 
Santos a Jundiahy, Sorocobana e Ituana, Taubat6 ao Amparo, do Tijucj 
Victoria a Peganha. 

Estrada de Alcabaga a Praia Rainha {Alcabaga-Praia Rainha Railroad).- 
Total extension, 184 kilometers (1 14 miles) ; enjoys a 6 per cent guaranty on 
maximum of 30,000 milreis ($4,200) per kilometer. 

Estrada de Ferro Caxias ao Araguaya {Caxias-Arraguay Railroad).- 
Length, 183 kilometers (113 miles); projected mileage, 567 kilometers (35 
miles); total, 750 kilometers (466 miles) ; same guaranty as the previous line. 

Estrada de Ferro Caxiasa Sao Jure de Cayazeiras ( Caxias-Sdo Jure Cay , 
zeiras Railroad), — Open to traffic, 78 kilometers (48 miles) ; same guaranty 
the two preceding lines. 

Estrada de Ferro Petralina ao Piauhy {Petralina Piauhy Railroad),- 
Length, 102 kilometers (63 miles); projected extension, 898 kilometers (5. 
miles) ; guaranty similar to preceding lines. 

Estrada de Ferro Natal' a Nova Cruz {Natal-Nova Cruz Railroad,)- 
Open to traffic, 121 kilometers (75 miles); guaranty, 7 per cent on a capital 
5.496,053 milreis ($769,447). 

Estrada de Ferro Conde d*Eu {Conde d*Eu Railroad). — Open to traffic, 1 
kilometers (88 miles); enjoys a guaranty of 74 per cent on a capital of 6,000,0 
milreis, gold ($3,270,000), and 6 per cent on ^^69,273 ($337,083). 

Estrada de Ferro Nazareth ao Crato {Nazareth- Crato Railroad). — Leng« 
with studies approved, 120 kilometers (74 miles); extension studied (bram 
Bom Jardin), 69 kilometers (42 miles); to be studied (approximate), 461 ki 
meters (287 miles); total, 650 kilometers (404 miles); guaranty, 6 per cent 
a capital of 30,000 milreis ($4,200) per kilometer. 

Estrada de Ferro Recife ao Limoeiro {Recife- Limoeir a Railroad). — Op: 
to traffic, 83 kilometers (52 miles); from Carpina to Nazareth, 13 kilomct- 
(8 miles); from Nazareth to Timbanba, 45 kilometers (28 miles); total, i 
kilometers (88 miles). 

Estrada de Ferro Recife ao Sao Francisco {Recife-Sdo Francisco Ra 
road). — Open to traffic, 125 kilometers (78 miles); enjoys a guaranty of 7 p 
cent on a capital of 7,111,111 milreis ($995,555), and 5 per cent on a capif 
of 4,316,978 milreis ($604,377). 

Estrada de Ferro Ribeirdo ao Bointo {Ribeirdo-Bointo Railroad). — Open 
traffic, 26 kilometers (16 miles); extension under construction, with studi 
approved, 35 kilometers (22 miles); total, 61 kilometers (38 miles); enjoys 
guaranty of 6 per cent on a capital of 30,000 milreis ($4,200) per kilometer. 

Estrada de Ferro Tamandare a Barra { Tamandare-Barra Railroad). 
Extension, with studies approved, 136 kilometers (85 miles), from Tamanda 
a Barra de Jangada; from Barra Velha to Palmares, 33 kilometers (20JJ mila 
to be studied, 1 12 kilometers (70 miles). 

Estrada de Ferro Central de Alagoas {Central Alagoas Railroad). — Op 
to traffic, 88 kilometers (55 miles), principal line, and Assembl^a branch, 
kilometers (39 miles) ; enjoys a guaranty of 7 per cent on a capital of 4,553,0 
milreis gold ($2,385,938), and 6 per cent on 1,860,000 milreis paper ($26o,40< 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. H^3 

Estrada de Ferro Central A lagoana {Central A lagoana Railroad), — Open to 
traffic, with studies approved, 194 kilometers (121 miles); to be studied, 401 
kilometers (249 miles); total, 595 kilometers (370 miles); enjoys a guaranty of 
6 per cent on a capital of 30,000 milreis ($4,200) per kilometer. 

Estrada de Ferro Aracdju a Simdo Dias {AracdJu'Simdo Dias Railroad), — 
Extension, under construction, 86 kilometers (53 miles); studied, or under 
study, 108 kilometers (67.1 miles) ; total, 194 kilometers (120 miles); enjoys a 
guaranty of 6 per cent on a capital of 30,000 milreis ($4,200) per kilometer. 

Estrada de Ferro Bahia a Alagoinhas {Bahia-Alagoinhas Railroad), — 
Open to traffic, 123 kilometers (76 miles); enjoys a guaranty of 6 per cent on 
a capital of 30,000 milreis ($4,200) per kilometer. Timbo branch: Open to 
traffic, 83 kilometers (52 miles); enjoys a guaranty of 6 per cent on a capital 
of 2,650,000 milreis gold ($1,446,900). 

Estrada do Ferro Central do Bahia {Bahia Central Railroad). — Open to 

traffic, 312 kilometers (194 miles); studied, 300 kilometers (186 miles); total, 

613 kilometers (380 miles); enjoys a guaranty of 7 per cent on a capital of 

13,000 milreis gold ($7,098) per kilometer on the line open to traffic, and 6 

per cent paper on the line studied, up to 30,000 milreis ($4,200) per kilometer. 

Tram Road, Nazareth, — Open to traffic, state concession, 34 kilometers 

(21 miles) ; federal concession, 65 kilometers (40 miles) ; total, 99 kilometers (61 

miles). 

Estrada de Ferro Victoria a Peganha {Victoria- Peganha Railroad), — 
Length, under construction, 84 kilometers (52 miles) ; with studies, approved, 
423 kilometers (263 miles) ; total, 507 kilometers (3 1 5 miles). Enjoys a guaranty 
0^ 6 per cent on a capital of 30,000 milreis ($4,200) per kilometer. 

Estrada de Ferro Sao Eduardo ao Cachoeira do Itapemirim {Sao Eduardo- 
^^hoeira do Itapemirim Railroad,) — Open to traffic, 39 kilometers (24 miles); 
Dnder Construction, 51 kilometers (32 miles);' total, 90 kilometers (56 miles). 
^^^rada de Ferro do Car angola {Car angola Railroad), — Open to traffic, 
^4 Kilometers (139 miles). Enjoys a guaranty of 7 per cent on a capital of 
*°^»Oco milreis, 3,700,000 thereof being gold ($2,342,000). 
^^^*^^da de Ferro Bar do de Araruama {Bar do de Araruama Railroad). — 
^^^'^^ 46 kilometers (29 miles) ; under construction, 6 kilometers (3.7 miles) ; 
* 5 2 kilometers (32 miles); enjoys a guaranty of 30,000 milreis ($4,200) 
P^^J^ilometer. 
^^^'^^da de Ferro Central de Macahe {Macahe Central Railroad). — Open to 
rattic^ 43 kilometers (27 miles); under construction, 15 kilometers (9 miles) ; 
otal, ^y kilometers (36 miles) ; enjoys a guaranty of 6 per cent on a capital of 
JOjO^Hi milreis ($4,200) per kilometer. 

'^^^rado de Ferro do Norte {Northern Railway). — Open to traffic, 45 kilome- 
^^'^ VZ8 miles) ; to be studied, 75 kilometers (47 miles) ; total, 120 kilometers 
\75 *^ilcs) ; does not enjoy a guaranty. 

f^strado de Ferro Sdo Francisco Xavier ao Commercio {Sdo Francisco 
^o,vier-Commercio Railroad), — Open to traffic, 16 kilometers (10 miles). 
^^P^pemha branch, 3 kilometers (1.9 miles); under construction, 49 kilometers 
130 miles); total, 68 kilometers (41.9 miles); no guaranty. The gauge is i 
">«er (39 inches). 



k 



1464 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



Estrada de Ferro Leopoldina {Leopoidina Railroad). — Open to traffic, 381 
kilometers (248 miles); no guaranty. 

Estrada de Ferro Peganha ao Aroxd (Peganha-Aroxd Railroad), — Length, 
with studies approved, 887 kilometers (551 miles); guaranty, 6 per cent on 
30,000 milreis ($4,200) per kilometer. 

Estrada de Ferro Barra Mausa a Cataldo (Barra Mausa-Cataldo Rail- 
wax). — Length, 122 kilometers (76 miles) ; under construction, 528 kilometers 
(328 miles); under study, 791 kilometers (492 miles); guaranty, 6 per cent on 
30,000 milreis ($4,200) per kilometer. 

Estrada de Ferro Minas e Rio {Minas and Rio Railroad). — rOpen to traffic, 
170 kilometers (106 miles); guaranty, 7 per cent on a capital of 15,495,253 
milreis ($2,169,335). 

Estrada de Ferro Muzambinho (Muzambinko Railroad). — Open to traffic, 
57 kilometers (3 ij^ miles); no guaranty; concessionaire, a Companhia Estrada 
de Ferro Muzambinho (Muzambinho Railway Company); the Campanha branch 
of this" line has 86 kilometers (53X niiles) open to traffic, on which there is a 
guaranty of 4 per cent; capital, 2,509,500 milreis ($351,330). 

Estrada de Ferro Santos a Jfundiahy (Santos- Jundiahy Railroad).— 0^ 
to traffic, 139 kilometers (86 miles); renounced its guaranty in 1889. The 
detailed account of receipts and expenditures were for first six months of il 

Receipts. 



From — 



Amount. 



Passengers 

Baggage and express 

Animals on passenger trains 
Animals on freight trains. . . 

M crchandise 

Telegraph 

Storage and fines 

Sundries 

Difference in exchange 

Total 



Miheis. 
1,220,452 
283. 165 

19' 243 
6,284 

5, 920, 016 

37. 284 

27, 802 

140, 968 

174. 569 



7. 830, 477 



$170,863 

39' 642 

2,694 

879 

828,802 

5.317 

3,893 

19.730 

24.44<' 



[,096,267 



Expenditures. 



For— 



Superintendence . . . . 

Taxes 

Accounting head office. . . . 

Traffic 

Traction 

Rolling stock 

Telegraph 

Repairs on line 

Central bureau of accounts 
Sundries 

Total 

■ 



Amount. 



Milreis. 

48. 322 

31,031 

32, S52 

1,402,760 

1,490,072 

401, lOI 

87. 748 

695. 249 
21, 162 

115.996 



$6,763 
4,344 

196,336 

208, 6II 

56. 154 

12,285 

2,962 
16,240 



4» 326, 313 605.684 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



1465 



Rereipis and expenditures for second six months of 1896 are detailed as 
follows : 

Receipts, 



From— 



Passengers , 

Baggage and express 

Animals on passenger trains 
Animab on freight trains. . . 

Merchanoise 

Telegraph 

Storage and fines 

Sundries 

Total 



Amount. 


Milreis 




I, 363. 292 


$190, 861 


320. 5^9 


44.873 


17.991 


2,519 


4.978 


697 


10, 402, 344 


1,456,469 


39.9^3 


5.5S7 


34. 072 


4.770 


79. 426 


11, 119 


12,262,53s 


I, 716, 895 



Expenditures. 



For— 



Superintendence 

Office expenses 

Taxes 

Traffic 

Traction 

Rolling stock 

Telegraph 

Repairs on line 

Central bureau of accounts 

Sundries 

Difference in exchange. . . . 

Total 



Amount. 


Milreii. 




50, 188 


$7, 026 


40, 235 


5.633 


33.S15 


4.734 


I. 735. 928 


243. 130 


I, 702, 067 


238, 289 


424. 105 


59. 375 


93.903 


13.147 


1,129.493 


158. 129 


22, 173 


3.104 


69, 566 


9. 739 


. 345.92; 


48, 302 


5, 647, 700 


790, 608 



Estrada de Ferro Mogyana {Alogyana Railroad). — This is the other great 
cofFcc-carrying road of the State of Sao Paulo. Open to traffic, 194 kilometers 
(121 miles); Caldas branch, 77 kilometers (48 miles); guaranty, 6 per cent on 
a capital of 4,300,000 milreis, gold, ($2,347,800), and 1,853,885 milreis, paper, 
($259»54o). Details of receipts and expenditures in 1896 were as follows: 

Receipts. 



From— 



Amount. 



Passengers , 

Baggage and express 

Animals on passenger trains 

Telegraph 

Merchandise 

Animals on freight trains 

Storage 

Imposts , 

Sundries 

Total 



Milreis. 
616, 274 

1 14. 967 

19. 435 
19, 401 

1.286,573 

7,960 

6,258 

14.258 

13. 229 



2,098,355 



$86, 279 

16,095 

2.721 

2. 716 

180. 121 

I. 114 

876 

I, 196 
I.S52 



293. 770 



1466 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



ExpendUures, 



For— * 



Central office. 
Traffic 



Traction 

Telegraph 

Permanent way 
Sundries 



Amount. 



Milreis. 

43. 746 
226, 262 
810, 628 

44.225 
586, 294 

12, 161 



Total 



I, 723. 316 



16.12 

31.67 

113,4a 

6, ig 

82. oS 

1.7c 



241. 2C 



Estrada de Ferro Sarocahana {Sarocahana Railroad), — Open to traffic* 
main line, 1 13 kilometers (70 miles) ; Itarar6 branch, 43 kilometers (27 milcsj 
guaranty, 6 per cent on a capital of 30,000 milreis ($4,200) per kilomet^ 
jon the line from Botucatu to Tibagy and the Itarar6 branch ; the prolongatia 
to Santos enjoys no guaranty. 

Estrada de Ferro Uheraho ao Coxim (Uheraha-Coxim Railroad). — Lengtl 
with studies approved, 103 kilometers (64 miles) ; to be studied, 897 kilomcte 
(556 miles); total, 1,000 kilometers (620 miles); guaranty, 6 per cent c: 
30,000 milreis ($4,200) per kilometer. 

Estradode Catalaoa Palmas {Cataldo-Palmas Railroad), — Length, appro3« 
mate, 800 kilometers (497 miles); studies approved, 100 kilometers (62 miles. 
to be studied, 700 kilometers (445 miles) ; guaranty, 6 per cent on 30,000 ra i 
reis ($4,200) per kilometer. 

Estrada de Ferro do Parand {Parana Railway), — Open to traffic (Paran 
gu& to Curitiba), 111 kilometers (69 miles) ; prolongation and branches, j< 
kilometers (189 miles) ; total, 417 kilometers (258 miles). This is a prosperoi 
road, there having been large annual profits since 1891. 

Estrada de Ferro Santa Maria a Cruz Alta {Santa Maria- Cruz Alta Rati 
road), — Open to traffic, 161 kilometers (100 miles); guaranty, 5 per cent 01 
a capital of 4,828,035 milreis ($675,925); receipts, 383,378 milreis ($53,673); 
expenditures, 366,274 milreis ($51,278); profits, 17,104 milreis ($2,395). 

Estrada de Ferro Santa Maria ao Uruguay (Santa Maria- Uruguay Rail- 
road). — Part under construction, Cruz Alta ao Uruguay (Cruz Alta to Uru- 
guay), 381 kilometers (237 miles); Ijuhy branch, 293 kilometers (182 miles); 
guaranty, 6 per cent on 30,000 milreis ($4,200) per kilometer. 

Estrada de Ferro Ouarahim a Itaqui (Ouarahim-Itaqui Railroad), — Opci 
to traffic, 176 kilometers (110 miles); guaranty, 6 per cent on capital 
6,000,000 milreis ($840,000). 

Estrada de Ferro Rio Grande a Bage {Rio Grande-Bage Railroad), — Opci 
to traffic, 283 kilometers (176 miles); guaranty, 7 per cent on capital c 
13,521,453 milreis ($1,893,003). 

Estrada de Ferro Sao Paulo-Rio Grande {Sao Paulo-Rio Grande Railroad),- 
Length, with studies approved, 1,092 kilometers (673^ wii^es) ; to be studied 
775 kilometers (482 miles); totdl, 1,867 kilometers {\,\6o% miles); guarauit) 
6 per cent on 30,000 milreis ($4,200) per kilometer. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. I467 

strada de Ferro Minas de Sao Jtronymo {Sao Jeronymo Mines Rail- 
i), — Under construction, 40 kilometers (25 miles); studies approved, 149 
nctcrs {^2% miles); studied, 375 kilometers (233 miles); total, 564 kilo- 
ers (35oJ^ miles). 

\strado de Ferro Pelotas ao Colonias Sao Laurengo {Pelotas-Sdo Lourenqo 
onies Railroad). — Extension, with studies approved, 154 kilometers (96 
:s) ; guaranty, 6 per cent on 30,000 milreis ($4,200) per kilometer. 

THE POTTERY INDUSTRY. 

For a great many years it has been known that the argilliferous 
th of the State of Sao Paulo affords a clay rich in possibilities 

developing the pottery industry on a very extended scale, 
my efforts in this direction have been made, but as a rule they 
^e met with limited success; the failure, or partial failure, of 
se undertakings is attributable mainly to the lack of skilled 
rkmen and managers. The attempts made in the direction of 
king bricks for paving, houses, etc., have met with better results, 
1 to-day there may be seen near the suburbs of Sab Paulo and 
ewhere in the country numerous brickkilns conducted on a 
all scale, these establishments being devoted to brickmaking, 

manufacture of tiles, and glazed paving stones. Fine pottery 
; not been attempted as yet. It is thought, however, that with 
>per mechanical appliances and skilled labor this industry might 
developed very profitably. 
The "Moniteur Official. du Commerce," of Paris, says: 

)wing to the backward condition of this manufacture, the State Government, 
lie desiring to encourage the national industry, has found it necessary to 
)ort lead pipe to be used in the sewers and the waterworks, although earth- 
vare piping, were it available, would be at least 50 per cent cheaper, and 
m a hygienic point of view, much more desirable. 

So long as home production of glazed stone pipe, tiles, and 
ick remains in its undeveloped state the market is quite impor- 
it. The official report on this subject figures it to be 1 50 tons 
glazed stone pipe per annum, besides a large variety of articles 
similar manufacture. In addition, about 2,000,000,000 bricks 
paving purposes and 200,000 tiles, representing in the aggre- 
tc 7,000 tons, are required annually. 



1468 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS* 



STATISTICS OF CENTRAL AMERICA. 

In the February Bulletin, page 1310, the following wor 
appear: "Of the Central American States, Nicaragua is the on 
one whose statistics are precise and authentic." This sentence, 
it was printed, appeared to be a statement of the Bureau, but wj 
in reality, a quotation from a newspaper, which was inadvertent 
inserted in an article on the production of gold in the sever 
Republics of the American Continent. The error is regrette 
inasmuch as it reflects upon the statistical offices of the other Ce 
tral American Republics, which have shown great industry a 
care in the collection of such data. The Bureau appreciates t 
fact that care should be exercised in avoiding such reflections, 
the appearance, even, of preference for any particular country 
the International Union. 



COSTA RICA. 

REFORM OF THE MONETARY SYSTEM. 
[Extracts from various official documents.] 

In the memorial presented to the Constitutional Congress 
Costa Rica by Senor Don Ricardo Montealegre, Secretar)'« 
Finance and Commerce, on June 17, 1895, in an extensive revie\ 
of the financial situation in the country, are set forth the cause 
that brought about the difficulties which beset the Public Treasur; 
in 1 882, assigning among these the perplexities and injuries flowin; 
from the loans of 1871 and 1872, and the Republic's deprivatio 
for ten consecutive years of the aid of a great part ot the publi 
revenues which was appropriated to the construction of the Atlanti 
Railroad. The document explains how, under the circumstance 
the Government, desiring to guarantee the redemption ot tl 
national notes then in circulation, which caused the withdrawal * 
gold coin which in Costa Rica had always been the ordinary circ^ 
lating medium, concluded a contract with the Banco de la Unio< 
on the 21st of October, 18S4, through which sole fiduciary circL 
lation, or the exclusive issue of the bank's notes, was establishec 
The document further shows that the effect of this transaction- 
increasing credit without guaranteeing it — was to cause the fin* 
outflow of gold. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. I469 

Pursuant to the contract the issue of the bank's bills in 1891 
ached $3,257,400, and, naturally, in the same proportion as this 
>ue increased the rate of international exchange advanced; and, 

was the case with gold (of which the amount in circulation in 
i8o had reached $2,500,000, and had all disappeared), silver 
egan an outward movement. 

Subsequently came the great fall of silver in foreign markets, 
ind with it the normal rate of exchange disappeared. In Costa 
Rica, where in the years antedating 1882 the rate had never 
exceeded 19 per cent limit of the difference between the value of 
the national and foreign gold, and frequently reached the minimum 
>f 5 per cent, it kept going up at an alarming pace. In 1891 it 
ose in the short space of two and one-half months from 64 to 
115 per cent; during the succeeding fifteen days it went down 
084 per cent only to rise again in a like period to 100 per cent, 
Jid to fluctuate three months later between 89 and 1 1 6 per cent, 
n January, 1892, it was 96 per cent; in July of the same year, 

lo per cent, and thirty days later, 1 56 per cent. 
In view of the violent fluctuations, which have been the cause 
*f losses to commerce and of instability in all the business of the 
Ountry, the Government, deeply interested in everything which 
n one way or another will prevent or deter the greatest develop- 
ment in the production of the country, after carefully studying the 
^uses that may influence the same, has more especially directed 
ts attention to the nature of the circulating medium, since money, 
^ the representative of capital, jointly with property and labor, 
"^akes up the generative and permanent elements of wealth. 

Since 1894, the first year of the present administration, Don 
Rafael Yglesias, President of the Republic, in his message upon 
Assuming possession of his high charge, made a conclusive decla- 
"^tion of his ideas in this respect, stating his purpose to proceed 
^ the establishing of a metallic money having conditions supe- 
'Qr to the existing currency. To this end this reform, being a 
^n of a general plan tending to the betterment of the national 
Onomy and public administration, has been gradually maturing 
^ce that year. With this object in view, together with other 
Dvisions of far-reaching importance related to the new arrange- 
ent of the foreign debt,* satisfactorily terminated — to the alien- 

* Published in the Monthly Bulletin for May, 1897. 
Bull. No. 9 3 



1470 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS, 



ation of public lands ; to the abolition of the rum, tobacco, a 

other monopolies — the reduction of the internal debt was und 

taken; and it is worthy of note that this operation was carri 

into effect with an expenditure of $2,000,000, approximately, 

amount taken by the Government from its revenues without pr 

udice to the good administrative service, and maintaining t 

flourishing state of public instruction ; without limiting the cc 

struction of roads and other important works, and without in a 

wise using the public credit, or having recourse to the establii 

ment of new, or the increasing of existing, duties. 

As an illustration of the present condition of the natior 

finances it would not be out of place to record here, furth 

more, that, notwithstanding in Costa Rica the public charges i 

lower than in any of the other neighboring countries, the ordina 

receipts of the National Treasury in the fiscal year 1896- 

amounted to $7,435,610.78, silver, exceeding those of the p 

vious year by $851,102.02, and exceeding the estimates 

$538,226.14. The total expenditures amounted to $6,697,326.^ 

leaving a surplus of $738,284.27, which, added to that of 1 

previous year and to other existing balances, makes $i,270,o< 

the amount to the credit of the Department of Finance on Mai 

31 of last year. The intemal public debt on that date \ 

reduced to $1,1 16,784.18, the national notes were withdrawn, a 

the debt existing for many years in favor of the Banco de Ca 

Rica, formerly Banco de la Union, was finally canceled. 

On the other hand, the trade niovement of the Republic is sat 

factory. According to a report of the National Bureau of St 

tistics, the value in gold of the exports for the years from 18831 

1893, which value is calculated at the respective rates of exchang 

was $62,751,676, and that of the imports was $56,185,769, lea 

ing a surplus of $6,565,907, in American gold, in favor of th; 

enterprising country. The statistics for the succeeding years ai 

as follows : 



Year. 



1894 

1895 

1896 

Total 



Imports, in 
American gold. 



, 113, 223.66 
3.851,460.34 
4, 748, 812. 62 



12, 713, 496. 62 



Bxpprts. itt 
American got 



$5,033. "3- 
5,188,401. 

5. 597. 727- 



15.819.241 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



1471 



This shows that the exports during the last three years have 
exceeded the imports by $3,105,745.31, figures which show not 
only that the balance of trade is decidedly in favor of Costa Rica, 
but also tfie stable and progressive development of the production 
of the country, and at the same time that there exists a com- 
mendable prudence in the transaction of business. 

Coffee is the principal article of export, without, however, over- 
looking the encouragement of other branches of trade, and it is 
a well-known feet that Costa Rican coffee is sought as among the 
best in the world, as may be seen in the commercial reviews of 
the principal markets of the bean. For example, the prominent 
house of Messrs. Chalmers, Guthrie & Co., of London, with 
offices established in Guatemala and Bogota, has during the last 
four months quoted ^* fair and fine " coffee at the following prices 
per hundredweight : 



Origin. 


Nov. 30, 1897. 


Dec. 14, 1897. 


Jan. XI, 1898. 


Feb. 8, i&y8- 


Costa Rica 

Guatemala 

Colombia and 
Venezuela . . 


s. s. d. 
83 to 108 
79 to 100 

70 to 102 6 


s. s. d. 
82 to 105 
79 to 100 

70 to 102 6 


s. d. s. d. 
84 to 106 
79 to ICO 

73 6 to 102 6 


s. s. d. 
88 to 114 6 
81 to 102 

73 to 102 6 



The price of the inferior classes of Costa Rican coffee has not 
reached a lower figure than fi'om 50s. to 76s. 6d. per hundred- 
weight, while the cost of production during the last year has been, 
approximately, 40s. in silver, enjoying also special facilities of 
land and sea communication and corresponding cheapness in 
freight rates. 

The cultivation of coffee has increased in proportion to the 
natural development of the country, and there is a large number 
of new plantations which will soon be producing. The export of 
l^nanas and other fruits is increasing considerably, and that of 
'umber was much larger during the last year than formerly. The 
fining industry, moreover, is now being greatly developed. 

In the next report, presented to Congress on June 1 5, 1896, the 
same official develops the plan adopted by the Government for the 
revision of the monetary system and upholds the principles upon 
vhich it is based, resting on the considerations following: The 
character of the circulating medium has a decisive influence on 
the financial movement in general. Money, as the representative 



1472 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

medium of value, forces itself into all transactions and at the s 
time constitutes the most stable guaranty of capital and labor, 
function, the most important that it discharges, requires that it sh 
have a fixed value, which shall protect it from a possible depr 
tion and permit it to assume a permanent part in international ( 
ations necessary for the well-being and advancement of the cou 
It is not. therefore, possible to assume stability in individual ca 
or solidity in public wealth when this most important agent w 
governs them loses some of the characteristics attributable to i 
the well-understood reason for its creation. If money is to ha 
fixed value, it is necessary that this should grow out of its own ( 
acter, so that it may develop its purchasing power, since any dep 
ation in it has a reflex action over whatever is subordinated the 
and if this depreciation is exposed to constant fluctuations, the 
mal condition of business disappears and all branches of it are de 
affected bv the violent disturbances which succeed each o 
This is an inconvenience under which silver money now sul 
while gold money, on the contrary, maintains itself as the bas 
the monetary system of the most important commercial nat 
and which those nations lacking it endeavor to adopt, for 
reason that it is nowadays the only medium of exchange ha 
a fixed value. 

It happened that coincidently with the plan of reform b< 
mentioned, it was intended to immediately import large sum 
foreign silver coin, and for this reason Congress, by decree of Ji 
of the same year, prohibited the coining of national silver mo 
and declared all foreign coins of the same metal not legal te 
in the country, providing at the same time the manner in w 
silver coins then in circulation should be redeemed. 

The Government, then, having resolved to undertake 
reform, a new contract was entered into with the Banco de C 
Rica, the principal object of this negotiation being to gradi 
supersede the bank note by another note having an exclusi 
national character, issued at par, and guaranteed by an e 
amount of gold coin, or rather by gold certificates, by reaso 
which the bank relinquished the privilege of exclusive issue. 

The monetary law* enacted pursuant to this plan establ 

♦Published in the Monthly Bulletin of the Bureau for November, 1896, anc 
special edition from the same Bureau. 






BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. H73 

the gold colon as the monetary unit and fixes the relation of value 
l)etween it and the present national silver dollar, estimated with 
relation to the state of the public treasury, based upon the amount 
cf the circulating medium to the average rate of international 
exchange for several years, and to the latest average of the value 
cf silver with relation to gold in the same period. In this way 
(the parity of value between the bank note and the gold certifi- 
cate being also established by the same fact) all possible disturb- 
ances in existing obligations and interests of any kind, and in the 
present value of all articles, have been avoided. 

The issue of certificates, on the other hand, is obligatory, because 
it would not be possible to maintain gold coin in circulation while 
the amount of bills issued by the bank is greater, and as in order 
to retire the latter it is indispensable to supply their absence from 
circulation, so as to avoid the difficulties which would ensue 
through the diminution in the circulating medium, the gold cer- 
tificates would at the same time effectively meet this necessity. 

The bank having been authorized to issue bills to the amount 
0* $5,000,000, and having at present in circulation $4,000,000, 

• 

in round numbers, the first issue, according to the contract, is to be 
reduced in proportion to the amounts of national gold coin struck 
off, and of the second issue there shall be withdrawn from circula- 

■ 

tion 90 per cent of the sums of the same coin that the Govern- 
ment may deposit in the bank; and the Government will issue 
gold certificates payable to bearer to an amount equal to the bank 
Wis withdrawn. These certificates shall be signed jointly by the 
Secretary of Finance and the director of the bank, and shall be 
redeemed on presentation in national gold on December 31, 1900, 
Of before, whenever the Government may so provide ; provided 
^^ the amount of gold coin deposited shall not be less than 
^'5oo?ooo colones; and meanwhile the bank shall exchange the 
certificates for silver as though they were its own notes. 

The period fixed to carry out this measure terminates in 1902; 
^y^ the Government has reserved the right to make the coinage 
'" a shorter time in order to accumulate the necessary amount of 
gold coin in the shortest possible time, and to this end it already 
'^deposited in the bank 1,000,000 colones in gold, the value of 
"^e first two coinages, and has placed the national mint in better 
condition to continue this operation without delay. 

These are, in short, the principal points of this important reform. 



1474 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



BANKS. 



One of the conditions pursuant to which the Banco de Costa 
Rica has relinquished the privilege of exclusive issue is the 
following : 

That the general law to be enacted for the establishment of 
free issue shall, among the principal conditions authorizing the 
same, make the following provisions : 

No bank having a capital of less than 1,000,000 colones shall be 
authorized to make issues. 

Banks desiring to become banks of issue shall have their capi- 
tal in national gold coin. 

Bills shall be exchanged for national gold. 

The issue of bills shall not exceed 65 per cent of the paid-up 
capital. 

As a guarantee fund for the issue a reserve in national gold of 
not less than 40 per cent of the value of the bills issued is 
obligatory. 

An official examiner shall see to it that prior to the issue all 
the provisions of the law are complied with, and shall see that the 
bank acts always within the limits of its authority. 

The condition of every bank of issue shall be published monthly. 



HONDURAS. 

At the opening of the Congress of Honduras, in regular ses- 
sion. President Policarpo Bonilla delivered the address usual on 
such occasions. He referred to the fact that, in accordance with 
the terms of the Treaty of Union, celebrated at Amapala in June, 
1895, all matters pertaining to the relations of his country with 
foreign governments had passed into the control of the Diet of 
the Greater Republic of Central America. The relations existing 
between the three States composing the new union are stated to 
be harmonious and satisfactory, and the patriotic hope is expressed 
that the current year will see the restoration of the compact em- 
bracing the five Republics of Central America under the former 
federation, known as the Republic of Central America. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. H75 



MARTINIQUE. 

PROHIBITION OF COLORED MARGARINE. 

Under date of December 3, 1897, Consul Tucker advises the 
)epartment of State, from Martinique, that much inconvenience 
as been caused by the continued arrival in that island of colored 
eomargarine from the United States, the introduction of which 
prohibited by law. In order that shippers may in future avoid 
3uble and expense. Consul Tucker draws attention to the foUow- 
g points of the law bearing upon the subject, which must be 
rictly complied with : 

(1) Oleomargarine will be accepted if it docs not contain more than 10 per 
:nt of butter. 

(2) Oleomargarine must be white, or nearly so^that is, it must not contain 
I single particle of foreign coloring matter, such as saffron, etc. 

(3) The cases must show on their four sides, in plain letters, the word 
"oleomargarine." The cans must bear the word stenciled or printed on their 
surface and have a pasted label showing the exact analysis of the oleomargarine 
therein contained. 

The consul desires to emphasize the fact that invoices should 
give the composition of the goods according to the following pro- 
vision of the law : 

In the retail trade the margarine or oleomargarine must be delivered in the 

rorm of a cube and with a stamp on one of its faces, either "margarine" or 

oleomargarine," and wrapped in an envelope bearing in conspicuous and 

wdelibic characters the same designation, as well as the name and address of the 
dealer. 



MEXICO. 



INSTRUCTIONS FOR SHIPPING GOODS. 

The following general instructions relative to the proper mark- 
'"gand packing of merchandise destined for exportation to Mexico 
^^^ taken from custom-house regulations. By observing them, 
^^ch inconvenience and delay will be saved at the ports of entry : 

*• The cases of merchandise should bear but one mark and one number. In 
°^<ier to facilitate identification, the name and address of the manufacturer. 



147^ BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

marked uniformly upon the original cases, are permitted. Infractions of this 
regulation are punished by a tax of $i for each case bearing marks and number 
other than those indicated in the consular invoices. 

II. The weight, net and gross, also the value of each package, should be speci- 
£ed even in case of an entire cargo of one kind of merchandise. When a pack- 
age contains different articles, it is necessary to specify the net weight, the legal 
weight, and the value of each, making clear its classification in the tariff laws. 

III. It is important to note the difference between net weight and legal weight, 
which comprehends the cases, caskets, cardboard or light boxes serving as special 
wrapping for each article. The tariff indicates distinctly whether the duties are 
collected on net, legal, or gross weight. The metric system has been in opera- 
tion since September i, 1896. 

IV. When several boxes, bales, or cases are joined together, so as to form but 
one package, it is indispensable to specify : (1) the number of packages thus bound 
together, (2) the weight of each taken separately, (3) the mark, number, and 
gross weight of the entire package. This rule does not apply to merchandise 
shipped in loose bundles, such as staves, bars or plates of iron or sheet-iron, 
which are bound together in a special manner. 

V. In shipments of oil and similar products, packed generally in large cases, 
the number of vessels or demijohns contained in each case must be specified. 

VI. In shipments of tissues it is necessary to state the exact length and 
breadth of each piece ; the precise nature of the material, whether woolen, cot- 
ton, yarn, silk, etc.; the gross and net weight of each package and of each 
article it contains. The measurement of napkins, tablecloths, handkerchiefs, 
towels, etc., should be expressed in square inches. "Rebozos" or their imita- 
tions should have the number of threads to each one-half centimeter square 
indicated, as well as the exact nature of the weave. 

VII. In shipments of chemical or pharmaceutical products care should be 
taken to employ no bottle or vessel whatever, bearing a label other than one 
indicating the true nature of the contents. 

VIII. The classification under the heading "machines** has caused many 
errors; it is important, then, to understand that all accessories dc machines, 
capable of being applied to other uses, even when imported at the same time as 
the apparatus of which they form an integral part, are subject to the articles of 
the tariff, specifying them : Thus, bolts, bars of iron or steel, plates round or 
octagonal, lubricating oils, leather, tanned or not (for transmission straps, for 
example), are admitted only in very small quantities in order to benefit by the 
reduced duty on machines, even when they form a part of the latter shipment. 

IX. The greatest care should be taken to indicate the exact number of pack- 
ages shipped. The slightest error in excess of the number contained in the 
manifest causes heavy fines, which are never remitted. 

X. In shipping faience, porcelain, glass, and crystal ware, care should be taken 
to specify whether or not the articles are in one piece or mounted in metal gilded 
or silvered; in the latter case, the duties are much higher. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



H77 



COAL DEPOSITS. 

of the leading and immediate considerations in the advance- 
f the industrial interests of Mexico, is the necessity for the 
3ment of the coal deposits of the country. This interest, 
le reason, has not attracted the attention its possibilities, as 
necessities call for. The following on the subject is taken 
recent number of "The Black Diamond," published in 
o: 

the development of the manufactures of Mexico and the extension of 
oads there is an increasing demand for coal. The lack of cheap coal is 
r the advance of Mexico to no small degree. It has been one reason 

ores have come to the United States in such quantities to be handled 
i as the tariff upon ores will tend to check this, it will but emphasize 
e her demand for coal-working machinery, 
ding to the statistics of the Mexican Government, Mexico imported 

coke as follows : 



Year. 


Coke. 


Coal. 




$378. 522 
287, 075 
492, 167 


$626. 070 




701,913 
496, 376 







;e to say, there is at the same time the following exportation of coal to 
:ed States: 



Year. 



Coal. 



$205, 605 
232,919 
270, 176 



represents only the product of the mines of the Mexican International 
in the State of Coahuila, which is mainly a local matter, 
greater part of the locomotives and the largest factories are run with 
Coal is found in nine of the States of Mexico, but most of these deposits 
at present readily accessible from any of the now existing railroads. 
'Osit on the borders of the State of Vera Cruz is not only within easy 
r rail, but the road would run through a rich country, and would, by its 
tion farther south, open up the shortest and easiest route from the port 
)ico to the capital, at both of which points it would find a ready market. 
Ian Marcial coal fields in the Yaqui valley in Old Mexico give promise 
value. They are said to be wonderful, and may be destined to revolu- 



1478 BUREAU or AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

tionize the fuel trade on the Pacific coast. By examination and comparison 
these fields contain 108 square miles more superficial area than all the five 
anthracite coal basins of Pennsylvania, and are within 1 2% miles square of the 
aggregate area of the coal fields of England. The coal seams are continuous 
from the summit of the Los Bronces range to the Yaqui River. The coal, 
too, is said to be of superior quality, even surpassing the Pennsylvania anthra- 
cite. The Mexican coal has from 90 to 92 per cent of fixed carbon, ^% to 5 
per cent of volatile combustible matter, and ^% to 5 per cent of ash, and leaves 
no clinkers on burning. 

To capitalists these rich mining fields should prove attractive, as they arc all 
within easy reach of the coast. 



PERU. 

PERMANENT EXPOSITION OF MACHINERY. 

The Monthly Bulletin for April, 1897, contained in full an 
executive decree authorizing the establishment in Lima of a per- 
manent exposition of machinery, which should be inaugurated on 
the 28th of July of the same year. The decree sets forth the full 
scope and detail of the undertaking. Recent advices indicate 
that the exhibition is meeting with great success, especially in 
machinery adapted for mining purposes. The management de- 
sires that manufacturers in the United States may send samples 
of their most perfected machinery and implements useful in min- 
ing and agricultural work. Undoubtedly, there exists a great field 
for the sale of such articles. It is only needed that their adapta- 
bility to the purposes shall be made known in that country. All 
communications on the subject of application for space, general 
regulations governing the entrance fees,, etc., should be sent to 
Senor J. Pezel y Tyrado, president of the committee. 



UNITED STATES. 

TRADE WITH LATIN-AMERICA. 
statement of imports and exports. 

Following is the latest statement, from figure scompiled by the 
Bureau of Statistics, United States Treasury Department, Worth- 
INGTON C. Ford, chief, showing the value of the trade between the 
United States and the Latin-American countries. The report is 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



M79 



nth of December, 1897, corrected to February 1, 1898, 
iparative statement for the corresponding month of the 
ear; also for the twelve months ending December 31, 
pared with the corresponding period of 1896. 
d be explained that the figures from the various custom- 
iwing imports and exports for any one month are not 
the Treasury Department until about the 20th of the 
Tionth, and some time is necessarily consumed in com- 
id printing, so that the returns for December, for 
re not published until February. 

ORTS OF MERCHANDISE BY THE UNITED STATES. 



cs and countries. 



Palo camptcht ; Pdu 
t; Campfche) — 



ica 



3U s ( Carbdn bitutninoso; 
tuminoso ; Ckarbon de 
mineux) : 



; Coco ou Cacao crti ; 



erica. 



America 



Caf/; Caf/) : 
erica 



America. 



nufactured (Algoddn en 
roddo em rama; Coion^ 
facturi) : 
:ica , 



Henequ^n ; Henequen ; 
ten] 



'dianos ; Bananas ; Ba- 



menca. 
erica. . . 



Varanjcu ; Laranjas ; 



December— 



1896. 



$7,535 
850 



17. 832 



78, 522 
39» 137 



50, 583 

115. 501 

5,027,309 

I, 245, 657 



405, 196 



74. 787 
34,685 



93» 147 



1&97. 



$334 



14, 010 



54. 521 
loi, 697 



132. 643 
203, 829 
4,080, 121 
768, 967 



271. 576 



Twelve months ending 
December — 



1896. 



$16, 367 
28,913 



168. 118 



369. 376 

788,.i78 



6, 652, loi 

3.295.079 
51,053,848 

10, 796, 948 



157,000 



2, 390. 936 



no, 699 

38, 670 



37. 269 



1.535.668 
627, 750 



278.318 



1897. 



$41,499 



224, 2S2 



209 
225,018 

969.344 



6,413,227 
5, 084, 724 

47. 477. 786 
10, 099, 788 



78,348 . 



4, 110,382 



1.527. 551 
707, 420 



150, 800 



1480 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



IMPORTS OF MERCHANDISE BY THE UNITED STATES— Continued. 



Articles and countries. 



FuT skins{PuUs ^nas/ PelUs; Four- 
rures) 
South America 



Hides and skins {Cueros y pieUs; 
Couros e pelles; Cuirs et peaux) : 

Central America , 

Mexico 

South America 



India rubber, crude {Goma eldstica 
cruda; Borracha criia; Caout- 
chouc^ brut) : 

Central America 

Mexico 

Brazil 

Other South America 



Lead, in pigs, bars, etc. (Plonioengald- 
pagos^ barras^ etc.; Chumbo em 
lingucuios^ barras^etc; Plombs^en 
saumons^ en barres^ etc.) : 
Mexico 



Sugar, not above No. 16 Dutch stand- 
ard {Azticar, no superior al No. 
16 de la escaia holandesa; Assucar 
ndo superior &o No. 16 de padr&o 
hollandez; Sucre, pas a u-dessus du 
type hollandais No. 16) : 

Mexico 

Brazil 

Other South America 

Tobacco, leaf {Tabaco en rama; Ta- 
baco em foUia; Tabac en feuilles) : 
Mexico 



Wood, mahogany {Aladera^ caoba; 
Mogno; Acajou)'. 

Central America 

Mexico 

South America 



Wool {Lana; LA; Lain/) : 
South America — 

Class I 

Class 2 

Class 3 



December— 



1896. 



$536 



9.562 
184, 920 
781,682 



52,900 

1,619 

2. 048, 733 

33» 292 



116, 187 



741 
211,956 

667, 246 



25, 191 



31,590 
21,932 

270 



1,761 



1897. 



$3. 872 



22, 109 
131,672 
967, 530 



60, 305 

3,083 

1,782,215 

62, 765 



131,943 



2, 290 

15,074 
416, 949 



11,666 



231 



26, 655 
17,871 



31,934 
8,251 



Twelve months ending 
December — 



1896. 



$50. 727 



234. 369 
1,402,744 

7, 882, 482 



467. 657 

37.896 

10. 387, 019 

477, 322 



I, 285, 400 



78, 223 
3,498,416 
4,383.615 



144, 935 



99,055 

349, 216 

25, 370 



I, 390. 737 
359,110 

1,426,354 



1897. 



$34t 572 



210,617 

I. 859. 747 

10, 028, 755 



414,399 
33. 136 

13.671,357 
507. 628 



1,599.923 



13.692 

1.854. 713 
4, 221, 621 



339. 236 



136, 281 

367. 874 

56,498 



4, 906, 323 
I, 183,201 
I. 283, 684 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



1481 



EXPORTS OF DOMESTIC MERCHANDISE. 



Articles and countries. 



jral imp\ements(/nsfrumfn- 
V agricultura; Instrumentos 
^ricultura; Machines agri- 



1 America. 

5 

Domingo. . 
ina 



bia 

South America 



{Ganoiio vacuno; Gado; B^- 



ral America 

ico ... 

h America . 



Cerdos; Porcos; Cockonsy-^ 

ico 

h America 



) {Cahalios; Cavallos; Che- 
ux) — 

ral America 

ico 

;h America 



{Carneros; Carntiros; Mou- 

ny- 

;ico 

th America 



maps, engravings, etc. (Z<- 
, mapas^grabados^ etc.; Livros^ 
fHis, gravuras, etc.; Livres^ 
's de g/ographie^ gravures , etc. ) : 

il America 

o , 



Domingo, 
itina 



ibia 

South America 



ITs: 

^^fah; MiUw; Afais) : 

'5^1 America 

ico 

^^ Domingo 

^i America .... 



• •••••»•• 



( Trigo; Trigo; BU) : 

"'al America 

ico 

^ America 



December — 



1896. 



$838 

12,066 

92 

12,451 

3,848 

311 
8,716 



2,010 
3.216 

55 



67. 778 



3,812 

12,885 

200 



881 



16. 742 

10, 1 1 1 

116 

I. 371 

6,528 

1,228 
4,671 



2.955 
4I9» 567 



I, 210 



9.665 

9 
151.245 



1897. 



$331 
7.229 

214 

25. 330 

1.345 

139 
14, 724 



147 
8,043 

I, 200 



18, 706 



150 
9,068 
I, 600 



100 
1.474 



4,579 

15.383 

4.2 

1,094 

5.404 
1. 086 

3.843 



6, 210 
50 



1.357 



i66, 394 



Twelve months ending 
December — 



1896. 



$28, 172 
120, 827 

2.403 
500, 491 

27.431 

2, 920 

198, 207 



12, 196 
28, 441 

3.323 



345, 056 
631 



59. 632 
73, 074 
17, 781 



14, 121 
20, 427 



78, 574 

179.777 

1.540 

22, 687 

46, 931 
72, 952 

73. 382 



35.157 
2,751.829 

773 
19, 810 



69, 241 

633 
153,545 



1897. 



$27. 152 

119. 195 
1,628 

348. 274 
22,311 

3.163 
146, 158 



15.039 

36, 854 

3.728 



107, 646 
230 



13.400 

70, 672 

5.950 



8,275 
15,839 



50, 262 
129,316 

857 

29, 241 

222, 129 

33.409 
48, 865 



68,903 

991.956 

444 

36, 857 



48, 043 

44 
I, 332, 782 



1482 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



EXPORTS OF DOMESTIC MERCHANDISE— Continued. 



Articles and countries. 



Breadstuffs — Contin ued . 

Wheat flour {Harina de trigo; Fa- 
rinha de trigo; Farine de bU) : 

Central America 

Mexico 

Santo Domingo 

Brazil 

Colombia 

Other South America 

Carriages, cars,etc., and parts of (Ca- 

rruages^ carros y sus accesorios; 

Carruagefis^ carros ^ € partes de 

carros; Voitures^ wagons et Uurs 

parties) : 

Central America 

Mexico 

Santo Domingo , 

Argentina , 

Brazil 

Colombia 

Other South America , 

C)'cles and parts of {Bicicios y sus 
accesorios; Bicyclos e accessorios; 
Bicyclcttes et leurs parties) : 

Central America 

Mexico , 

Santo Domingo 

Argentina 

Brazil 

Colombia 

Other South America 

Clocks and watches {Relojes de pared 
y de bolsillo: Relogios deparede e de 
bolso ; Pcndules et montres) : 

Central America , 

Mexico 

Argentina 

Brazil , 

Other South America. , 

QQ?i\ {Carbdn ; Carvflo ; Charbon)\ 

Central America 

Mexico 

Santo Domingo 

Brazil 

Colombia 

Other South America 

Cotton, unmanufactured {Aigoddnno 
ffianufactitrado ; Algoddo nilo ma- 
nufacturado ; Coton tion manufaC' 
tur^) : 
Mexico 

Cotton cloths {Tejidos de algoddn; 
Fazendas de algodUo; Coton^ ma- 
nufacture) : 

Central America 

Mexico 



December — 



1896. 



$85,319 

9.645 

22, 243 

265, 360 

65, 562 

166, 242 



19. 569 
10, 877 

982 

2.533 
3.093 

6,394 
6, 269 



7.050 

5. "4 

790 

2.245 

1.390 
924 

8.357 



1.687 
•1,944 
3.177 
1,424 
6,666 



5.402 
54. 070 

1.455 
14. 250 

3, 200 

2,649 



268, 852 



41,691 
22, 585 



1897- 



$113,769 
9,001 

15.641 
368, 186 

31,001 
141. 805 



3.645 

38, 395 

6,948 

7,451 
4.825 

4.783 
3.028 



727 
5.450 

24 
6,046 

9,071 

2. 131 
4.687 



719 
1,017 

2,873 
5.097 
9.749 



831 

65. 383 

2.957 

7.585 



375 



433. 419 



20, 317 
29. 053 



Twelve months • 
Deceniber- 



1896. 



Jl. 049, 344 
133. 166 

125. 327 
2,925,919 

570, 944 
1,496, 818 



161, S18 
551,066 
13.089 
108, 464 
111,849 

33.349 
62,344 



75.063 

51. 887 

1.873 
22, 196 

22.934 
20,904 

42,915 



13.095 
42. 437 
41,717 
71.458 
113.834 



29, 231 

480, 137 

18. 846 

75. 365 
42,406 

24, 785 



1,632,838 



650, 176 
456, 857 



$1, 

3. 
I, 



I. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



1483 



EXPORTS OF DOMESTIC MERCHANDISE— Continued. 



Articles and countries. 



Cotton cloths — Continued. 

Santo Domingo 

Argentina 

Brazil 

Colombia 

Other South America. . . . 



Wearing apparel (cotton) {Ropa de 
al^oddn; Roupa de algoddo; VSte- 
mtnts en cotoit) : 

Central America , 

Mexico 

Santo Domingo 

Argentina 

Brazil , 

Colombia 

Other South America , 



Fruits and nuts {Frulas y nueces; 
Frutas e nozes ; Fruits et fwisettes): 

Central America 

Mexico 

Santo Domingo 

Argentina 

Brazil 

Colombia 

Other South America 



Hides and skins {Cueros y pieles; 
Couros e pelUs; Cuirs et peaux): 

J^entral America 

^'exico 



^''^^ iJLiipulos; Lupulos; HoubUm)-, 

>;entral America 

fe^cico 

^an to Domingo 

^°»«*^ America 



Nostra 



■^ents: 



*''»c and scientific apparatus 

^'^^paratos eUctricosy cientijicos; 

'^^^arelhcs electricos e scientifi- 

^^-s^ V Appareih /lectriques et sci- 

O^^^i^fues)— 

j^« '■tiral America 

^Y^^^ico 

T:^_^^ntina , 



South America. 



X>I1 



B,j-1*'5 Steel, Manufactures of: 

^^rs' hardware, and saws and 
^^o\s (Afateria/es de metal para 
^opistruccufn^ sierras y kerra- 
**^ientas; Ferragens^ serras e 
f^erramentas ; MatMaux de 
Construction en fer et acier^ scies 

^jr^ntral America 

Mexico 



December— 



1896. 



$9,522 

15.070 
62, 688 
28, 145 

197. 331 



33. 162 
28,415 

744 
8,925 
2,599 
6,341 
4,469 



6,701 
11,261 

1,104 
184 
482 

1.427 
5.549 



625 



246 

27 
136 

87 



2,823 
34.285 

11,784 
7,460 

11,604 



11,043 
54, 819 



X897. 



$12, 206 

26, 378 
50,965 

27. 833 
95, 489 



13.621 
30, 058 
2,081 
1,897 
5.603 
2,829 
3,326 



4,299 
6,516 
286 
352 
417 
978 
2,510 



175 



106 
362 

3 
50 



3,997 
31,390 

6,592 
17,043 

4,655 



8,323 
30, 100 



Twelve months ending 
December — 



1896. 



$107, 447 
322, 787 

7". 531 

397. 404 

1,421,336 



212, 423 

338, 349 
25,608 

62, 978 

69.59s 
47, 650 
58,446 



53. 988 

78, 058 

2,625 

3,477 
12,049 

8,352 
35.218 



1,010 
28,094 



2,492 
6,027 

450 

1,340 



70, 925 

287,488 
120, 714 

215.163 
180, 370 



173,081 
719,077 



1897. 



$91,466 

158, 202 

546, 504 

349. 725 
I, 121,055 



206, 556 
309,980 
22,471 
43, 820 
57. 247 
49. 379 
43. 951 



50, 182 

59. 645 
1,699 

7. 141 
12, 302 

10, 465 

29, 626 



543 
13,968 



3,238 
80, 768 

5 
1,298 



85,490 
302, 058 

154,325 
119, 298 

149, 829 



116,611 
502,694 



1484 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



EXPORTS OF DOMESTIC MERCHANDISE— Continued. 



Articles and countries. 



Iron and Steel, Manufactures of — C't'd. 

Santo Domingo 

Argentina 

Brazil , 

Colombia , 

Other South America 

Sewing machines and parts of {Md- 

quinas de coser y accesorios; 

Machinas di coser e accessories; 

Machines ^ coudre et leurs par- 

ties) — 

Central America 

Mexico 

Santo Domingo 

Argentina 

Brazil 

Colombia 

Other South America 

Typewriting machines and parts 
of {Mdquifias de escribtr y acce- 
sonos ; Machitms de escribir e 
accessorios , Alachines a /crire 
et leurs parties)-. 

Central America 

Mexico 

Santo Domingo 

Argentina 

Brazil 

Colombia 

Other South America 



Leather, other than sole (Cuero^ dis- 
tifito del de sue la; Couro nHo para 
solas; Cuirs, autres qiu pour se- 
melles) : 

Central America 

Mexico 

Santo Domingo. 

Argentina . . . . , 

Brazil 

Colombia 

Other South America , 



Boots and shoes {Calzado; Calvados; 
Chaussures) : 

Central America 

Mexico » 

Colombia 

Other South America 



Naval stores: Rosin, tar, etc. {Resina 
y alquitrdn; Resina e alcatrSo; R^- 
sine et ^^oudron) : 

Central America 

Mexico 

Santo Domingo 

Argentina 



December — 



1896. 



$1,310 
13.941 
19. 542 
10, 869 
3i»8i9 



5.824 

23. 765 
69 

3.375 

23. 527 

14. 397 
12, 262 



814 

1.853 



1,510 

257 
131 

1.545 



11,029 

4,915 
2, 821 

5.902 



2, 190 

956 
164 

17, 795 



1897. 



$1, 029 

13. 59' 
14. 031 

9.905 
18, 848 



2,409 

15.194 
10 

2, 220 

II, 112 

5,845 
12,312 



1,580 


655 


2,741 


2,092 


60 


90 


1,679 


1,416 


255 


660 


261 


445 


2,016 


742 



1, 191 

95 



3.449 

35 
764 



II, 870 

5,476 

4.389 
1,621 



1.583 

1.645 

1,178 

24, 766 



Twelve months end 
December— 



1896. 



$11. 595 

219, 397 
284, 494 

105, 549 

283, 543 



88,860 
199. 669 

1.657 
130.412 

134. 885 

92. 973 

139. 647 



5.518 

20,466 

613 

3.701 
16,613 

3.051 
20, 167 



90,930 
50, 9^2 

40,590 
23.908 



26,662 

12, 334 

4.838 

86,166 



189 



$1: 
16I 

i8< 

10: 

23: 



6i 

20i 
] 

8' 

8: 
101 
10^ 



2' 



A 
r 



15 

1 
] 

3<: 



It 



91 
7i 
4; 

2' 



i: 



S{ 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



1485 



ORTS OF DOMESTIC MERCHANDISE— Continued. 



nd countries. 



>ntinueci. 

merica 

fits of {Agtmrrds; 

:a 

> 

nerica 

"ude {Aceites^ mitu- 
Oleos, mituraes^ crtis; 
lies, brutes) : 

eiined or manufac- 

fj, minerales^ refi- 

ufacturados; OUos, 

mados 6 manufaciu- 

, min/raUs^ raffimfes^ 

tr/€s)\ 

:a 

> 

merica 

ceites vegetates; Oleos 

'ties v/g^tales) : 

:a 

3 

nerica 

affin wax {Para^na 

Una; Paraffina e cera 

Parajffine et cirefaite 

nee)'. 

ca 

nerica 

ising meat and dairy 

{Carne de vaca eft 
te de vacca em latas; 
ynserves) — 
rrica 

0.9 4 



December— 



1896. 



27, 861 

1.370 

23, 160 



566 

219 

52 

2.455 

2,534 

994 

3.925 



39. 107 



9.497 
16, 793 

2,483 
128, 347 

86, 910 

14,769 

137. 510 



659 

27. 945 
922 

3, III 
1,568 

7.143 



2,131 

4.983 

1.576 

647 



4.215 
1,134 



1897. 



$14. 133 
427 

16, 806 



418 
380 
150 

9.987 
8, 210 

559 
4.205 



34. 708 



9, 202 

11,770 

2,035 

71.771 

99. 363 

.9. 389 

75, 103 



266 

51, 507 
1,896 



9.873 
3.269 



3.529 
n, 207 

785 
256 



2. 726 
1,271 



Twelve months ending 
December— 



1896. 



1897. 



$263, 304 $205, 978 



14. 534 
118,669 



3,758 
2, 108 

303 
77.651 
48, 228 

5.998 
42, 861 



15,829 
9'-. 768 



3.381 
2.958 

435 

52, 361 

60, 660 

5.063 

37. 716 



374. 293 



338,9" 



169, 570 


"8,434 


156,048 


182,515 


38, 533 


56. 841 


1,273,484 


859. 122 


I, 508, 760 


I, 714. 985 


122, lOI 


106, 104 


1, 127, 740 


865, 928 


4.932 


2, 500 


316,997 


322, 895 


14, 089 


20, 124 


13. 521 


3.772 


•69, 751 


182. 570 


33. 675 


73. 349 



26, 496 


26,019 


153.710 


14:5, 536 


17,040 


10.555 


6, 123 


4.957 



27, 543 
14. 547 



36. 955 
12,743 



I486 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



EXPORTS OF DOMESTIC MERCHANDISE— Continued. 



Articles and countries. 



Provisions, etc. — Continued. 

Santo Domingo 

Brazil 

Colombia 

Other South America. . . 



Beef, salted or piclcled (Came 
de vaca^ salada 6 en salmuera; 
Carne de vaecai salgada ou 
em salmoura; Bceuf, saU ou en 
saumure) — 

Central America 

Mexico 

Santo Domingo 

Brazil 

Colombia 

Other South America , 

Tallow (5.f^^/ Sebo; Sutf)— 

C«entral America 

Mexico , 

Santo Domingo 

Brazil 

Colombia 

Other South America 



Bacon {Tocino; Toucinko; Lard 
fum/) — 

Central America 

Mexico 

Santo Domingo 

Brazil 

Colombia 

Other South America 



Hams {Janiones; Presunto; Jam- 
bons) — 

Central America , 

Mexico , 

Santo Domingo , 

Brazil .• 

Colombia 

Other South America 



Pork (Came de puerco; Carne de 
porco; Pore) — 

Central America 

Santo Domingo. 

Brazil 

Colombia 

Other South America 



Lard {Manteca; Banha; Saindoux)-. 

Central America 

Mexico 

Santo Domingo -. 

Argentina 

Brazil • • • 

Colombia 

Other South America 



December— 



X896. 



679 
1,133 



3.503 
30 

5" 
118 

916 

20, 757 



11,068 
1,629 

175 
2,000 

4x5 
1,058 



1.575 
834 

473 
22, 980 

337 
3,198 



3,860 
2,257 

1. 034 



1,267 
11,560 



4.664 
422 
263 

274 
26, 167 



7,902 

35. 535 
2,214 



23,068 

13. 147 
67. 977 



1897. 



•15 

359 
262 

909 



2,007 

47 
109 

378 

554 
16,170 



8,366 

3.079 

5.585 
6, 518 

20 

1,665 



1,214 
962 

91 
33. 189 

87 
4,116 



2.547 
210 

45 
269 

16,421 



Twelve months ei 
December— 



1896. 



$86 

21,208 

6, 198 

11,624 



29, 201 

366 

2, 140 

4,884 

10, 189 

212,238 



123,666 

54. 976 
23, 865 

2,979 

8,405 

10,724 



18, 391 

9,419 

2,185 

985, 346 

1,501 

21,412 



3,271 


29,993 


1,868 


31, 384 


384 


6,387 


127 


650 


I, 102 


",925 


10, 889 


90.475 



59, 210 

4.078 

21,618 

6.338 
251.485 



10,947 


120, 585 


10. 655 


246, 361 


1,897 


20,611 


118 


4,792 


07, 165 


720, 192 


8,416 


138. 589 


60,206 


679, 263 



I.O 



I 

2 



1,0 
I 

6 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



1487 



EXPORTS OF DOMESTIC MERCHANDISE— Continued. 



rtides and countries. 



, etc. — Continued, 
id oleomargarine (Grasa y 
nargarina; OUo e oUomarga- 
i; OUo et oUomarganne)'. 

al America 

:o 

nbia 

South America 

{Mantequilla ; Manteiga ; 
rre): 
al America 



:o 

Domingo. 



ibia 

South America. 



Queso; Queijo ; Fromage) — 

il America. . . .* 

:o 

Domingo 



ibia 



South America. 



efined {Azticar refituido; 
luar nfinado ; Sucre raf' 



al America. 



Domingo 

nbia 

South America 



jnmanufactured ( Tabaco no 
facturado; Tabaco ftAo ma- 
turado; Tabac non manu- 
V): 
America 



na 

)ia 

iouth America 



manufactures of {Afanufac- 
de tabaco; Manufacturas de 
; Tabac fabrique) : 
America 



na. 



'la 

>outh America. 



manufactured {Madera no 
facturada ; Madeira n&o 
facturada; Bois brut)\ 
America 



December— 



X896. 



$2 
161 
400 

6,459 



4.943 
3.963 
274 
6.550 
1,615 

7.545 



1,701 
1.764 

387 



1,018 
1.339 



4.403 
758 

155 
2.954 



370 

6,825 

160 

307 

15.475 



3.538 
605 

4.447 

25 

20 

5.477 



16, 2H 

10, ^>6i 



1897. 



$16 



439 



5.557 
4.838 

435 

7.785 

1.257 
6, 292 



2.023 

1,507 

179 

8 

768 

1.569 



5.469 
2,631 

145 
3,062 

231 



4.980 
19. 035 



140 
5.679 



4.598 
2,887 



10 

235 
4.325 



2,475 
15.387 



Twelve months ending 
December— 



1896. 



$334 

1.387 

7,813 

31.417 



42.693 

35. 837 

5.903 

36, 600 

16, 885 
83. 508 



17,534 

14. 789 
3,999 

153 
9.649 

15. 380 



74. 428 
31.013 

2,181 
66, 990 

1.628 



29, 297 

116,328 

5,922 

4.326 

91,237 



70. 971 
17.971 

77. 937 

1,888 

3.295 
6i,457 



232, 627 
256, 161 



X897. 



$438 

475 

6,835 

24. 031 



48. 245 
41, 536 
7.438 
56, 183 
21.255 
84. 189 



19, 921 
14,296 

4,719 

314 

12, 116 

16, 316 



53. 578 
19.409 

2,369 
35. 020 

5.209 



18,508 

120, 727 

1,460 

3.554 
86, 557 



57. 846 

8.596 

10, 265 

75 

930 

76, 375 



84, 563 
207, 258 



1488 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



EXPORTS OF DOMESTIC MERCHANDISE— Continued. 



Articles and countries. 



Wood, unmanufactured — Continued. 

Argentina 

Brazil 

Colombia 

Other South America 



December — 



1896. 



Lumber {Maderas ; Madeiras; Bois 
de construction) : 

Central America 

Mexico 

Santo Domingo 

Argentina 

Brazil 

Colombia 

Other South America 



Furniture (Muebles ; Mobilia ; Afcu- 
bies) : 

Central America , 

Mexico , 

Santo Domingo 

Argentina 

Brazil 

Colombia 

Other South America 



Wool, raw {Lana cruda ; Lit crtia; 
Laines brutes) (pounds) : 
Mexico 



$6,845 



1.355 
1,490 



14, 096 

77» 978 

415 
loi, 968 

48,834 

757 
88,406 



18,043 

21,531 
I. 331 
3.374 
3.589 
3.923 

13. 387 



2,479 



1897. 



, 201 



I, 128 
1.588 



2,284 

42, 642 

3.447 
120, 560 

47. 793 

5.342 

17, 728 



8, 301 

22, 339 

1,095 

1.575 
3.485 
3,006 

6,993 



Twelve months ending 
December — 



1896. 



1897. 



$33. 773 
9,886 

9.512 
14. 532 



$19. 6S6 
16, 243 

2S. S74 
42. 762 



101,451 

757. 249 

54. 228 

1,089, 165 

826, 300 

43-419 
740, 572 



153.828 


123. 561 


174.338 


186, 232 


10,734 


11.767 


81.565 


75. 574 


56, 641 


48, 183 


35. 132 


41. 520 


113,707 


78,001 


230, 014 


30, 459 



loi. 227 

211.345 
71.813 

765. 962 

597.431 
69.791 

530, 560 



URUGUAY. 



PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 

In a report to the Department of State, United States Consul 
SwALM says that the total number of schools in Uruguay is 533, 
having an average term of nine months. Of this number, 181 are 
located in the cities and towns ; the rural sections have the remain- 
ing 352. The increase in the number of schools, in late years, has 
been mainly confined to the country. In addition to those men- 
tioned, there are 379 private institutions in the Republic. The 
average attendance is 9 per cent of the population, and Mr. Swalm 
states that, while this figure may show a small proportion of school 
attendance, it is very considerably the highest reported in South 
America. The number of teachers employed in 1896 was 1,990, 
601 of whom were men and 1,381 women; all but 606 of this num- 



L 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. ^^9 

ber were natives. There were enrolled in the public schools 5 1 ,3 1 2 
pupils and in private schools 22,689. The cost per scholar in the 
public schools was $ 1 2.38, Uruguayan money, gold, $ i of which is 
equivalent to $ i.o3J^ in United States currency. The average pay 
3f teachers per month is $35.50, men receiving a slightly higher rate 
than women. The consul states that there are two normal schools 
in successful operation — one for men and one for women. Modern 
methods of instruction are employed. The high-school system is 
not known, but there is a university under governmental direction, 
with law, medical, engineering, and collegiate departments. This 
university is thorough in its course and has a flattering attendance. 



VENEZUELA. 

CUSTOMS TARIFF FOR 1897-1898. 

Number 30. 

(Third Edition.) 

[Continued from February Bulletin.] 

§ 4. — Class IV. 

Duty, — 75 centimes of the bolivar, 

Almond or linseed oil. 

risK oil and cotton-seed oil. 

"alin oil, siccative oil or painters' oil. 

Olives, capers of all kinds. 

O" ard vinegar cruets, water and wine decanters and cruet stands, other than 
those Having any part of gold or silver, which come under Class VIII, and those 
o» ^rman silver or gilt or silvered, which are comprised in Class VI. 

Articles of all kinds of steel, iron, copper, brass, tin, tin plate, bell metal, 
bronze, lead, pewter, zinc, and nickel, not elsewhere mentioned, whether pol- 
ished, Varnished, tinned, or bronzed, or not; furnaces for the manufacture of 

sugar. 

^Ictallic wire, manufactured in frames for wigs, bird cages, racks for clothes 
or hats and other similar articles ; also frames for parasols and umbrellas. 

Almonds, hazelnuts, nuts, peanuts, chestnuts, and all other dried fruits with 
shells, not 'specified. 
^^^^K and all similar apparatus. 
Sicgert»s bitters. 

Bcnesecd, canary seed, and millett. 

Aniseed, carraway seed, Ceylon and Chinese cinnamon ('* caneloh"), garlic, 
cumin, cloves, origan, pepper, and other kinds of spices. 



1490 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Chandeliers, globes, shades, candelabra, candlesticks, beacons, street lamps, 
lamps, lanterns, hanging lamps, etc., not ornamented with gold or silver, which 
are included in Class VIII, or those of German silver and those gilt or sil- 
vered, which are taxed according to Class VI. Accessories thereof imported 
with the above-mentioned articles will be dutiable according to the class to 
which they belong. 

Christmas trees. 

Jet, unmanufactured. 

Sugar, white or refined. 

Scales, Roman balances, and copper weights, or in which copper predomi- 
nates, including weights, even of iron, when imported together with the scales. 

Wooden troughs or buckets. 

Billiard-table cushions, and bands or belts of coarse oilcloth for steam engines. 

Bagatelle tables with all their accessories. 

Felts for hats, not fulled, hair for hats, paper wrappers, leather hat bands, lin- 
ings, plush, peaks for caps and kepis, and other articles exclusively used in the 
manufacture of hats, such as oilcloth prepared with gum lac dissolved in alcohol, 
employed for the manufacture of black felt hats, and solutions of said gum in 
alcohol. 

Shoe blacking.* 

Billiard tables, with all their accessories, including the balls and cloth covers, 
when imported together with the tables. 

Armenian bole and lees {"borra "), not otherwise mentioned. 

Boxes of wood, even imported in pieces, i. e,, in boards for making same. 

Baskets, large or small, hand baskets, small carriages for children, and other 
articles of osier and wickerwork, including children's carriages, whatever be the 
material from which made ; cotton canvas covered with paper, for the manufac- 
ture of envelopes, and tissue coated with sulphate of copper. 

Pasteboard, manufactured or prepared for boxes, large and small, or in any 
other form, excepting for toys, masks, and playing cards. Blank visiting cards 
of any size are likewise included in this number. 

Barley, husked or ground. 

** Cebadilla.'^ Sneezeroot (veratrum sabbadilla). 

Capsules for bottles. 

Brushes, common, horse brushes, and those of horn or whalebone, for scrub- 
bing. 

Wax, vegetable, black or yellow, not prepared. 

Bristles and horsehair. 

Wooden horses or carrousels. 

Glue, common, and collodion for photographers. 

Linen, unbleached, and cloth called " coleta,^^ (crash) unbleached. No. 2 ; linen 
coarser than that comprised in No. 1 1 5 of Class III, but which has been more or 
less bleached, including Indian taffeta (" cotonia"). 

Pointed knives, common, with or without sheaths; knives with handles of 

*In virtue of a circular of September 35, 1896, bituminous oil, employed for blackening and 
softening harness, is subject to the same duty. {''Gatxia OJScial" N*. 6827, of September, 30, 1896.) 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. I49I 

wood or other common material for fishermen, shoemakers, saddlers, gardeners, 
cigar makers ; large common knives for farming and, generally, all those employed 
in arts or trades. 

Varnishes of all kinds. 

Caoutchouc made into tubes or pipes, and in sheets or bands for machine 
belting. 

Oilcloth for floors, packing, and roofing. 
Mirrors of all kinds and plate glass, silvered. 
Spermaceti and paraffine. 

"Espuma de mar,*^ substance employed for making bread and for other simi- 
lar purposes. 
Mats, large and small, and matting for Hoors. 
Small table mats. 

Figures, ornaments, and articles of all kinds used in putting up confectionery; 
also gilt paper bags or cornucopias, finished or partly finished, imported for the 
above purpose. Should the receptacles referred to be covered with silk or velvet 
or ornamented with flowers or other articles liable to higher duties, they shall, 
"nless completely filled with sweetmeats, be placed under Class VI as fancy 
inkles. 

Carpets or door mats not otherwise mentioned. 

^ricd fruits. 

^''uits in brandy, syrup, or in their juice. 

^adciJetrees. 

\^^*^cial flowers of porcelain. 

'^^^•Jits or crackers in the preparation of which sugar is employed. 

*^^^Une and benzine. 

^^^^tinc of all kinds, 
p 

^toe, maize, and rye flour. 
PI 

^^tiakers* thread and hemp ropes for halters, with core of tow. 
^^*'Sc thread of hemp, pita, flax, or cotton, excepting thread intended for 
^> embroidering, and weaving. 
*i^c or cord, twisted lines or twine for fishing, and hempen thread for fish- 



mgn. 

^ plate and sheet iron, manufactured into articles not specified, and iron 
**s for domestic use when they have lids or covers of tin plate or sheet iron. 
^<i, mixed with other greases, and oleomargarine. 

•T* 

^ols used in the arts and trades, with or without handles, such as pincers, 

^ ^''^» compasses, gimlets, trowels, chisels of all kinds for carpenters, levels, 

°. ^s» jack planes, adzes, rabbet planes, awls, files, hammers, saws, tongs and 

^ . ^^J's, lathes and vises, drawing knives, planes, bits, bitstocks and other similar 

^*^^, together with the wooden boxes containing any of these instruments. 

^^Or chalk for tailors. 

y'^ps of all kinds, other than medicinal ; confectionery of all kinds, sugar 
^y and flavoured rice flour employed for sweets, 
^^ling wax, in cakes or sticks. 



L 



149^ BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Wool, raw ; coarse and half-fine sail-cloth of hemp or cotton, unbleached. 

Milk, condensed. 

Books, printed and bound, excepting those mentioned in Class VIII. 

Faience in imitation of porcelain. 

Porcelain, common, and china in any form, not specified. 

Hops. 

Wood manufactured into articles not otherwise mentioned. 

"Manigrafos " (duplicators or copying apparatus). 

Lard mixed with other greases and oleomargarine. 

Marble, jasper, alabaster, granite and other similar stones, wrought or polished, 
in articles not otherwise mentioned. 

Maizena. 

Wicks and twists for lamps, and lamp-chimney cleaners. 

Mustard, in the grain or in powder. 

Furniture of common wood, osier, straw or cane and furniture of iron and 
wood. 

Organs and all kinds of parts thereof imported separately. 

Ossein (ostein). 

Wood in strips for making matches. 

Paste or mastic for polishing, and that used for the tips of billiard cues. 

Wall paper. 

Composition imitating porcelain, marble, granite or any fine stone, in all kinds 
of articles, excepting toys for children. 

Tobacco, cut, for cigarettes. 

Flints, touchstones, polishing and similar stones, not mentioned in the other 
classes. 

Hides neither tanned nor prepared. 

Baking powden 

Solders. 

Leather tips for billiard cues. 

Cheese of all kinds. 

Sacks, empty, of canvas, coarse hempen cloth called " coUta,'' unbleached 
thick linen and other similar fabrics. 

Sausages, hams in tins, fish in tins, alimentary preserves, mushrooms, dried or 
in sauce ; lacteous flour and all other provisions, prepared or not, not mentioned 
in the other classes such as Buitoni's agglutinated paste. 

Sauces of all kinds and pickles in mustard. 

Tallow, raw, rendered or pressed, and ordinary fats of all kinds for making 
soap. 

Syphons and machines for aerated waters. 

Sole leather, dyed or not, not worked, and hempen soles for sandals (alpar- 
gatas.) 

Piano stools, of whatever material. 

Talc in sheets or powder. 

Horsehair fishing lines. 

Meat covers of wire gauze. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. H93 

rs with heads of metal, glass, crystal, or porcelain, 
i of cotton, hemp, esparto, or flax, for floor coverings, even when mixed 
lall quantity of wool ; and horsehair tissues for covering furniture. 
» prepared for oil paintings, and stumps for drawing, 
i, common, of hemp, flax, or cotton, for furniture, in bands, belts, or 
form, and cotton dishcloths for domestic use, and straw ribbon for 

rn heels, shod or not with copper or iron. 

of tinned stufl^ or paper (**de papel estahado**), for shoemakers, of i 

e in width and 1 2 centimetres in length. 

cks and corkscrews. 

in sticks, lumps, or other form, for billiards. 

Venetian, etc., for doors and windows, 
.ckers called "triquttraques,** 
r tubes and hose, and bands for machinery. 

:' coarse and other cloth or of twilled cloth ("cotonia'*), for vessels. 
^ candles, 
pedes or bicycles. 

md crystal, manufactured, in any form not elsewhere mentioned. 
, of whatever origin, when imported in demijohns or bottles, excepting 
s, which are taxed according to Class III. Port wine, even red, 

in demijohns or bottles, shall be included in the present class. 
:s of gypsum of all kinds, excepting toys. 

§ 5. — Class V. 

Diity. — I bolivar 25 centimes, 

nd soaps, perfumed, 
sesame, benesced, castor oil, and other not mentioned in the preceding 

ver oil. 

ic acid, in powder. 

cand liquid ammonia. 

waters and hair wash, such as "Jlorihna " and the like. 

of all kinds other than of cane, the importation of which is prohibited; 
r cognac and their essences, absinthe, Hollands and their essences up to 
icr; above 22° the duty shall be proportional. 

of all kinds other than of cane, the importation of which is prohibited; 
r cognac and their essences, absinthe, Hollands and their essences up to 
icr; above 22*^ the duty shall be proportional. 
ids, peeled. 

atus for measuring hats, 
graphic apparatus. 

• of gummed' stuflf" for hats, bonnets, and caps, 
and buckles covered with leather. 

and fine stones for sharpening razors, and razor paste. 
I. 



1494 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Quicksilver. 

Trunks, traveling sacks, bags, valises, and portmanteaus of all kinds. 

Skins for carrying wine, and purses and small bags of oilcloth for grain 
samples. 

Bandages, bougies or probes, trasses, lint, strainers or filters, sucking bottles 
and nipples, breast pumps, cupping glasses, anodyne necklaces, spatulas, lances, 
retorts, clyster pumps, syringes of all kinds, and syphons not otherwise mentioned. 

"Bramante" (unbleached tissue), "^rtn," ticks, drills, domestic cloth, **lun- 
cillOf^* "platilla,** *'warandol** or Irish linen, unbleached, of linen or cotton, and 
other similar unbleached tissues, including those with colored stripes or pat- 
terns, provided that the ground be unbleached ; and Holland of black or blue 
thread. 

Brushes and paint brushes of all kinds. 

Hat cases of leather. 

Almanacs of all kinds. 

Camerae obscurae or camers lucidae, for drawing or photography, and other 
similar apparatus. 

Cotton canvas for embroidering, and canvas of unbleached thread similar to 
the light tissues used for mosquito nets. 

Capsules, sacks or bags of paper, of .all kinds and sizes, with or without 
inscriptions, for pharmaceutical purposes. 

Tortoise shell, crude. 

Homespun linen, white linen called "coleta,** "lienzo de rosa^^* camel-hair 
cloth, cotton cretonne and linen cretonne, called unbleached German dowlas Nos. 
9, lo, and ii, lining {"crehuela"), striped or checked, colored or not, and all 
other similar tissues not mentioned in other classes. 

Sieves of copper wire, of leather, wood, or horsehair. 

Brushes for the teeth, hair, clothes, shoes, and any other use, exeepting 
brushes mentioned in Class IV. 

White wax, pure or mixed, not wrought, and mineral wax. 

Bristles for shoemakers. 

Fish glue and liquid glue for shoemakers. 

Colours and paints, not otherwise mentioned, such as blueings ultramarine, and 
" Aalsomine,** of different colors. 

Cork, in sheets, stoppers, and in any other shape. 

Lasting for uppers of shoes. 

Amethyst (quartz). 

Cubebs. 

Penknives, razors, scissors, and "jack knives;" table knives and forks, except 
those with handles plated with gold or silver, which are dutiable according to 
Class VIII ; and those of German silver, silvered or gilt, which are comprised 
in Class VI. 

Cords, single or wound with thread {" entorchados**). 

Beer, concentrated. 

Sassafras and all other medicinal barks. 

Cotton drills, white or colored, and cotton flannel, white or colored, also 
cotton drill called " casineite.** 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. H95 

, medicines, and chemical products, not otherwise mentioned; also all 

es and medicinal articles or substances, such as bicarbonate of soda, 

:, cardaipom seeds and plants ; peptonized beer, rock salt for animals, 

r elixir of coca. 

th, of all kinds, other than those used for floors, packing and roofing 

d in Class IV. 

1 buckram. 

IS, large and small, and horsehair brooms. 

es and extracts of all kinds, not otherwise mentioned. 

scopes, cosmoramas, dioramas, panoramas, magic lanterns, and other 

pparatus. 

lanterns, paper collars, fronts and cuffs, including those lined with stuff, 

ufactured paper not otherwise mentioned. 

masks, breast-plates and boxing gloves. 

Korus in paste. 

graphs. 

n blankets. 

en blankets, white or with coloured fringes, and dark blankets of goat's 

2brin"). 

ac, copal, and all kinds of gums and resins not otherwise mentioned. 

Kair gloves and fencing gloves. 

rine. 

ary sewing thread, untwisted thread for embroidering and thread of one 

veaving. 

cone. 

s and statuettes, other than those of gold or silver. 

i\ instruments and boxes, and all accessories thereof, excepting organs 

OS. 

al, dental, anatomical, mathematical, and other scientific instruments 

rhere mentioned. 

white, marbled, called Castille or Marseilles, 

common. 

r chessmen, draughts, dominoes, roulette, and similar games. 

es and engravings on paper. 

books, crayons and charcoal pencils for drawing, notebooks and port- 

.hographed receipt and check books, pencils of all kinds, except slate 

ubber erasers, wafers and stamps for letters, writing ink and ink powder, 

ives, pencil cases, sealing wax and wafers, sand, steel pens, penholders, 

s, and all other stationery articles, with the exception of envelopes and 

:ontaininggold or silver. 

containing gold or silver leaf, whether real or imitation, for gilding or 
; bronze in powder and books for bronzing. 

r stands, empty, or containing a liqueur not comprised in a higher class, 
icillo,'^ " brin" and domestic tissues, of linen or cotton, unbleached or 

of whatever category, 
ilings. 



i 



1496 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Striped tissues, ** arabiaSy** ginghams of linen or cotton, common, only suit- 
able for making workmen's clothes. 

Wooden battens, moldings and cornices, painted, varnished, gilt or silvered, 
and wooden curtain loop-holders. 

Elastic mourning tissue and crape for hats. 

Sweet liqueurs, such as cherry cordial, creams of vanilla, cocoa, and the like. 

White madapolam, Hollands, Brittany, domestic, *' matrimonio/* Irish, white 
or colored; cretonne, ** e/efanU,** "platiila/' '* liencilio,** Rouen, ** simpd- 
tico,** ** savaje** of cotton and other similar tissues. 

Frames of any material, with or without glasses, portraits, pictures and 
engravings. 

Masks of all kinds. 

Macaroni, " ta/larines,** vermicelli, and other similar alimentary pastes. 

Tape measuies of leather, linen or paper, with or without cases. 

Furniture of fine wood, such as violet wood, mahogany, rosewood, walnut, 
and that with backs and seats upholstered with horsehair, wool, cotton, or silk, 
furniture of common gilt wood and coffins of all kinds. 

Gall nuts, nutmegs and mace. 

Shades of paper, metal or tissues, and colored tissue paper. 

Gum pastilles or drops, of all kinds. 

Perfumery of all kinds. 

Parchment and imitations of the same, in articles not otherwise mentioned; 
cloth only used for bookbinding, and waterproof tissues of caoutchouc and cot- 
ton used for blankets and overcoats and cotton felt for lithographic machines. 

Areometers and liquor gauges of all kinds, and alcoholometers. 

Paintings, chromos, drawings, and portraits on canvas, wood, paper, stone or 
other materials ; lithographed advertisements applied on cardboard, and christen- 
ing cards with colored landscapes or figures. 

Rice and other powders for the toilet and powder puffs, and Persian *' cara- 
co/y^* calcined. 

Bottle and glass stands. 

Gunpowder. 

Tobacco, plug and twisted chewing tobacco. 

Tannin. 

Tea and vanilla. 

Indian ink, for marking, hair dyes, and all other kinds of ink, excepting 
printing ink. 

Candles of spermaceti, paraffine, composition, or stearine, and twisted wicks 
for the same. 

Dowlas {*'zvarando/**)f unbleached, of linen or cotton, even with colored 
stripes or flowers, also that with a lead-gray or light-yellow ground. 

Tinder boxes and flints or wicks for tinder boxes. 

§ 6.— Class VI. 

Duty — 2 bolivars jo centimes. 

Bugles and beads of glass, porcelain, steel, wood, or of any other material, 
excepting gold and silver; coffin ornaments, fane;- articles of glass or porcelain. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. H97 

n gilt or silvered metal; artificial plants of caoutchouc, paper or 
resenting palms, begonias and large leaves, and sweetmeat boxes cov- 
silk or velvet or ornamented with flowers or other articles liable to 
ies than those levied under Class IV, unless said boxes be completely 
sweetmeats. 

ops for crinolines or bustles, covered or not with tissue, 
s, drills, Brittany cloth, unbleached cloth (** bramante "), ticks, dowlas, 
unbleached German dowlas Nos. 9, 10, and 11, specified in Class V; 
," *^ estrepCy^ " garantido,*^ Irish linen, ** platilla,^^ calico, white or 
as (*' zvarandol'*), of linen, pure or mixed with cotton, 
edles, eyelets, hooks, and eyes, clasps, hairpins ; hooks for clothes and 
: clasps for shoes, buckles for hats, waistcoats, trousers, and shoes, 
se of gold or silver, 
in the piece or rugs. 

carfs, bonnets, socks, drawers, trousers, stockings, and slip bodices of 
itted, and like tissues. Camisoles with collars and cuffs attached or 
idapt separate collars and cuffs shall be liable to a surtax of 50 per 

« 

es, opera glasses, telescopes, eyeglasses, magnifying glasses, and micro- 
:ept those mounted in gold and silver, but including glasses and lenses 
•Ies, etc., imported separately, 
one and its imitations. 

ters, hygrometers, chronometers, thermometers, octants, and other 
truments, and compasses of all kinds. 

ind canes loaded, whips, and slung shots, with the exception of sword 
icks containing a mechanism for firing, which are included in Class V^II. 
of all kinds, excepting those of silk, silver, or gold. 
- ratteen in piece or plaids, and blankets made of these materials. 
)r pipes, cigar holders and pipes, of amber, porcelain, and any other 
rxcept those of gold and silver and the similar articles mentioned in 

boxes with accessories, work and travelling cases, 
/en made up into ornaments. 

ooks, cigar and cigarette cases, card cases, purses, tobacco pouches, 
cases, match boxes, albums, not covered with velvet, nor gilt nor 
nd all other similar articles, except those having any part of gold or 

lanufactured into articles of all kinds, except as toys. 

•panes, sheets, plaids, hammocks, table covers, of linen or cotton. 

:br shoes. 

1 articles of all kinds, except when set in gold or silver. 

wreaths and other funeral articles, 
•rd for weaving and all other twisted thread in the shape of cord, such 

or sail thread, white or colored, which can not, on account of its 
be assimilated to cord and can be used in the manufacture of hand or 
lade tissues. 



ll4i)S BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Crinolines, bustles, and similar articles, and caoutchouc dress shields covered 
or not, used inside of ladies' clothing. 

Knives and forks with handles of German or white metal, or silvered or gilt. 

Mattresses, pillows, paillasses and cushions, except those of silk ; feathers for 
stuffing them, and woven wire mattresses. 

Cotton cords for hammocks. 

Damasks, '* coqui,** bombazine, '^ bordon^** padding, ticking, "mflA<?«," nan- 
keen, light nankeen, *' estrcpe,** quilting, sateen, '* tangep** or stiff muslin, of 
cotton, white or colored, and other similar cotton tissues not mentioned in 
the other classes. 

Artificial teeth and eyes. 

Thimbles, except those of gold or silver. 

Skirts, petticoats, dressing gowns, nightdresses, and chemises of cotton, made 
up or cut out, and cotton stuffs shaped for skirts, with or without embroidered 
bands. 

Articles of German or white metal or its imitations, such as trays, dishes, 
curbs, bits, muzzles, spurs, stirrups, hinges, buckles, chandeliers, lamps, cande- 
labra and other similar articles. 

Articles of iron or of other metals, gilt or silvered, with the exception of sta- 
tionery which will always be included in Class V, even when g^lt or silvered. 

Yarns, worsted, raw, and of goats' hair. 

Cases containing small articles of steel, copper, or other metals for embroid- 
ering, for cleaning the teeth or nails, for drawing and painting. 

Brooms and brushes of palms, rushes or other vegetable fibers. 

Felt in pieces, for saddlecloths. 

Blankets or quilts of pure wool, or mixed with cotton, and with ground of one 
or more colors. 

Tissues for slippers, excepting of silk. 

Elastic for shoes. 

Gutta-percha, manufactured or not. 

Imitation gold or silver thread, purl, spangles, tinsel, leaf, foil, galloons, 
trimmings, small wares, and other articles of imitation gold or silver, for 
embroidering or sewing. 

Bone, ivory, mother-of-pearl, real and imitation, jet, real and imitation, tor- 
toise-shell, caoutchouc, india-rubber, sheets of celluloid, horn and talc, manu- 
factured in articles of all kinds not otherwise mentioned, with the exception of 
children's toys comprised in Class III, and those combined with gold or silver, 
which are included in Class VIII. 

Tablecloths, towels, and napkins of all kinds. 

Tissue called " matrimonio,** of linen, pure or mixed with cotton. 

Hands, keys, springs, spirals, and other parts of watch and clock movements, 
excepting those of gold or silver. 

Wicks, and cotton slightly spun for wicks. 

Cotton handkerchiefs, not exceeding one metre in width. 

Paper, gilt or silvered, paper stamped in relief, and colored paper for artificial 
flowers. 

Umbrellas, sunshades, and parasols, of wool, linen, or cotton. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 1499 

Imitation pearls and stones, not set, or set in any metal except gold or silver. 
Skins, tanned, with the exception of sole leather, dyed or not, comprised in 
Class IV. 

White metal or German silver, in articles of all kinds not otherwise enumer- 
ated. 
Goose quills, prepared as toothpicks. 
Feather dusters. 
Imitation jcwelery. 

Table or wall clocks, alarm clocks, water clocks, hourglasses, and all other 
similar articles, with the exception of watches and tower clocks imported by the 
Federal Government. 
Hats, caps, hat frames, and bonnets, of straw or its imitations, not trimmed. 
Patent leather, not manufactured. 
Sextants. 

Dowlas " zvarandol^** white, of linen, or of linen mixed with cotton. 

Chintz, nainsook, calicoes, cretonnes, ** tarlatanes,^* paper cambrics, fine 

French striped cloth, and other fine tissues used in making women's dresses; 

poffUns, **mali/inas,** Japanese cloths, lustring, coloured percales, and any other 

cotton cloths, coloured, similar to the above, and not otherwise mentioned under 

dlWerent classes, such as cotton merinos, etc. 

[Concluded in April Bulletin.] 



TRADE MISCELLANY. 

ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 

From the annual report of the Argentine statistical 

Imports for Ten Tean ijux/ipt u 

department, compiled by Mr. Francisco Latzina, the 

following data treating of the trade and shipping of the Republic is taken. It 

appears that in 1887 the imports from Great Britain alone were valued at 

§34,779,210; in 1896 they reached the figure of $44,729,996, or an increase 

of 28.6 per cent in the intervening ten years. Of the total imports in 1887, the 

United Kingdom sent 29.7 per cent, and in 1896 40 per cent. The imports 

from Germany in 1887 were 10.3 per cent of the total, and in 1896 12.4 per 

cent, a relative rise, therefore, of only 2.1 per cent. In 1887 France supplied 

19.4 per cent of the entire imports, and in 1896 10.7 per cent, a decrease of 8.7 

per cent. The United States supplied in 1887 imports to the value of $11,- 

004,553, and in 1896 $1 1,210,475, the relative proportions to the whole in the 

years mentioned being 9.4 and 10 per cent respectively, showing an increase for 

the ten years of 0.6 per cent. The imports from Italy during the ten years 

under consideration increased 4. 1 per cent. 

The Cordoba Light and Power Company has just 
Electric Plant at Oordobau ^ , 

completed the installation at Casa Bamba of the largest 

electric- power plant in the Argentine Republic. The machinery, consisting of 

&VC turbines aggregating 1,700 horsepower, five generators aggregating 1,100 

kilowatts, transformers with a capacity of 930 kilowatts, and the necessary 

switchboard and controlling apparatus, was furnished almost entirely by United 



1500 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



States manufacturers. A cable line for the transmission of power has been la 

to Cordoba, and that city will be lighted from the new works, which will I 

eventually enlarged to 6,000 horsepower. The Cordoba Light and Pow 

Company is the first purely United States company established in Argentin 

and it is hoped that the success of this enterprise will lead to further undc 

takings of a similar character. 

BRAZIL. 



Storage charge at Santos. 



Match Factory in Rio. 



Frank D. Hill, United States Consul at Santo 

informs the Bureau that all merchandise delivered froi 

ihat port, whether stored or not, must pay 1 per cent on the value of th 

invoice, as a storage charge. When the papers pertaining to the merchandis 

are late in arriving at Santos, and entry is not made within twenty-four hour; 

the consignee on delivering same shall sign a bond (termo de responsibilidadc 

for the value of the goods and amount of storage, as above. At the expiratio 

of one month a charge of one-half of 1 per cent is made for each additions 

month or fraction thereof. 

The work of enlarging the plant of the Diamond Mate 

Company, situated in Rio de Janeiro, is progressing ra] 

idly, and under the direction of Messrs. Preston and Warner, United Stat 

engineers, the new machinery is being installed. Within three months tl 

installation of ten new machines for the manufacture of matches will be cor 

pleted, together with all accessories, new boilers, motors, etc. The facto 

Cruzeiro will then be able to produce daily 720,000 boxes of matches, or thr 

times its present production. Ten additional machines will be established da 

ing the current year if the consumption of matches in Brazil demands it. Byi 

vast size and the perfection of its machinery, the factory Cruzeiro will be ab 

to supply the whole country, and will not only be one of the largest factories 

the world but also the most complete, since the machinery employed embodk 

all the various improvements invented and patented in the United States 

recent years. 

B vv lu. « ^ The "India Rubber World*' of Februarv 10 contai 

Rubber troia Para and 

Manaos. a condensed table of the exports of rubber from Pa 

and Manaos for the years 1889-1897; also the names of prominent exportci 
As a matter of general interest, that part of the table showing the tot 
exports to the United States and to Europe is reproduced here. It will 
seen that in the movement for 1897 (the largest on record) the United Stat 
resumed first place in the exports. 



Year. 



iSvSq 
1890 
1S91 
1892 
1893 
1894 
i89«; 
1896 
1897 



ITnitcd States. 


Europe. 


Total. 


Jhunds. 


/bunds. 


/bunds. 


20, 004, 066 


14,946,888 


34. 950. S 


21,137.177 


15,004,652 


36,141,8 


23, 872, 690 


15.335.157 


39. 207, 9 


25, 202, 008 


15.603,324 


40, S05. 3 


25,011,027 


17, 163,404 


42,174-1 


23, 062, 386 


19, 869, 306 


42. 931. <^ 


24, 804, 854 


20, 983, 759 


45. 78S.6 


19,941,956 


27, 681, 888 


47. 623. A 


25. 565. SS5 


24,014,017 


49, 579.« 






_ 



Trade Competition. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 1^01 

COLOMBIA. 

Mr. M. ViLLiERs, Acting Consul-Gcneral of Great 
Britain at Bogota, in a recent report to the British 
Foreign Office, calls the attention of his Government to the active efforts that 
are being made by the United States to extend its trade in Colombia. In this 
connection he mentions the leading position held by the United States in the 
traffic in iron, steel, railway materials, and rolling stock, bridges, etc. ; not only 
in the heavy materials, but also in such small articles as steel tools, saws, files, 
and rasps, meat choppers, wire nails, etc. Architectural sheet ironwork, barbed 
wire, bicycles, sewing machines^ clocks, false jewelry, candles, and electrical 
appliances arc also largely supplied from the United States, but in cotton, linen, 
or cloth goods there is a comparatively small trade. 

From information received directly from Barranquilla, 

Bailioad Extension. . . . 

it is learned that railway construction in the Republic of 
Colombia is at present quite active. The Antioquia Railroad, the property 
of the Department of that name, now operating for a distance of 32 miles from 
Puerto Bcrrio to Las Pavas, is being extended to Medellin, 91 miles. The 
Cucuia Railroad, operating between Cucuta and Puerto Villamizar, on the River 
Zulia, a distance of 34 miles, is to be extended to the Venezuelan frontier, and 
part of the work is already completed. The Girardot Railroad, from Girardot 
to Juntas dc Apulio (24 miles), is to be extended to a point on the Factativa 
Railroad; this extension will be about 48 miles. The Cauca Railroad, which is 
now in operation from Buenaventura on the coast to San Jos6 (21 miles), has 
been handed over to the National Government; the line will be extended to 
Cale, 64 miles farther inland. 

GUATEMALA. 

8«wniptionofSpeciaPay- '^^^ President of the Republic has recently, by Execu- 

"*"*■• tive Decree, declared that, dating from January 1, 1898, 

^"ti«, both import and export, of the country shall be paid in silver. The 

ttccree also provides for the resumption of specie payments, thus doing away 

^«h the paper currency which was authorized in the early part of the past year. 

MEXICO. 

p.. „ The cultivation of flax in the State of Morelos is re- 

ported to have passed beyond an experimental stage and 

P'omiscs substantial results. Mr. Hamer, who has been interested in this cul- 

"^^ 'Or the past four years, has land under flax at different points of the 

ucrnavaca Valley and is negotiating for the lease of the Huaymac Valley, con- 

^'J^g about i,cx)o acres of land, a large proportion of which is said to be well 

"^'cdtohis purpose. The cloth manufactured from the flax raised by Mr. 

***E* is stated to be of the best and most substantial quality. 

fc^ The work of improvement of the harbor of Vera Cruz, 

which was commenced in 1895 by Pearson & Sons, of Lon- 
^^ under a contract with the Mexican Government, is progressing favorably. 
^« details of the undertaking were published in the Monthly Bulletin for 
Bull. No. 9 5 



1502 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

September, 1895. The inspecting engineer, who has supervision of the work for 
the Government, has recently made a report, from which it is learned that the 
construction of the breakwaters is proceeding satisfactorily ; large blocks of con* 
Crete are being placed in them. Between the Mexican Railway wharf and tK< 
northeastern breakwater a depth of 8 meters and 50 centimeters (about 28 feet 
at low water has been obtained, and at Laja de Adentro 10 meters (33 feet 
depth is secured. In other portions of the harbor an immense amount of dredg 
ing has been done, giving a corresponding depth. The work of extending tfc 
custom-house wharf is going ahead, the piers being of steel and the floor woo< 
The construction of sewers is being pushed rapidly to completion. 

Direct Oommmiication with ^^^ ^^^^ Arthur and Mexican Steamship Compan: 
KanMB City. designed to operate in connection with the lately can 

pleted Kansas City, Pittsburg and Gulf Railroad, has been incorporated uncl< 
the laws of the State of Missouri with a capital of $100,000. The line will ^ 
first be composed of two freight steamers; later on, it is anticipated that a p^^ 
senger service will be added. The steamers will ply between Port Arthur, th 
terminus of the railway, and Mexican ports. It is stated that contracts ha'* 
already been made which will guarantee 1,800 tons of freight per month throu^t 
out the year from points in Mexico, to Kansas City as a distributing poiim 
This direct line of railway and steamship, acting under one management, w i 
doubtless contribute greatly to the already large trade between Kansas Cityacr: 
tributary points, with Mexico. 

Forfeiture of Railroad ^^^ Mexican Government has declared forfeited \M 

OonceMion. concession granted to R. Marin & Co. for a railroad -• 

be built from Toluca, the capital of the State of Mexico, to Iguala, travcrsi* 
the mineral districts of Temascaltepec, Sultepec, Zacualpam, and Tasco. TM 
act of forfeiture is based upon the failure on the part of the concessionaire « 
carry out the stipulations of the contract of December 17, 1896, approved tz 
Congress January 5, 1897, which requires that work on the road should B 
commenced within twelve months from the last named date. The forfeiture 
the concession carries with it the $5,000 guarantee fund. 

Mineral Wealth of the State According to an estimate made by Messrs. Enrique C 

of ohihuahna. Creel, manager of the Miners* Bank, and Frederi* 

DucLos, manager of the Mexican Ore Company, the mineral wealth of t 

State of Chihuahua is as follows : 



Mines. 



Santa Eulalia 

Parral 

Cusihuiriachic 

Batopilas 

Barranca del Cobre 

Urique. 

Corralitos 

Cuasapares y Palmarcjo. 

Morelos 

Guadalupe y Calvo 

Ocampo '. . . 

Pinos Altos. 

ConcheAo 



Value. 



$1,600, 

1.350. 
700, 

600. 

100. 

100,0* 

500,0- 

8oo,o-« 

50,0* 

150.0* 

400,0^ 

350.0c: 

350.0c 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPrBLICS. 



1503 



Mines. 



Yoquivo 

L'rachic . 

Magistral y Terrazas. 

Sabioal 

Murillo 

Descubridora 



Values. 



$50,000 
100,000 
300,000 
300,000 
150,000 
300,000 



Total 



8,150,000 



NICARAGUA. 

aupDttti of Evaporated M^. M. J. Clancy, United States Consular Agent at 
®*'**"*' Blucficlds, informs the Bureau that some of the planters 

along the Escondido River and its tributaries are making experiments in ship- 
ping bananas put up in an evaporated form. The first shipment was made to 
New Orleans recently with very satisfactory results, and it is hoped that by this 
new process millions of small bunches of bananas suitable for drying but not 
aiapicd for exportation in the natural state may be 'utilized. At present the 
work is carried on in a very crude and clumsy manner, no one engaged in the 
industry having any practical knowledge of the subject. The introduction of 
machinery and labor suitable for this work will open a new and profitable indus- 
^f)' in Nicaragua; also a market for manufactures and tools for this class of work 
made in the United States. 

PARAGUAY. 



Tobacco Onltiir*. 



The Paraguayan Government is taking active measures 

to revive the cultivation of tobacco, which formerly formed 

*n important branch of industry in the Republic, being grown not only for home 

consumption but also for exportation. To this end the Government invited a 

number of Cubans, skilled in the tobacco industry, to make a report on the soil 

*M possibilities of the country. In their judgment, the conditions in certain 

ocahtics are almost identical with the best producing areas of Cuba. Near 

"la Rica a large plantation has been designated as an experimental station, 

*'«rc native Paraguayans are being instructed in the methods employed in the 

tivation of tobacco in Cuba. Although the crop on this reservation was small 

^% the quality was pronounced equal to the *' Vuclta Abajo," and samples 

^^^scnt to the Brussels Exposition. In 1895 Paraguay exported tobacco to 

^niount of 4,744,096 pounds. 

PERU. 

The mining activity existing in Peru emphasizes in a 

marked manner the need for improved machinery in con- 

^^^lon with that industry. One of the most pressing needs is felt in the matter 

dredgers to reach the beds of the rivers, where immense quantities of gold are 

^posited. At present, very primitive means are adopted, simply wooden trays, 

^^itaining about 15 pounds of sand. In consequence of incomplete facilities, 

^^ collection of the gold is only carried on from June to October, when the 

^^tts are low, but by using dredgers work throughout the entire year would 



the 



>Uchia^ 



for Mining. 



1504 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

be possible. The completion of the new road from Crucdro to Phara and to 

Huari-Huari, through a section of country rich in deposits, will afibrd facilities 

for the transport of machinery and the development of the gold mining in those 

parts of the country. 

Mr. Alfred St. John, Acting Consul-General of Great 

Japanese Immigration. ..... 

Britain at Lima, has advised his Government of the arrival 
in Peru of the representative of an immigration company of Tokio, who has suc- 
ceeded in making arrangements with several sugar estate owners for the employ- 
ment of at least 500 Japanese laborers in that country. It is added that a line 
of steamers will be established between Japan and South American ports. The 
object of the scheme is not only to relieve the congested districts of Japan of 
their excessive population, but eventually to open direct trade with South 

America. 

The rubber trade centering at Iquitos and exporting 

Rubber Trade of Iqnitos. 1 r o 

through the ports of Manaos and Para has long been very 
considerable. The " India Rubber World,*' published in New York, is authority 
for the statement that the direct rubber exports from Iquitos to Europe have 
increased ninefold in the last four years, and that the exports for transshipment 
at Manaos and Para have also largely increased. This development of trade is 
easily accounted for by the improved transportation facilities given to that part 
of the country. It is to be regretted, however, that in this new impetus to busi- 
ness on the upper Amazon the trade of the United States is practically nothing. 

SALVADOR. 
By Executive Decree, the Republic of San Salvador- 

Payment of Import Dues. . , r 1 r r • • 

provides for the payment or 53 per cent or its impor 

duties on the following terms: 32 per cent in American gold, 10 per cent i 

customs bonds, 5 per cent in bonds issued by the Mint, and 6 per cent in bon 

of the French debt. When the bonds are exhausted the corresponding porti 

will be payable in United States gold, from which it would appear that Unit 

States money has been adopted in this Republic as the basis of the newly intr 

duced gold standard. 

URUGUAY. 

Trade with the ITnited States Consul-General PRUDENCIO DE MuRGUlONDO, reprcscET^mt- 

in 1897. ative of Uruguay in the United States, has furnished 




Bureau with a statement of the trade between the two countries in the calcncS- ar 
year 1897. The total value of the exports to the United States was $4,39i,o& 3 » 
the imports were $1,135,679, n^aking a total trade of $5,526,742 for the ye^^r- 
The statement shows that the exportations for the first six months amounK:^ «" 
to $3,560,115 and for the last six months $830,948. The exportation ^' 
wool during the first half of the year reached a value of $1,950,674 and ^^'' 
the last half it consisted of 85 bales, valued at $14,825, showing a shrinkage *** 
this article of $1,935,849. For the calendar year 1896 the importations fr^:^'^ 
the United States amounted to $1,452,331 ; these figures, compared wirh th^:>*^ 
for the year under consideration, show a decrease for 1897 of $316,652. Sc0<^^ 
MuRcuioNDo attributes the falling off in the trade to the political disturbanc^^ 
which existed in Uruguay during 1897. This condition of affairs being cnd^^ 
he anticipates a restoration of the usual trade between the two countries. 



» 1 



BOLETiN MENSUAL 

DE LA 

OFICINA DE LAS REPOBLICAS AMERICANAS 

UNldN INTERNACIONAL DE REPIJBUCAS AMERICANAS 

Vol V. MARZO, 1898. No. 9. 



INFORME DE LA OFICINA. 

SISTEMA OBSERVADO POR EL DIFUNTO DIRECTOR, MR. JOSEPH P. 

SMITH — ACTA DE LA COMISI6N EJECUTIVA NOMBRAMIENTO DE 

UN DIRECTOR PROVISIONAL. 

Eldia28 de febrero de 1898, a las 11 a. m., previa convoca- 
toria del Secretario de Estado, tuvo lugar una reunion de la 
Comision Ejecutiva de la Union Internacional de las Republicas 
Americanas en el Departamento de Estado, estando presentes : El 
Secretario de Estado, Presidente; El Senor Romero, Ministro 
^^ Mexico; El Honorable William R. Day, Sub-Secretario 
^^ Estado; Mr. Frederic Emory, Director interino de la Oficina 
de las Republicas Americanas. 

El Senor Andrade, Ministro* de Venezuela, no pudo asistir en 
persona y designo al Senor Romero para que le representara, que- 
™do asi constituido el quorum de la Comision. 

El Presidente present© el informe anual del Director de la 
^neina, que, a propuesta del Senor Romero, fue aprobado, orde- 
"^ndose se trasmitiera a las dos Camaras del Congreso de los Estados 
^nidosy a los Gobiernos representados en la Union Internacional. 

El Sub-Secretario de Estado dio lectura a un informe de Mr. 
^^ederic Emory, referente a la condicion de la Oficina. 

Se presento una proposicion, que fue aceptada a mocion del 

^efior Romero, para que se aprobaran los planes y recomendaciones 

1505 



1506 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

del Director Interino y para que se nombrara a Mr. Frederic 
Emory Director de la Oficina de las Republicas Americanas, por 
un periodo que no pase del corriente ano fiscal, que termina el 30 
de junio de 1898. 

En dicha proposicion se manifesta que el nombramiento tenia 
por objeto poner al Director provisional en capacidad de reorganizar 
de la manera mas completa los asuntos de la oficina, cancelar todos 
los contratos hechos por anuncios, solicitud de suscripciones 6 
cualesquier otros compromisos de caracter comercial, que en su 
concepto, fuesen en detrimento de los intereses de la Oficina; y 
ademas, reorganizar el cuerpo de empleados, reduciendo el per- 
sonal 6 los sueldos, disponiendo en la materia lo que juzgase mas 
conveniente, "teniendo siempre en consideracion los intereses 
generales de la Union Internacional y los deseos de la Comision 
Ejecutiva." 

La Comision dio instrucciones al Director de que cancelase de 
una vez todos los contratos vigentes para conseguir, en comision, 
anuncios y suscripciones para las publicaciones de la Oficina y de 
eliminar la que en Nueva York tenia establecida. 

De acuerdo con estas instrucciones, el Director, con fecha 28 de 
febrero, notifico al agente de anuncios de la Oficina lo que habia 
dispuesto la Comision Ejecutiva. 

Seguiran recibiendose como hasta ahora anuncios para el Bole- 
TfN Mensual. 

El informe anual de la Oficina, con una nota explicativa del 
Director Interino, es como sigue: 

Oficina de las RepOblicas Americanas, 
Uni6n Internacional de RepOblicas Americanas. 

IVashington^ [/. S. A,^ 28 de febrero de i8g8. 
Hon. John Sherman, 

Presidente de la Comision Ejecutiva^ 

Union Internacional de Republicas Americanas. 

Senor : Tengo el honor de adjuntar el informe anual del Direc- 
tor de la Oficina de las Republicas Americanas. Este trabajo fuc 
preparado de acuerdo con las instrucciones del difunto Director 
de la Oficina, Mr. Joseph P. Smith, y sigue punto por punto las 
notas que el remitio para que sirviesen de base a dicho documento. 
El borrador le fue enviado a Miami, Florida, pero llego cuando 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. ^5^7 

cl se hallaba ya demasiado grave para ocuparse del asunto. Abri- 

go la confianza, sin embargo, de que el informe es la expresion 

de las ideas de Mr. Smith y como presenta un acucioso resumen 

de los trabajos de la oficina bajo su direccion e indicd los planes 

generales que el tenia en mientes, he creido conducente presentarlo 

a la Comision Ejecutiva para su consideracion y para que sea trans- 

mitido, como el informe anual de esta Oficina, al Congreso de los 

Estados Unidos y a los Gobiernos de las otras repiiblicas que for- 

man parte de la Union Internacional. 

De Ud. respetuoso servidor, 

Frederic Emory, 

Director interino. 



Miami, Fla., 28 de enero de i8g8, 

Senor Secretario de Estado, Presidente^ y 
Senores Miembros de la C0MIS16N Ejecutiva de la Uni6n 
Internacional de RepCblicas Americanas: 

Senores : Al presentaros mi primer informe anual como Direc- 
tor de la Oficina de las Repiiblicas Americanas, me complazco en 
felicitaros por la decidida mejora que hay en el caracter y radio de 
accion de esta Oficina, cuya sabia creacion, como agencia interna- 
cional para el desarroUo del comercio y para dar mayor expansion 
a las relaciones fi-atemales de las repiiblicas del continente occi- 
dental, ha sido, a mi juicio, ampliamente confirmada por los resul- 
tados hasta ahora obtenidos, mientras que el porvenir promete un 
robusto desarroUo a su esfera de actividad para producir mayores 
bienes en la practica. Empresa tan nueva por sus miras como 
harto dificil, por que sobre ella pesan elementos de posible desa- 
cuerdo, como lo es la union internacional de diez y nueve gobier- 
nos distintos, cada uno de los cuales tiene su individual idad 
fuertemente marcada, debe ser, en la naturaleza de las cosas, 
experimental en sus* comienzos, desarrollandose gradualmente de 
ano en afio. 

Dificil seria hallar testimonio mas fehaciente, por lo que toca 
a la solidaridad general de los intereses de las republicas de dos 
continentes sur americanos, que el que presenta el mero hecho de 
que esta empresa, aunque fi-ecuentemente amenazada por criti- 
cas hostiles de los de afuera, no solo ha sobrevivido a todos los 



1508 BUREAU. OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

ataques, sino que goza hoy, aun mas que a los primeros albores 
de su comienzo, del apoyo mas solido y mas decidido de todas 
las entidades de la Union. Esta Oficina debe gran parte de su 
reciente desaroUo a la participacion mas activa y la vigilancia 
de los representantes en Washington de las varias republicas que 
de ella forman parte ; y acaba de recibir senalada muestra del 
generoso aprecioque de sus labores hacen en los Estados Unidos, 
con la reciente disposicion dictada por el Congreso para subvenir 
a los gastos del corriente afio fiscal. 

Desde la fecha del ultimo informe anual de mi predecesor, 
26 de enero de 1897, se han dado a la luz las publicaciones 
siguientes : 

Codigo de Nomenclatura. Comercial en ingles, espanol y por- 
tugues (edicion revisada). 

Codigo de Nomenclatura Comercial en espanol, ingles y 
portugues. 

Codigo de Nomenclatura Comercial en portugues, espanol e 
ingles. • 

Directorio Comercial de las Republicas Americanas, primer 
volumen. 

Servicio Diplomatico y Consular de las Republicas Latino- 
Americanas y del Hawai en los Estados Unidos. 

Servicio Diplomatico y Consular de los Estados Unidos (co- 
rrejido hasta el 29 de julio de 1897). 

Manual de Alasca. 

Manual de Guatemala (revisado). 

Manual del Hawaii. 

Derechos de importacion en el Peru, 1896. 

Derechos de importacion en los Estados Unidos, 1897 O^S^^^)- 

Derechos de importacion en los Estados Unidos, 1897 (trances). 

Derechos de importacion en los Estados Unidos, 1897 (portu- 
gues). 

Derechos de importacion en los Estados Unidos, 1897 (cspanolV 

Boletin Menaual, desde febrero de 1897 hasta enero de 1890, 
inclusive. 

Directorio de los periodicos de la America Latina. 

Lista Oficial de direcciones de la Oficina de las Republicas 
Americanas. 

Reciprocidad y Comercio. 

Comercio de Hispano- America. 

Especificaciones del nuevo edificio de Gobiemo en laciudad de 
Mexico. 



I 

I- 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 15^9 

Relaciones de Comercio en America. 

Sc acompanan ejemplares de estas publicaciones, como Anexos 
I a XX, inclusive. 

El mas importante de los trabajos en este afio ha sido la pre- 

paracion del Directorio Comercial de las Republicas Ameri- 

canas. A poco de haber entrado en el desempefio de los deberes 

de mi cargo, hube de convencerme de que uno de los medios 

mas eficaces para estrechar las relaciones entre los fabricantes y 

comcrciantes de los di versos paises, desaroUando asi las industrias 

y el comercio, era poner a su alcance una fuente de informes 

fidedigna, en donde hallaran los nombres de aquellos que se ocupan 

en ramos especiales del comercio y de la industria, acompanada 

de cuantos datos se pudieran conseguir con relacion a las fuentes 

de riqueza, comercio, manufacturas, usos comerciales, leyes de 

patentes y derechos de autor, licencias comerciales, tari&s adua- 

neras, reglamentos de pasaportes, etc., de las republicas americanas, 

las Antillas y las colonias de Centro y sud America, con las cuales 

cstan tan intimamente ligados por relaciones comerciales. 

Encontre que los comerciantes de los Estados Unidos, recono- 
cian que una obra de esta indole era de urgente necesidad para 
la expansion del comercio con los paises latino-americanos. Ya 
la Oficina habia publicado directorios comerciales que, aun cuando 
fiieron utiles en la epoca de su edicion, habian envejecido. 
Comprendi que lo que se esperaba de la Oficina era una como 
cnciclopedia practica de las industrias y del comercio de los 
paises que forman la Union Internacional. Obra de tal magni- 
tud exigia, desde luego, grandes gastos para recojer y compilar 
tan gran caudal de datos, traducirlos al espanol, portugues y 
fiances y clasificar muchos miles de nombres. 

Pareciome que, por sobre todas las cosas, era indispensable que 
el trabajo se ejecutara con el mayor cuidado posible, para que la 
publicacion fuese reconocida por todos como una obra modelo y 
autoridad en su clase. En las circunstancias ordinarias esta labor 
hubiera exigido un largo periodo de tiempo, pero con la coopera- 
cion activa del Departamento de Estado y el aumento del personal 
de la Oficina para este objeto especial, con Id valiosa ayuda de los 
Gobiemos interesados, por medio de sus representantes en Wash- 
ington y los empleados de los diferentes ramos de la administra- 



1510 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

cion, llegue a terminar y publicar el primer volumen, cerca d 
ocho meses despues de haber pensado en el trabajo y cerca d 
cinco meses del dia en que se comenzo a hacer con actividad. S 
penso primero que toda la obra se haria en un voliimen, pero 
medida que adelantaba la labor se vio que era tan grande c 
numero de datos valiosos acopiados, que seria necesario hacer do 
tomos. El segundo esta en preparacion y vera la luz el i^d 
marzo. 

En otras palabfas, tendre la satisfaccion de haber terminad 
con exito, durante el primer ano de mi empleo como Directed 
una empresa que confio sera prueba eficaz de la capacidad de 1 
Oficina para desempenar el objeto para que fue creada y en especi: 
para dar a la luz publicaciones, que no solamente tienen valor praL« 
tico para el comercio, sino que tambien son de importancia gener: 
reconocida para economistas, financieros y legisladores de todo 
mundo. Por lo que a esto respecta, confio no se me achacara ^ 
egotista si alabo una labor en la que he tomado tan intima part 
como lo demuestra el testimonio que acompano, de un grs 
numero de cartas que, sin ser solicitadas, he recibido de pcrsoi» 
notables y organizaciones mercantiles (Anexo XXI). 

Hallanse en estas frases de encomio del antiguo Secretario ^ 
Estado de los Estados Unidos, el Honorable Richard Olney, q^ 
fue tambien honorable Presidente de esta Comision, y uno ^ 
los partidarios mas firmes del sistema que hoy rige en la Oficiim^ 
del Honorable Warner Miller, identificado durante anos c« 
el Canal de Nicaragua; Mr. William E. Curtis, que fue 
primer director de la Oficina; Mr. Clinton Furbish, mi inmedia- 
predecesor; Mr. Theodore C. Search, presidente de la Asoci 
cion Nacional de Manufactureros; un numero de comerciant: 
bien conocidos, que por mucho tiempo han estado identificad- 
con el comercio de Sud America y un niimero de Senadores 
Representantes del Congreso de los Estados Unidos. 

El 11 de noviembre de 1897 se enviaron ejemplares del prim 
tomo del Directorio a los Presidentes de las republicas que con 
ponen la Union, y ese mismo dia se hizo formal presentacic 
de un ejemplar al Presidente de los Estados Unidos, por repr 
sentantes de la Comision Ejecutiva, compuesta del Honorab 
John Sherman, Secretario de Estado de los Estados Unidos; 
Senor Don MatIas Romero, Ministro de Mexico y el Senor Dc 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. I5II 

MartIn GARcfA Merou, MinistTO de la Republica Argentina. 
Adjunto un informe en extenso del acto. (Anexo XXII.) Tam- 
bien se remitieron ejemplares de la obra a los miembros del 
Gabinete del Presidente, cuyo recibo anunciaron en terminos de 
cordial aprecio, como se lee en sus cartas que acompanan. 
(Anexo XXII.) No obstante la creencia de que el Directorio 
puede soportar el mas riguroso examen, abrigo la esperanza de 
que las ediciones que se hagan en el porvenir, aumenten el valor 
que tiene para los grandes intereses en pro de cuyo desarrollo se 
formo. 

La experiencia de la Oficina en la publicacion del Codigo de 
Nomenclatura Comercial, cuya edicion casi por entero esta guar- 
dada en espera de compradores, me indujo a adoptar los metodos 
de las casas editoras de mayor exito, el solicitar suscritores por 
adelantado. El departamen to comercial de la Oficina, establecido 
necesariamente en Nueva York, como el gran centro mercantil 
para ese trabajo, ha logrado vender^ hasta el i ° de enero, 3,079 
ejemplares del Directorio Comercial, cuya suma alcanza a 
$i5-395' El costo total del Directorio, incluyendo la compli- 
lacion y redaccion de la parte estadistica y descriptiva y su tra- 
duccion a varios idiomas y el acopio y clasificacion de mas de 
^00,000 nombres de casas de comercio, fue cerca de $48,000. El 
producto del Directorio alcanzara a cerca de $20,000; por con- 
S'guiente el costo neto de la obra sera cerca de $28,000. Soy de 
parecer que esta inversion esta completamente justificada por los 
P^des resultados que de ella derivaran los intereses comunes. 

Ademas de la preparacion del Directorio Comercial, en cuyos 

^bajos se ha empleado una gran parte del tiempo y de las ener- 

S^ de la Oficina, esta dio, durante el ano pasado, mayores pro- 

P^rciones al BoletIn Mensual, organo oficial de la Union 

^^ternacional, y lo mejoro notablemente. La edicion de este 

P^^Jodico es ahora de 75,000 ejemplares cada mes, de los cuales 

^^ de 40,000 circulan en los paises de la America latina ; las 

^^tradas, por concepto de anuncios, aumentaron de $6,416.14 

^^rante el ano fiscal que termino el 30 de junio de 1897, a 

'l^^3»025.24 durante los seis meses siguientes al 31 de diciembre de 

"97» sea mas del doble. En los seis meses que trascurriran 

^^sdeel 1° de enero al 1° de juliode 1898, las entradas poraquel 

^ncepto no bajaran probablemente de $30,000, y se abriga la 



I 



1512 BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

esperanza de que los gastos de publicacion del BoletIn pueda 
sufragarse con el producto de los anuncios. 

No es el proposito hacer de aquella publicacion una fiiente d 
lucro para la Oficina, sino simplemente obtener los medios d 
conseguir el mejor material para sus paginas y extender su circi 
lacion por todos aquellos puntos que.puedan ser de importancia c 
el desarrollo del comercio intemacional. Como se vera, d 
seguirse este plan, el BoLExfN se convertira al cabo en gran agent 
promotor de los intereses de los fabricantes y de los hombres d 
negocios de todas las repiiblicas. 

Cuando me hice cargo de la direccion de la Oficina, m 
asaltaron dudas respecto a la insercion de anuncios pagos en c 
BoLETfN, pero despues de haber meditado sobre este punto, m 
convene! de que los beneficios que de ello habian de derivar Ic 
republicas americanas, como resultado de la adopcion de aqu« 
sistema por los representantes de la Union Intemacional en 189* 
justificaban cumplidamente el acuerdo tomado en aquella fecL 
Una de las razones mas importantes que abonan la insercion c 
anuncios en un periodico de aquella naturaleza, se encuentra en - 
hecho de que los anuncios constituyen el unico medio de infoi 
macion de caracter practico de que disponen los habitantes de i« 
pais, para venir en conocimiento de las industrias, del comercio 
de las oportunidades comerciales, en general, de otros paises. 

Esto esta demostrado claramente por la experiencia practica d 
la Oficina, que ha recib